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Full text of "Life in Utah, or, The mysteries and crimes of Mormonism : being an exposé of the secret rites and ceremonies of the Latter-Day Saints, with a full and authentic history of polygamy and the Mormon sect from its origin to the present time"

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Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1870, by 

In the Clerk s Office of the District Court of the United States, in and for the Eastern 
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&-\s r " 0^ OJil; 


AMERICA is the paradise of heterodoxy. All sorts of 
wild, strange and even abominable religions flourish 
unchecked, side by side, and generally without violent 
collision. The wild dreams of the fervid Oriental im 
agination ; the vague shadowings of Gothic mysticism ; 
the coarse materialism of French infidelity, and the 
ideal fancies of Greek and Asiatic, all the errors and 
worn out theories of the Old World, of schisms in the 
early Church, the monkish age and the rationalistic 
period, find here a free air, a fertile soil, a more congenial 
clime and a second native country, as it were, in which 
new and more luxuriant growths spring rapidly from 
the old and half dead stocks of pseudo-theology. 

But the inventive American mind is not content 
merely with old errors, and the Yankee is nothing if 
not practical; hence we see that to every new or purely 
American phase of religious error, there is always tacked 
a feature of political power, communism of property, 
social license or moral perversion, a general revolt 
against accepted theories in law, medicine, marriage, 



government or social relations. Let the extreme tend 
which way it will, it is equally an extreme ; whether 
of the anti-marriage Shakers, the celibate Harmonists, 
the wife-communists of Oneida, or the polygamous Mor 
mons. All this is, perhaps, a necessary evil an inevit 
able adjunct to a great good. In the perfect liberty of 
conscience guaranteed, the perverted or diseased con 
science is equally free with the pure or healthy ; and 
where every man is free to choose as he will, it is 
reasonable to suppose that many will choose but poorly. 
Like all good principles this liberty of conscience is 
strangely liable to abuse; but a careful examination 
will show, I think, that the present condition is far 
better, with all its evil outgrowths, than would be any 
aiming at repression. Eepression is not unity. Sup 
pose either of the prominent sects to be made the 
Established Church if indeed the mind can possibly 
conceive of an Established Church in America the 
Methodist, for instance; then would that church at 
once lose many of its communicants ; most people would 
avoid it to the farthest extent allowed by law, not from 
any particular hostility to that one church, but simply 
because it was established. 

We may, indeed, congratulate ourselves, that with such 
perfect liberty of choice so few have adopted beliefs at 
all dangerous either to the State or to society; for 
these last are the only questions with which we have a 


right to deal. But certain forms of belief cannot pos 
sibly confine themselves to speculative errors ; the per 
version of moral and ethical principles is too radical to 
be confined to the heart, and the hideous moral gan 
grene, starting from the soul and center, works out- 
wardly through the life in all manner of corruption, 
confusion and abomination. When the faith is per 
fectly inwrought, it cannot but show itself in acts, and 
with these the State has a right to deal. Perfect tolera 
tion is due to all beliefs, and these gross forms of error 
only demand attention when endeavoring, against the 
good of the State, to make a peculiar moral condition 
the general law for a whole people, and still more as 
laboring to radically pervert the Christian idea of mar 
riage. If the experience of all civilized nations for 
three thousand years, and the best judgment of the 
best minds in law founded upon that experience, have 
proved any one fact more than another, it is that the 
marriage relation should be strictly regulated by law, 
that the State has an absolute right to prescribe the 
civil conditions accompanying and the civil rights re 
sulting from it ; and that the human passions, whether 
excited by mere lust or by religious fanaticism, must be 
controlled by positive law. It matters not if an indi 
vidual esteem it his natural right to act contrary to ex 
press law, or if several individuals constituting a commu- 
nity believe it to be a religious right; they are equally 
subject thereto, and must take the legal consequence of 


disobedience. It is then a gratifying fact, that so few 
have adopted beliefs tending to pervert the marriage 
relation. Of the forty millions in America less than 
half a million are included in all of such sects. In this 
light liberty of conscience in America is almost a per 
fect success. 

The vast majority of our people have founded their 
religious belief on theories not inimical to the public 
good ; and the scores of varying sects which arise from 
year to year, generally do so only to run a brief and 
meteor-like race, and sink like dissolved exhalations in 
the bogs and mire of ignorance from which they arose. 
But occasionally we see one of these parasitic growths 
upon the body of religious freedom, which, from peculiar 
and special causes, extends its existence beyond what 
we would naturally look for; and a few, originally 
transplanted from Europe where the parent organiza 
tion has long since expired, maintain a sort of sickly 
life through two or three generations in America. * Of 
such are the Shakers from England, and the Har 
monists from Germany. But where in contact with 
vital Christianity, they must sooner or later yield; 
their wild enthusiam is sufficient for rise and growth, 
but lacks the virtuous energy to direct and continue. 
To such, comparatively innocent and harmless, the 
public direct little attention. But there are a few, 
which manage to preserve a sort of isolation even in 
the midst of other sects, or in extreme cases, to get 


apart and aside, and maintain for a long period an 
independent existence. Of these none have attained 
to such prominence as the sect called Mormons. Hav 
ing leaders at once sagacious and unscrupulous, they 
have long managed to avoid whatever contact would 
weaken their organization. We have seen them, from 
small and obscure beginnings, rise to a strength suffi 
cient to create a local rebellion in Missouri; trans 
planted thence to Illinois, rise to a threatening power ; 
transplanted again, flourish rapidly for a while, and 
though now/evidently on the decline, yet strong enough 
to create a difficult and delicate political problem, and 
like the Bohon Upas, overshadow a whole Territory 
with a deadly influence. Scattered through the nation 
Mormonism would be the weakest of all religions; 
collected into one Territory, and ruling there with al 
most absolute power, they present a painfully interest 
ing problem. Comparatively, their numbers are trifling ; 
locally, they are of great importance. In the light of 
the principles here enunciated, and with perfect con 
fidence in their correctness, this work has been prepared; 
with a view to the better enlightenment of the Ameri 
can public on this question and if possible, to make the 
duty of Government and people more plain, to set 
forth the most salient points in the progress of 
religious imposture, and to draw attention to a Territory 
rich in natural resources. It is believed that the 
work contains most of the material facts of interest 


in regard to Utah and the Mormons ; whether of the 
climate and resources of the former, or the history, 
theology and peculiar social practices of the latter. 
The history of the sect is- drawn from many sources : 
from their own works, from personal records of several 
who have spent many years among them, from evidence 
published by the State of Missouri, from official docu 
ments of States or the General Government, from 
previous compilations and other accredited sources. 
Of charges against the Mormons, not fully proved, the 
statements for and against them have been equally 
presented. The same rules of evidence have been ap 
plied in summing up their history, as are held applicable 
in courts of justice. The author s opportunities for 
personal observation will be seen in the course of the 
work. The author is well aware of the many imperfec 
tions of the work, but does not seek to disarm criticism 
by a prefaced apology; it is given as a compilation 
of testimony, on which the reader has the same 
privilege of passing judgment as the author has exer 
cised on those before him. Whatever may be thought 
of the style in which they are presented, I trust many 
of the facts will be found interesting, and if the work 
should excite an intelligent interest among the Ameri 
can people, in regard to the affairs of Utah, it will have 
accomplished the dearest wish of the author. 

J. H. B. 
CORINNE, UTAH TERRITORY, April 5t7i, 1870. 



Birth and early life of the Mormon Prophet The original Smith 
family Opinion of Brigham Young The " peep-stone "" Call 
ing "of Joe Smith The Golden Plates " Reformed Egyptian" 
translated "Book of Mormon " published Synopsis of its con 
tents Real author of the work" The glorious six " first converts 
Emma Smith, " Elect Lady and Daughter of God "Sidney Rig- 
don takes the field First Hegira "Zion"in Missouri Kirtland 
Bank Swindling and "persecution" War in Jackson County 
Smith "marches on Missouri " Failure of the " Lord s Bank " 
Flight of the Prophet " Mormon War" Capture of Smith- 
Flight into Illinois 21 


Rapid growth of Nauvoo Apparent prosperity " The vultures gather 
to the carcass" Crime, polygamy and politics Subserviency of 
the Politicians Nauvoo Charters A government within a govern 
mentJoe Smith twice arrested Released by S. A. Douglas Sec 
ond time by Municipal Court of Nauvoo McKinney s account 
Petty thieving Gentiles driven out of Nauvoo " Whittling Dea 
cons" "Da.nites" Anti-Mormons organize a Political Party 
Treachery of Davis and Owens Defeat of Anti-Mormons Cam 
paign of 1843 Cyrus Walker, a great Criminal Lawyer "Revela 
tion" on voting The Prophet cheats the lawyer Astounding 
perfidy of the Mormon leaders Great increase of popular hatred 

Just anger against the Saints 58 




Ford s account Double treachery in the Quincy district New and 
startling developments in Nauvoo Tyranny of Joe Smith Revolt 
of a portion of his followers The u Expositor " It is declared " a 
nuisance" and "abated" Flight of apostates "Warrants issued 
for Smith and other Mormons Constables driven out of Nauvoo 
Militia called for Nauvoo fortified Mormon war imminent Gov- 
enor Ford takes the field in person Flight of the Prophet and 
Patriarch to Iowa Their return and arrest The Governor pledged 
for their safety In his absence the jail is attacked Death of the 
Smiths Character of the Prophet Comments 89 


No successor to. the Prophet David Hyrum Smith, the "Son of 
Promise" Contest for the leadership Diplomacy of Brigham 
Young Curious trials All of Brigham s opponents " cut off" 
Troubles renewed Fights, outrages, robberies and murder An 
other election and more treachery Singular " Wolf Hunt " Cap 
ture and trial of Smith s murderers Of the Mormon rioters Fail 
ure and defects of the law Further outrages on Gentiles Trouble in 
Adams County The " Oneness " The people of Adams drive out 
the Mormons Revenge by the Mormons Murders of McBratney, 
"Worrell, Wilcox and Daubeneyer Retaliation, and murder of 
Durfee The Mormons ravage Hancock Flight of the Gentiles 
Militia called and Hancock put under martial law The Mormons 
begin to leave Illinois Fresh quarrels More Mormon treachery 
Bombardment of Nauvoo, and final expulsion of the Mormons.... 13. 


The Via Dolorosa of Mormon History Through Iowa Great suffer 
ing " Stakes of Zion "Settlement in Nebraska " Mormon Bat- 
tallion "Journey to Utah Founding of Salt Lake City Early 
accounts Outrages upon California emigrants Travelers murdered 
Apostates "missing " Dangers of rivalry in love with a Mormon 


Bishop Usurpations of Mormon Courts and officers Federal 
Judges driven out Murders of Babbitt and Williams Flight of 
Judges Stiles and Drummond The Army set in motion for Utah 
New officers appointed Suspicious delay of the Army The * Mor 
mon War" begun 155 


Sounds of war in Utah Popular excitement Fears of the disaffected 
Attempted flight Murder of the Potter and Parrish families 
Massacre of the Aiken party Assassination of Yates Killing of 
Forbes Brigham "Turns loose the Indians" MOUNTAIN MEADOW 
MASSACRE Horrible barbarity of Indians and Mormons Evidence 
in the case Attempt of Judge Crablebaugh Progress of the "Mor 
mon War " Delay of the army Treachery or inefficiency ? Mor 
mon Legion Lieutenant-General Wells Brigham "Commands" 
the National troops to withdraw Army trains destroyed Lot 
Smith, the Mormon Guerilla The "Army of Utah "in Winter 
Quarters Colonel Kane again Negotiations with Brigham Gov 
ernor Gumming "passed" through the Mormon lines "Peace 
Commissioners" Mormon exodus Weakness of Cumming End 
of the War Murders of Pike, the Jones s, Bernard, Drown, Arnold, 
McNeil and others A change at last 177 


A New Element Livingston and Kinkead " Jack-Mormonism at 
Washington" Judge Drummond M. Jules Remy Gilbert and 
Sons Heavy trade Later Gentile Merchants Walker Brothers 
Sales at Camp Floyd " Crushing the Mormons " Ransohoff & Co. 
Mormon outrages again Murders of Brassfield and Dr. Robinson 
Whipping of Weston Evidence in case of Dr. Robinson Outrages 
on Lieutenant Brown and Dr. Williamson Gentiles driven from 
the Public Land Territorial Surveyor Success of General Connor s 
Administration The Government returns to the old policy Mur 
ders of Potter and Wilson Horrible death of " Negro Tom " The 
last witness "put out of the way " " Danites " again Murder 
each other Death of Hatch Flight of Hickman Forty-three mur 
dersAnother change of officials Doty Durkee Shameful 
neglect by the Government Flight of the Gentiles Comparative 
quiet again A better day The author arrives in Utah IDG 



The real " American Desert" No Myth Bitter Creek Green River 
Lone Rock Plains of Bridger Quaking Asp Ridge Bear River 
A Mormon autobiography "Pulling hair" "Aristocracy" on 
the Plains "Mule Skinners" and " Bullwackers " The Bull- 
wackers Epic" Cache Cave Echo Canon Mormon "fortifica 
tions" Braggadocio Storm in Weber Canon Up the Weber 
Parley s Park A wife-stealing Apostle Down the Canon Majestic 
scenery First view of the valley The " City of the Saints." 217 


Views of the City Temple Block Brigham s Block Theatre Im 
migrants Mormon arguments Reasons for polygamy "Book of 
Mormon" First Mormon sermon "Old" Joe Young His 
beauty (?) His sermon Mormon style of preaching Order of 
services First impressions rather favorable Much to learn yet 239 



Northward afoot Hot Springs "Sessions Settlement" Polygamy 
again "Ephe Roberts 1 young wife" Farmington Kaysville 
Three wives, and stone walls between " Let us have Peace " Red 
Sand Ridge Ogden Brigham City Into the poor district Scan 
dinavian Porridge English cookery Rural life in Utah Bear 
River, North Cache Valley and the Canon "Professor" Barker, 
the " Mad Philosopher" A New Cosmogony Mormon science 
"Celestial Masonry" "Adam " redivivus A modern "Eve" 
Folly and fanaticism Mineral Sprtngs The country vs. the city 
Mormon 260 


A Mormon mass-meeting Faces and features Great enthusiasm A 
living " martyr " A Mormon hymn The poetess A " president" 


unosen He recites the Church history First view of Brigham 
He curses the Gentiles A " nasty sermon " Coarseness and pro 
fanity Bitterness of other speakers Swearing in the pulpit Excit 
ing the people Their frenzy and fanaticism Hatred against the 
United States Foolish bravado The author gains new light on 
Mormonism A subject to be studied English and European Sects 
of like character Division of the subject 278 


Difficulty at the outset Extremes among witnesses Prejudice on 
both sides First impressions favorable " Whited Sepulchres " 
Classes of Mormons Brigham Young ; impostor or fanatic ? The 
dishonest class The "earnest Mormons" Disloyalty Church 
and State Killing men to save their souls Slavery of women 
Brigham the government Prophecy against the United States 
" War " " Seven women to take hold of one man " Another war 
expected Blood and thunder in store for the Gentiles " The great 
tribulation" about due Popular errors Witchcraft "Faith-doc 
toring " Zion, in Jackson County, Missouri Comfortable prospect. 290 


Its origin A theologic conglomerate Mythology, Paganism, Mo 
hammedanism, corrupt Christianity and Philosophy run mad 
"First principles of the Gospel" The five points of variance 
Materialism No spirit A god with "body, parts and passions " 
Matter eternal No "creation" Intelligent atoms Pre existent 
souls High times in the Spirit Worlds Birth of Spirits They hunt 
for " Earthly Tabernacles "The " Second Estate "Apotheosis 
The " Third Estate " " Fourth Estate "Men become gods" Di 
vine generation Earthly Families and Heavenly Kingdoms Did 
Man come from the Sun ? Building up the Kingdom One day 
as a thousand years The time of the Gentiles about out Great 
events at hand "Gog and Magog," et. al. Gentiles, prepare to 
make tracks Return to "Zion," in Missouri Christ s earthly empire 
Great destiny for Missouri Tenets from Christianity Baptism a 
"Saving Ordinance" Baptized twelve times Office of the Holy 
Ghost Strange fanaticism Eclectic Theology A personal god 
The homoousian and the homoiousian The Logos and the Aeon 
Grossness and Vulgarity 311 



Poetry of religious concubinage Fanaticism and Sensualism Two 
extremes Origin of Polygamy The great revelation Its contra 
dictions and absurdities Mormon argument Eeal origin Begin 
ning of Polygamy A prostitute for religion s sake Failures and 
scandals War in the Church Stealing a Brother s wife Furore in 
consequence The Expositor Its destruction Death of the Smiths 
Polygamy practiced secretly and denied openly Brigham s mar 
riages Nine years of concealment Avowal at last Argument in 
its favor Demoralization in the English Church A climax of un 
natural obscenity The " Reformation " Temporary decline in 
Polygamy Hostility of native Mormon girls Outside influence 
Difference of opinion It dies hard Spiritual wives Mystery and 
abomination 332 


Ojjen evils and hidden sufferings Miss S. E. Carmichael s testimony 
Mormon sophistry The sexual principle Its objects Theory 
and facts Monogamist vs. Polygamist Turk, Persian and African 
vs. the Christian White The same effects in Utah Jealousy and 
misery Children of different wives Cultivated indifference 
Hatred among children Brigham s idea of parental duty Are the 
Mormon women happy ? Submission and silence Degradation of 
women Mormon idea of politeness Heber C. Kimball and his 
" cows " u My women "Slavery of sex Moses and Mohammed 
outdone Incest Marrying a whole family Robert Shark ey 
Remorse and suicide Uncle and niece Bishop Smith and his nieces 
Mixture of blood Horrible crimes Half-brother and sister The 
Prophet "sold" The doctrine of incest "Too strong now, but 
the people will come to it" Now openly avowed Brothers and 
sisters to marry for a "pure priesthood" Testimony of William 
Hepworth Dixon Father and daughter may marry Effects upon 
the young Infant mortality Large average-mortality Fatal 
blindness The growing youth Demoralization Youthful de 
pravity No hope for young men and women Sophistry and mad 
ness Ancient sensualism to be revived 354 



Absolutism An ancient model Three governments in Utah Church 
officials First President First Presidency " The worst man in 
Utah " Quorum of Apostles " The Twelve " A dozen men with 
fifty-two wives President of Seventies Patriarch "A blessing 
for a dollar" Bishops Division of the City and Territory Their 
magisterial capacity High Council Judge and jury Ward teachers 
The confessional The priesthood Aaronic and Melchisedec 
Evangelists Secret police or "Danites" Civil government only 
an appendage Excessive power of the Mormon Courts Perver 
sions of law and justice Organic Act defective Federal Judges 
Their weakness and disgrace Verdict hy ecclesiastical " counsel " 
Verdicts dictated from the pulpit Probate Judges really appointed 
by Brigham Young Voting system Marked ballots u Protecting 
the ballot" The Hooper-McGroarty race Plurality of offices as 
well as wives Tyranny of the Church The Mormon vs. the Ameri 
can idea The evils of which Gentiles complain ........................... 381 


Repression not unity Great break-up at Nauvoo Sidney Rigclon s 
Church J. J. Strang Cutler, Brewster and Heddrick : " The 
Gatherers" The " Truth Teller " Lyman Wight in Texas San 
Bernardino Mormons Apostasy, Spiritualism and insanity Brig- 
ham supreme in Utah First secession, the " Gladdenites " Perse 
cution and murders Blood-atonement introduced Second seces 
sion, the "Morrisites" War with the sect Massacre of the 
* Morrisites" Governor Harding s adventure General Connor 
protects the recusants Soda Springs Another Prophet The 
infant Christ" Beginning of the Josephites Emma and her 
sons The " Reorganized Church" First Mission Mission of the 
"Smith Boys "Excitement at Salt Lake Priestly lying The 
God-be schism Liberal principles Hopeful indications After 
Brigham, who ? Orson Hyde ? Daniel II. Wells ? George A. 
Smith ? Probable future ot the Church ...................................... 402 




Territorial limits "Basins" "Sinks" "Flats" Rain and evapora 
tion Elemental action and reaction- 1 Potamology Jordan Kay s 
Creek Weber Bear River Cache Valley Timber Blue Creek 
Promontory Great Desert Utah Lake Spanish Fork Salt 
Creek Timpanogos Sevier River Colorado System Fish 
Thermal and Chemical Springs Healing waters Ilotwater plants 
Analysis by Dr. Gale Mineral Springs Salt beds Alkali flats 
Native salts GREAT SALT LAKE First accounts FREMONT 
STANSBUKY Amount of salt Valleys Rise of the Lake Islands 
Bear Lake " Ginasticutis " Utah Lake Climate Increase of 
rain Singular phenomena Fine air Relief for pulmonary com 
plaints 435 


Amount of arable land Its nature and location Increased rainfall 
Causes Probable greater increase Mode of irrigation Aquarian 
Socialism No room for competition Alkali Some advantages 
Yield of various crops "Beet-sugar" Sorghum syrup Mormon 
improvements ( ? ) Grossly exaggerated True Wealth of Utah 
Mining and grazing Bunch-grass Mountain pastures Sheep and 
goals "Fur, fin and feather" Trapping and hunting Carnivora 
Ruminants Buffalo None in the Basin Shoshonee tradition 
Game, fowl Amphibia " Sandy toad " Serpents Fish Oysters 
in Salt Lake Insects "Mormon bedbugs" Ad vantages from the 
drj r air Insectivora Crickets Grasshoppers or locusts V Indians 
of Utah Rapid extinction "Diggers" "Club-men" Utes 
Shoshonees - Their origin Mormon theory Scientific theory- 
Chinese annals Tartans in America Mormon settlers Twenty- 
three years of "gathering" Much work, slow progress Reasons * 
Inherent weakness of the system Great apostasy Their present 
number Exaggeration Enumeration of settlements und population 
Nationality Total military force Future of the Teiritory 400 



The Endowment Actors Scenery and dress Pre-requisites Adam 
and Eve, the Devil and Michael, Jehovah and Eloheim A new 
version Blasphemous assumptions Terrible oaths Barbarous 
penalties Origin - Scriptures and Paradise Lost Eleusinian mys 
teries -"Morgan s Free-masonry" The witnesses Probabilities 
Their reasons Changes 486 


Co-operation The "bull s eye" signs Inherent weakness of the 
system Immediate effects on the Gentiles Final result to the 
Saints Founding-of Corinne Its bright prospects Trip to Sevier 
The deserted city New Silverado Mines and mining A new- 
interest in Utah Rich discoveries Hindrances Grant s Admin 
istration in Utah Better men in the Revenue Department 
Experience of Dr. J. P. Taggart More "persecution" The 
Judges The Governor Congressional Legislation " Cullom 
Bill" Probable effects Guesses at the future Another exodus 
"Zion," in Sonora 503 


The Church First attempt Rev. Norman McLeod Dr. J. K. Rob 
inson Second attempt, Father Kelley Last attempt The Epis 
copal Mission, success and progress Sabbath School -Grammar 
School of St. Marks A building needed Mission of Rev. George 
\V. Foot e Difficulties of the situation Number and occupation of 
Gentiles Political prospects Gentile newspapers The Valley Tan 
The Vedette The UTAH REPORTER S. S. Saul, the founder 

" Messrs. Anlbach and Barrett The author s experience Principles 
advocated Courtesy of the Gentiles Conclusion 527 


1. Portra it of Brigham Young Frontispiece 

2. Portrait of Joseph Smith 

3 Portrait of Ileber C. Kimhall 

4. Portrait of Hyrum Smith 

5. Portrait of Orson Pratt 

6. Portrait of Orson Hyde 

7. Portrait of John Taylor 

8. Mormon Temple being built in Salt Lake City u 

9. One of the six Bronze Plates found in the State of Illinois, in 

1843 ; said by old Mormons to closely resemble the 
original Plates of the " Book of Mormon." 25 

10. Fac-simile. according to Joe Smith, of the writing on the 

Original Plates of the " Book of Mormon. " 30 

11. Flight of the Mormons from Jackson County, Missouri 40 

12. Tarring and Feathering Joe Smith 57 

13. u Lieut. -Gen." Joseph Smith Reviewing the Nauvoo Legion. 77 

14. Mormon Temple at Nauvoo, Illinois 81 

15. Death of Joseph Smith. 113 

1(3. Mormons driven out of Nauvoo, crossing the Mississippi on 

the ice 144 

17. Brigham Young Preaching in the Wilderness 154 

18. Mormon Camp at Council Bluff, Iowa.. 157 

19. View of Salt Lake City in 1850 From the Northwest 165 

20. Mormon Tabernacle Camp on their arrival in Utah 170 

21. California Emigrants Attacked at the Humboldt Canon, Utah 172 
22. Mountain Meadow Massacre 132 Emigrants killed by Mor 
mons and Indians. 183 

23. Ceremony of Confirmation 202 

24. Scene in Echo Canon 228 

25. Four Wives 234 

26. Mormon Tabernacle Endowment House in the Distance. . . 242 

27. Mormon Missionary Preaching to the Lower Classes in 

London Proselyting , 248 

28. Hot Springs near Salt Lake City 259 

29. Scene on the upper part of Bear River, Utah 260 

30. u Let us have Peace.".... 266 

31. Mormon Baptism 319 

32. Massacre of the Morrisites 419 

33. Mormon women and children taking refuge at a U. S. Camp. 426 

34. Mirage seen on the Promontory North of Great Salt Lake... 442 

35. Mormon "Improvements " a Willow Corral 467 

36. Mormon Alphabet. Invented by O. Pratt and W. Phelps to 

be used in Mormon Literature 470 

37. Scenes in the Endowment Ceremonies 486 







Birth and early life of the Mormon Prophet The original Smith family 
Opinidn of Brigham Young The "peep-stone" "Calling" of Joe 
Smith The Golden Plates" Reformed Egyptian" translated" Book 
of MormOn" published Synopsis of its contents Real author of the 
work " The glorious six" first converts Emma Smith, "Elect Lady 
and Daughter of God" Sidney Rigdon takes the field First Hegira 
"Zion" in Missouri Kirtland Bank Swindling and "persecution" 
War in Jackson County Smith "marches on Missouri" Failure of 
the "Lord s Bank "Flight of the Prophet "Mormon War "Cap 
ture of Smith Flight into Illinois. 

JOSEPH SMITH, the founder of Mormonism, was born 
December 23d, 1805, at Sharon, Windsor county, Ver 
mont. His parents, Joseph Smith, Sen., and Lucy 
Mack Smith, belonged to the lowest grade of society, 
and, by the testimony of all their neighbors, were illit 
erate and superstitious, as well as indolent and unre 
liable. They could believe in the supernatural as 
easily as the natural ; for they were as ignorant of the 
one as the other. These qualities seemed to descend 
upon the son by " ordinary generation ;" but at an 



early age he showed that he far excelled all the rest 
of the family in a peculiar low cunning, and a certain 
faculty of invention, which enabled him to have a 
story ready for any emergency. 

In the year 1815, the Smith family removed to New 
York, and settled near Palmyra, Wayne county, where 
they resided ten years. Here young Joseph developed 
a remarkable talent for living without work, and at an 
early age adopted the profession of " Water Witch," 
in which calling he wandered about the adjoining 
country with a forked stick, or hazel rod, by the de 
flections of which, when held in a peculiar manner, 
he claimed to determine the spot where a vein of water 
lay nearest the surface. This had been a part of his 
father s business ; but Joe was possessed of real genius, 
though of a peculiar kind, and soon struck into higher 
paths. He began to "divine" the locality of things 
which had been stolen, by means of a " peep-stone" 
placed in his hat, and by the same means to point out 
where hidden treasures lay. Almost innumerable are 
the stories of his youth, giving bright promise of future 
rascality. But many of them depend on little more 
than popular report, and we can only receive as au 
thentic those events which rest upon the sworn testi 
mony of reliable men who were his neighbors. After 
ten years residence in Wayne, the family moved to 
the adjoining county of Ontario, and settled near the 
town of Manchester. Here, from pointing out the 
place for wells, Joe went to. work digging them. While 
in this work for Mr. Willard Chase, a peculiar, round, 
white stone was found by him and the other workmen, 


which Joe took possession of and carried away, much 
to the regret of Mr. Chase s children, to whom it had 
been given as a curious plaything. This was after 
wards the noted " peep-stone," in which Joe saw such 
wonders. Many of these statements are not very stren 
uously denied by the best-informed Mormons. They 
acknowledge, generally, that Joe Smith was of humble 
parentage, very poor and illiterate, and that he was for 
many years a " wild boy." Brigham Young is espe 
cially frank upon the subject, adding, in conclusion : 
" That the Prophet was of mean birth, that he was 
wild, intemperate, even dishonest and tricky in his 
youth, is nothing against his mission. God can. and 
does, make use of the vilest instruments. Joseph has 
brought forth a religion which will save us if we abide 
by it. Bring anything against that if you can. I 
care not if he gamble, lie, swear, and run horses every 
day, for I embrace no man in my faith. The religion 
is all in all." 

Brigham is correct ; the early character of the Pro 
phet has little to do with the religion, except as 
determining the character and credibility of his evi 
dence. Let us then examine briefly the origin of this 
new theology, present the main testimony; and, as 
impartial judges, hear the Prophet s account first. 
Many years after, when Mormonisrn was an established 
fact, Joseph gave the following account: At the early 
age^ of fifteen he became much concerned about the 
salvation of his soul, and at the same time a powerful 
revival of religion spread throughout Western New 
York. Joseph professed to be converted and his mo- 


ther, sister Sophronia and his brothers, Samuel ancl 
Hyrum (so spelled by his father) joined the church. 
But when the revival ceased, a " great rush " took 
place among the ministers of various denominations as 
to who should secure most of the new converts ; 
Joseph s soul was vexed, and he began to have serious 
doubts. In this frame of mind he opened the Bible, 
and his eye fell upon this text : " If any of you lack 
wisdom, let him ask of God, that giveth to all men 
liberally, and upbraideth not" JAMES, Chap. I. v. 5. 
He, therefore, retired to a secluded thicket near his fa 
ther s house, and knelt in prayer, supplicating the 
Lord to know " which of all the sects was really right." 
While praying, the entire wood was illuminated with a 
great light, he was enveloped in the midst of it and 
caught away in a heavenly vision, he saw two glorious 
personages and was told that his sins were forgiven. 
He learned also that none of the sects was quite right, 
but that God had chosen him to restore the true priest 
hood upon earth. Afterwards, he began again to doubt, 
and, being quite young, fell into sin, and it was not 
until September 23d, 1823, that God again heard his 
prayers, and sent heavenly messengers to tell him his 
sins were forgiven. An angel visited him from time 
to time afterwards, instructing him in his duties, and 
finally informed him that in " the hill Cumorah," not 
far from Manchester, certain Golden Plates were buried, 
containing an account of the settlement of America, be 
fore Christ. After several preliminary visits, on the 
22d of September, 1826, the Golden Plates were taken 
up from the hill Cumorah "with a mighty display of 

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celestial machinery," and delivered by the angel to Jo 
seph. His vision being cleared, at the same time, he saw 
a great concourse of devils struggling with angels to 
prevent the work. The plates were " of the thick 
ness of tin, bound together like a book, fastened at one 
side by three rings which run through the whole, form 
ing a volume about six inches thick." The record was 
engraved on the plates in " reformed Egyptian " charac 
ters, consisting of "the language of the Jews and the 
writing of the Egyptians." In the same box with the 
plates, were found two stones, " transparent and clear as 
crystal, the Urim , and Thummim used by seers in an 
cient times, the instruments of revelations of things dis 
tant, past and future." When the news of this discov 
ery spread abroad, " the Prophet was the sport of lies, 
slanders and mobs, and vain attempts to rob him of his 
plates." He was ere long supplied with witnesses. Oli 
ver Cowdery, Davi-1 Whitmep, and Martin Harris make 
the following solemn certificate : 

" We have seen the plates, wliich contain thfe records ; 
they were translated by the gift, and power *of God; for 
His voice hath declared it unto, us, wherefore we know- 
of a surety that the work is tf ue ; and we- declare, with;, 
words of soberness that an angel of God came .down-froin 
heaven, and brought and laid before our eyes, that we 
beheld and saw the plates and the engravings thereon." 

The testimony of -these three, is prefixed to all printed 
copies of the " Book of Mormon," for such is the name 
now given to the work. Oliver Cowdery was at that 
time a sort of wandering schoolmaster, rather noted as 
an elegant scribe He assisted in translating the in- 


scriptions on the plates, continued an active Saint for 
many years, and was finally expelled from the Church 
in Missouri, " for lying, counterfeiting and immorality." 
He led a rambling life for many years, and died a short 
time since a miserable drunkard. 

Martin Harris was a credulous farmer who lived near 
the Smiths. He had imbibed the notion, so common in 
the religious excitement of that period, that " the last 
days were at hand," and mortgaged his farm for three 
thousand dollars, to pay for printing the first edition of 
the book. He continued with the Mormons till his 
means were exhausted, and, having quarrelled with Joe 
Smith, in Missouri, returned to his old residence in New 
York. Of David Whitmer little is known. He dropped 
out of the Mormon community, in one of the " drives " 
in Missouri, and settled in that State. But the Prophet 
had other witnesses. Soon after, four of the Smiths, 
three of the Whitmers, and another witness, eight in 
all, testify as follows : " Joseph Smith, the translator, 
has shown us the plates of which hath been spoken, 
which had the appearance of gold ; and as many of the 
plates as the said Smith had translated, we did handle 
with our hands and also saw the engravings thereon, all 
of which had the appearance of ancient work and cu 
rious workmanship." 

According to Smith s account, he first met Oliver 
Cowdery, April 16th, 1829, and after convincing him of 
his divine mission, on the loth of May following, John 
the Baptist appeared, and ordained them both into the 
Aaronic Priesthood, after which they baptized each 
other. In July following, the Golden Plates were shown 


the u three witnesses," and in that year the translation 
was completed. It was begun some time before, but 
suspended in July, 1828, from the singular circumstance 
that the wife of Martin Harris had stolen a hundred and 
eighteen pages of the manuscript. As afterwards ap 
peared, the translators thought she intended to wait 
until they had supplied the stolen part, then reproduce 
the original, and prove that they did not literally cor 
respond. But it seems they had credited her with more 
cunning than she possessed. She had bitterly op 
posed her husband in his venture upon the new 
speculation, and had burned that part of the manuscript 
he brought home, hoping thereby to put a stop to the 
work. She afterwards attempted, by legal proceedings, 
to prevent the disposal of his farm ; but, failing in that, 
finally separated from him. The translation was then 
completed, Oliver Cowdery making most of the final 
copy. The " Book of Mormon " was first given to the 
world early in 1830, when three thousand volumes were 
published, under contract, by Mr. Pomeroy Tucker, then 
proprietor of a paper in the county. He has, within a 
few years, given to the world a valuable work on the 
" Origin and Progress of Mormonism," containing many 
interesting facts concerning the origin of the sect. The 
first proof-sheet of the work was given by Mr. Tucker, 
as a sort of curiosity, to his cousin Steve S. Harding, 
whom he styles " a fun-loving youth of that vicinity." 
Mr. Harding soon after removed to Indiana, and, just 
thirty-two years afterwards, was appointed by President 
Lincoln Governor of Utah, whither he carried the proo r 
sheet, and presented it to the Church Historian. 


The " Book of Mormon " was rapidly circulated, and 
attracted some comment. And at this point, a brief 
synopsis of this work is appropriate. It consists of a 
number of Books, named after their reputed authors 
Book of Nephi, Book of Alma, Esther, Jared, etc. They 
contain the following history : 

In the reign of Zedekiah, six hundred years before 
Christ, a Jewish family, with a few friends and retain 
ers, left Jerusalem, being warned of God that a great 
destruction and captivity were at hand, and journeyed 
eastward in search of a " land of promise." After many 
wanderings, and the death of the Patriarch, they reached 
the sea, when Nephi, who had succeeded his father in 
the Patriarchate and Priesthood, was directed by the 
Lord to build a boat ; and, furnished with a " double 
ball and spindle," which served the exact purpose of the 
modern mariner s compass. They embarked, and in 
due time reached the continent of America. Subsequent 
revelations have decided that they landed in Central 
America. There they increased rapidly ; but a great 
schism arose, and one Laman, with his followers, re 
fused to obey the true priesthood, for which they were 
cut off, cursed, and condemned " to be a brutish and a 
savage people, having dark skins, compelled to dig in 
the ground for roots, and hunt their meat in the forests 
like beasts of prey." But it was foretold that a rem 
nant of them should, in time, " have the curse removed, 
and become a fair and delightsome people," who should 
" blossom as the rose, under the teachings of the Latter- 
day Saints." These were the Lamanites, the present 
Indians, while the Christian party were known as Ne- 


phites. The latter spread over all of North and South 
America, became rich and powerful, and built the cities 
of Zarahemla, Jacobbugath, Manti, Gidgiddoni, and 
scores of others, thus accounting for the numerous ruins 
found on this continent. They were ruled over suc 
cessively by Nephi the First, Second, and Third, by 
Noah, Alma, Kish, Coriantumnr, and numerous other 
kings, and were successively instructed by a number of 
prophets. But the Lamanites increased likewise, and 
carried on almost perpetual war with the Nephites, till 
a great part of the land was desolate. According to 
this history, there have been no people of the Old 
World so warlike and blood-thirsty as these ; and battles 
in which from twenty to fifty thousand were slain were 
of common occurrence. The Nephites were troubled, 
too, by " false doctrine, heresy, and schism ;" the true 
priesthood was reviled; one man arose and preached 
Universalism, " that God would save all mankind at the 
last day," and others followed strange gods. An im 
mense mass of the nation turned back and joined the 
Lamanites, and a band of robbers, under one Gadianton, 
desolated a large part of the land. At length prophets 
appeared and announced the coming of Christ, who, 
after he was crucified at Jerusalem, preached the Gospel 
in America. At the time of his death, this country, 
also, was shrouded in darkness ; a mighty earthquake 
threw down the wicked city of Jacobbugath, opened 
great chasms and basins throughout the land, and the 
whole face of the country was changed. The Nephites 
accepted Christ at once ; but in a few generations, fell 
again into apostasy, and the Lord delivered them into 


the hand of their enemies. The mighty Chieftain 
Omandagus, whose rule was from the Rocky Mountains 
to the Mississippi, fought against the Nephites, and after 
him many others. Little by little, the Nephites were 
driven eastward, but made a stand near the shores of 
Lake Erie, and fought " till the whole land was covered 
with dead bodies." They made their final stand about 
430, A. D., at the hill Cumorah, in Ontario County, 
New York, where the Lamanites came against them, 
and the battle raged till two hundred and thirty thou 
sand Nephites were slain ; the little remnant was cap 
tured, and only Mormon and his son Moroni escaped. 

The various kings and priests had kept a record of 
their history, which Mormon now collected in one 
volume, added a book of his own, and gave them to his 
son. The latter finished the record, and buried the 
whole in the hill Cumorah, being assured of God that 
in fourteen centuries, a great Prophet should restore 
them to man. Such is the book, and Joseph s account 
of it. On such testimony alone there is sufficient cause 
to reject it, the book itself containing abundant internal 
evidence of a fraud. 

Let us now glance at the opposing account. In the 
year 1812, a written work, called the " Manuscript 
Found," was presented to Mr. Patterson, a bookseller of 
Pittsburg, Pemia., by the author, Rev. Solomon Spauld- 
ing. This gentleman was born in Pennsylvania, was a 
graduate of Dartmouth College, and for many years a 
Presbyterian minister ; he fell into bad health, left the 
ministry, and finally died of consumption. The " Man 
uscript Found " was written by Spaulding as a historical 

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romance, to account for the settlement of America, and 
he proposed to Mr. Patterson to publish it with a pre 
face, giving an imaginary account of its having been 
taken from plates dug up in Ohio ; but the latter did not 
think the enterprise would pay. Sidney Rigdon was 
then at w r ork in the office of Mr. Patterson ; the latter 
died in 1826, and what became of that copy of the man 
uscript is not known. Mrs. Spaulding had another com 
plete copy ; but in the year 1825, while residing in 
Ontario Co., N. Y., next door to a man named Stroude, 
for whom Joe Smith was then digging a well, that copy 
also was lost. She thinks it was stolen from her trunk. 
Thus far all is clear, and there is no particular discrep 
ancy between the two accounts ; but when the " Book 
of Mormon " was published, the widow and brother of 
Solomon Spaulding, and several other persons who had 
heard him read his work, forthwith claimed that the 
new publication was nearly identical with the " Manu 
script Found," varying only in certain interpolated 
texts on doctrinal points. This claim was circulated 
abroad, and caused Sidney Rigdon to write a highly 
slanderous and abusive letter to the press in regard to 
Mrs. Spaulding. Mormon historians say that Spaul- 
ding s book was a mere idolatrous romance, and that the 
whole story is the invention of Dr. Philastus Hurlbut, 
who seceded from the saints in Ohio, and " persecuted " 
Joe Smith in various ways. The widow s and brother s 
statement is supported by the evidence of Mr. Joseph 
Miller, Sr., now of Washington Co., Penna., who had 
often heard Spaulding read his work ; by that of Mr. 
Redick McKee, who formerly boarded with the Spaul- 


ding s, and by others who knew of the work. Space 
fails to set forth all the evidence presented in support 
of this view. Suffice it to say, that while it is of moral 
force sufficient to convince most minds, it is yet not such 
proof as would establish the fact beyond all doubt, or 
convict Smith and Rigdon of theft and forgery in a 
court of justice. If the proof were any less strong than 
it is, I would decide against the Spaulding claim, solely 
from the internal evidence of the book ; for the style and 
matter are such as to raise a very strong presumption 
that it could not be the work of any man with intelli 
gence enough for a minister, or of a graduate from Dart 
mouth College. But the true theory no doubt is, that 
the writing of Spaulding was taken by Smith, Rigdon, 
Cowdery and others, as the suggestion and idea of their 
work ; but was greatly modified and interpolated by 
them, leaving sufficient characteristics to be recognized 
by the Spaulding witnesses, who were left solely to 
their memory for a comparison with the " Book of Mor 
mon," recognizing what was in it, and forgetting much 
that was not included. 

Of the " three witnesses " it is unnecessary to treat ; 
their subsequent course shows what weight is to be 
attached to their testimony. The best evidence further 
more shows, that Sidney Rigdon was the prime mover 
in the fraud, and that Joe Smith was conveniently put 
forward as the Prophet. 

The year 1830 ranks as number one of the Mormon 
era. Early in the spring, the " Book of Mormon " ap 
peared, and on the memorable 6th of April following, 
the Mormon Church was organized near Manchester. 


Six members were baptized and ordained elders, viz. : 
Joseph Smith, Sr. ? Joseph Smith, Jr., Hyrum Smith, 
Samuel Smith, Oliver Cowdery, and Joseph Knight, 
all but the last two of the " original Smith family." 
The sacrament was forthwith administered, and hands 
laid on " for the gift of the Holy Ghost." On the llth 
of April, Oliver Cowdery preached the first public dis 
course on the new faith, and the same month the 
"first miracle" was performed in Colesville, Broome Co.. 
N. Y. On the first of June, the Church, which had 
meanwhile gained a few more Whitmers and some 
others, held its " First Conference " at Fayette, in 
Seneca Co. ; and the same month Joe Smith was twice 
arrested, "on false charges," tried and acquitted. Mean 
while, on the 18th of January, 1827, he had married 
Emma Hale, daughter of Isaac Hale, of South Bain- 
bridge, Chenango Co., N. Y. ; and, in 1830, she was, 
by special revelation, pronounced " Elect Lady and 
Daughter of God," afterwards more learnedly styled 
Electa Cyria. She became thoroughly disgusted at 
her husband s religion while in Nauvoo, and expressed 
no particular regret at his death ; she refused to emi 
grate to Utah, but apostatized and married a Gentile, 
and is rather popular as land-lady of the old Mansion 
House, at Nauvoo. In August of 1830, Parley P. Pratt, 
a young Campbellite preacher, came on a visit especially 
to hear of the new faith, and was at once converted, 
and soon after, Sidney Rigdon appeared as a leading 
Mormon. Their own history states that he had neVer 
heard of Smith until this time. Soon after, Orson 
Pratt was baptized, and the new Church now had valu- 


able material in its composition. The wild, poetical 
zeal of Parley, and the cool determination of Orson 
Pratt, the immense biblical knowledge and controver 
sial skill of Sidney Rigdon, and the shrewd cunning of 
Joe Smith, were united in the work of propagandism, 
and converts multiplied. In October, missionaries were 
sent to the " Lamanites," and in December, Sidney 
Rigdon visited Joe Smith, and preached several times 
in the vicinity. In January, Smith and Rigdon pro 
ceeded to the latter s residence, near Kirtland, Ohio, 
preaching by the way. Rigdon had previously col 
lected a band of nearly one hundred persons, who called 
themselves Disciples ; mostly seceders from other de 
nominations, holding to a literal and rapid fulfilment 
of the prophecies, very fanatical and looking daily 
for "some great event to occur." Many of these 
adopted the new faith at once, and a church of thirty 
was organized. " By revelation " of February 9th, 
the elders were commanded " to go forth in pairs and 
preach," and it was ordered they should dwell particu 
larly upon the fact that " the last days were at hand." 
This idea is one that has a great hold upon many 
minds. Nor is it confined to the ignorant ; many intel 
ligent men in every generation become impressed with 
the idea that " in our day the world has become so cor 
rupt, that God Almighty is going to make a great change," 
and in spite of the plain declarations of Scripture, fan 
atics will wrest the mild precepts of the Gospel, and 
force them to indicate that hell-fire and destruction are 
impending over everybody but their own particular sect. 
The Mormons began as Millenarians, and that of the 


maddest sort ; but they did not preach that the world 
itself was to be destroyed, only that destruction was soon 
to fall upon all who did not embrace the new gospel. 
No particular time was set for this consummation, but it 
was understood to be imminent. Early in 1831, John 
Whitmer was appointed .Church recorder and historian, 
and about the same time, the remaining New York 
Saints came to Kirtland, which is set down in Mormon 
annals as the First Hegira. 

On the 6th of June, the Melchisedek, or Superior 
Priesthood, was first conferred upon the elders, and soon 
after Joe Smith had a revelation that the final gather 
ing place of the Saints was to be in Missouri. He set 
out the same month with a few elders, and in the middle 
of July, reached Jackson County, Missouri, where an 
other revelation was granted that this was " Zion which 
should never be moved," and the whole land was " sol 
emnly dedicated to the Lord and His Saints." They 
began at once to build, and laid the first log in Kaw 
Township, twelve miles west of Independence. Another 
revelation, of August 2d, fixed the site of the Great 
Temple " three hundred yards west of the Court House 
in Independence," which spot was accordingly dedicated 
by religious exercises, which were followed by a great 
accession of " gifts." On the 4th of August, another 
large party arrived from Kirtland, a " General Confer 
ence " was held in the " land of Zion," and another rev 
elation vouchsafed to Joseph, that the whole land should 
be theirs, and should not be obtained " but by purchase 
or by blood." 

Just what was to be understood by that strange 


wording, it is now impossible to tell. The Mormons 
explain it very innocently, and the Missourians con 
strued it to mean that the Saints would unite with the 
Indians and drive out the old settlers. Joe Smith re 
turned to Kirtland the latter part of August, and soon 
after established a mill, store, ^nd bank. The last was 
what was then denominated a " wild cat " bank, that is, 
it had no charter, and deposited no State bonds for se 
curity ; but rested solely on the individual credit of the 
proprietors. As several wealthy men had come into 
the new organization, the notes of the bank circulated 
at par. Joseph Smith was made President, and Sidney 
Bigdon, Cashier. For the next five months, Joseph 
travelled and preached in the Northern and Eastern 
States, making many converts, who " gathered " either 
at Kirtland, or in Missouri. The elders sent out in 
February previous had met with tolerable success, and 
Samuel H. Smith, brother of the Prophet, had added 
greatly to the Church by converting Brigham Young. 
This noted personage was born at Whittingham, Wind- 
ham Co., Vermont, June 1st, 1801. He had four brothers 
and six sisters, all of whom became Mormons. He was 
baptized in April, 1832, by Eleazer Millard, and soon 
after " gathered " at Kirtland. He was brought up on 
a farm, and learned the trade of painter and glazier, 
which he followed till after his conversion to Mormon- 
ism. In him Joe Smith recognized one " born to rule," 
and his deep cunning and wonderful knowledge of the 
weak points in human nature, soon gave him a leading 
position in the Church. In March, 1832, Joe Smith 
and Sidney Rigdon, while absent from home, were tarred 


and feathered by a mob, " for attempting to establish 
Communism, for forgery and dishonorable dealing," ac 
cording to their adversaries ; by their own account, " for 
the truth s sake," and this is set down as " the beginning 
of persecutions." Early in April, Joe Smith found it 
necessary to go again to Independence, Mo., where a 
sort of " (Ecumenical Council " was held, and a printing 
office set up. In June, was issued the " Morning and 
Evening Star," the first Mormon periodical, edited by 
"W. W. Phelps. Joe Smith soon returned to Kirtland, 
and the latter part of the same year Heber Chase Kim- 
ball was baptized into the Church. In February, 1833, 
Joe Smith finished his "inspired re translation" of the 
New Testament, and soon after received a " revelation 
to square things in Zion." A quorum of three High 
Priests, Joseph Smith, Sidney Kigdon, and Frederick 
G. Williams, was organized as " Presidency of the 
Church," and they were at once favored with " visions of 
the Saviour and concourse of angels." 

By the spring of 1833, the Mormons numbered some 
fifteen hundred in Jackson County, Missouri. They 
had taken virtual possession of Independence, where 
their paper was published, and were fast extending their 
settlements westward. The intense religious excitement 
which raged throughout the United States during the 
decade of 1820-30, which led to the wild phenomena of 
"jerks," and so-called religious exercises of howling, 
jumping, barking and muttering, seems to have left a 
precipitate of its worst materials in Mormonism. They 
daily proclaimed to the older settlers that the Lord had 
given them the whole land of Missouri ; that bloody 


wars would extirpate all other sects from the country; 
that " it would be one gore of blood from the Mississippi 
to the border," and that the few who survived would t>e 
servants to the Saints, who would own all the property 
in the country. As their numbers increased, arrogance 
and spiritual pride took possession of them ; they pro 
claimed themselves " Kings and priests of the Most 
High God," and regarded all others as reprobates, des 
tined to a speedy destruction. In conversation with the 
Missourians, they never wearied of declaring that all 
the Churches established by the latter were "alike the 
creation of the devil," that they were under the curse 
of God and all their members doomed, castaway Gen 
tiles, worse than heathen, and unworthy of longer life. 
At the same time it does not appear that there were any 
more violations of law among them, than would be 
among the same number of very poor and ignorant peo 
ple anywhere ; but their general conduct was insufferable. 
In the first flush of their religious enthusiasm, they seem 
to have been governed by no ideas of moderation; they 
proclaimed through the country that it was useless folly 
for Gentiles to open farms, the Lord would never allow 
them to enjoy the fruits of their labor; they notified 
the workmen upon new buildings that they could never 
hope to be paid therefor, and generally proclaimed that 
in a very few months the Gentiles would have neither 
name nor place in Missouri. 

The simple-minded Missourians listened with a vague 
wonder to their first predictions, then smiled at their 
confident boastings of superior purity and holiness ; but 
soon their increasing numbers and arrogance awakened 


serious fears of the future. The Missourians, unaccus 
tomed to the language of hyperbole in prophecy, inter 
preted their predictions to mean that the Saints 
themselves would be the ministers of God s vengeance, 
and smite the unbelievers ; many were incensed against 
them for their language, and the public mind was 
greatly inflamed. In April, 1833, a number of Missou- 
rians came together in Independence, and decided that 
" means of defence ought to be taken," but determined 
upon nothing. The first June number of the Morning 
and Evening Star contained an intemperate article, 
headed, " Free People of Color," which excited the 
wrath of the old citizens against the Mormons, as 
" abolitionists," and was answered by a small pamphlet, 
headed, " Beware of False Prophets." As summer ad 
vanced, it appeared that the Mormons would be suffi 
ciently numerous to carry the county at the August 
election, and this roused all the fears of the old settlers 
afresh. Without apparent concert, an armed mob of 
three hundred assembled at Independence, tore down 
the newspaper office, tarred and feathered several of the 
Saints, whipped two of them a little and ordered all to 
leave the county. Oliver Cowdery was started to Kirt- 
land to consult with Joe Smith ; but, during his absence, 
the Saints agreed with the citizens to leave Jackson 
County. On the 8th of October, W. W. Phelps and 
Orson Hyde presented a memorial to Governor Dunklin, 
of Missouri, praying for redress, to which that officer 
made answer, that they "had a right to the protection 
of the law, if they chose to stay in Jackson." Embold 
ened by this, they refused to leave according to agree- 




nient, and the last of the month the mob again rose, 
burnt ten Mormons houses and committed a few other 
outrages. The Mormons armed in turn, and fired into 
a portion of the mob, killing two ; the whole body of 
citizens then arose against them, calling in aid from 
other counties, when the Mormons became panic- 
stricken and suddenly evacuated Jackson, crossing the 
Missouri River during the nights of November 4th and 
5th, into Clay County. 

This first expulsion of the Mormons is a point upon 
which there has been much discussion. That the people 
of Jackson County were not justified in law is plain ; 
but that they did exactly as the people of nine counties 
out of ten would have done, is equally plain. They 
seem to have been actuated much more by a fear of 


what the Mormons would do when they had the power, 
than by what they had done ; and that those fears were 
well founded, is abundantly shown by subsequent events* 
The near vicinity of the Mormons was intolerable, and 
the settlers were determined they should leave. The 
mob allowed the Saints to carry their printing material 
to Liberty, Clay Co., where they soon after began to 
publish the Missouri Enquirer. They spread themselves 
over Clay and into Van Buren County ; but were " per 
secuted " and annoyed in the latter so they made no 
great settlement. 

Meanwhile, Joe Smith and a much more intelligent 
class of Mormons were building up Kirtland. July 2d, 
1833, Smith completed his "inspired translation" of 
the Old Testament, and soon after a printing press 
was set up in Kirtland, and the Latter-Day Saints 
Messenger and Advocate established. " Old man Smith," 
the Prophet s father, was made Patriarch, and Bishop 
Partridge head of that branch of the Church. When 
the news of affairs in Jackson County reached him, 
Joseph "determined on war, and began at once to 
collect a small force." He soon had two hundred men, 
with whom he started westward ; " marched on Mis 
souri," according to Gentile history ; " hoped to redeem 
Zion," according to Mormon annals. About this time, 
Joseph had another revelation " as to business," which 
will be found in the Doctrine and Covenants with the 
rest, which contained, among other directions, this re 
markable passage : " Behold, it is said or written in 
my laws : Thou shalt not get in debt to thine enemies. 
But, behold, it is not said at any time the Lord should 


not take when He pleases, and pay as seemeth to Him 
good. Wherefore, as ye are on the Lord s business, 
whatsoever ye do," etc. We need not be surprised, 
therefore, to learn, as we do from Joseph s Autobiogra 
phy, that the people along the road were very hostile. 
Two days before starting, on May 3d, the Conference 
of Elders, in Kirtland, repudiated the name of Mor 
mons and adopted, for the first time, that of Latter- 
Day Saints ; and we notice in Joseph s account that 
along the road they constantly denied the name of 
Mormons. These being the "last days," they were 
Latter-day Saints, as well as to distinguish them from 
the Saints of former days ; the term Mormon, 011 the 
contrary, is supposed to be derived from the Greek 
Mop/xov [Mor?noii], signifying a "horrible fright" or "bug 

Joe and his " army " reached Missouri in the latter 
part of June, but while near the Mississippi, the cholera, 
then but just known in America, broke out in his camp, 
and in a few days twenty of the company died. Joe 
preached, prayed and prophesied in vain ; his followers 
were panic-stricken at the horrible and unknown dis 
ease. He first attempted to cure it " by laying on of 
hands," but desisted with the remark, that " when the 
Lord would destroy, it was vain for man to attempt to 
stay His hand." An armed force which had meanwhile 
gathered in Jackson County, in anticipation of his 
coming, was scattered by a violent storm, and in a few 
days, the cholera having spent its force, the company 
reached Liberty. There was nothing to be done, and 
in a few days Smith returned to Kirtland. A quorum 


of twelve apostles was then organized, among them, 
Brigham Young and Heber C. Kimball. The former 
received the " gift of tongues," and was sent on a mis 
sion to the Eastern States, and in May, 1835, all the 
twelve left Kirtland on general missions. The ensuing 
August, there was a General Assembly at Kirtland, in 
which the " Book of Doctrine and Covenants," and 
the " Lectures on Faith," by Sidney Rigdon, were 
adopted as the rule of faith. About this time, a learned 
Jew, formerly Professor of Oriental tongues in New 
York, was connected with the Mormons, and on the 
4th of January, 1836, a Hebrew professorship was 
established at Kirtland, Joseph Smith and several 
other leading Mormons entering upon the study. A 
Temple had been projected early in the settlement, 
which was completed and dedicated as the " House of 
the Lord," March 27th, 1836. This was their first 
temple, and its estimated cost, $40,000. Meanwhile, 
Governor Dunklin had attempted to have the Mormons 
again put in possession of their lands, in Jackson 
County, whereupon a committee of citizens from the 
latter met a committee of the Mormons, and offered the 
following : 
" Proposition of the people of Jackson County to the 

Mormons : 

" The undersigned committee, being fully authorized 
by the people of Jackson County, hereby propose to the 
Mormons, that they will buy all the land that the said 
Mormons own in the County of Jackson, and also all 
the improvements which the said Mormons had on any 
of the public lands in said County of Jackson, as they 


existed before the first disturbance between the people 
of Jackson and the Mormons, and for such as they have 
made since. They further propose, that the valuation 
of said land and improvements shall be ascertained by 
three disinterested arbitrators, to be chosen and agreed 
to by both parties. They further propose, that should 
the parties disagree in the choice of arbitrators, then 

is to choose them. They further propose, that 

twelve of the Mormons shall be permitted to go along 
with the arbitrators, to show them their land and im 
provements while valuing the same, and such other of 
the Mormons as the arbitrators shall wish to do so, to 
give them information ; and the people of Jackson County 
hereby guarantee their entire safety while doing t so. 
They further propose, that when the arbitrators report 
the value of the land and improvements, as aforesaid, 
the people of Jackson will pay the valuation, with one 
hundred per cent., added thereon, to the Mormons within 
thirty days thereafter. 

" They further propose, that the Mormons are not to 
make any effort, ever after, to settle either collectively 
or individually within the limits of Jackson County 
The Mormons are to enter into bonds to insure the con 
veyance of their land in Jackson County, according fa 
the above terms, when payment shall be made ; and the 
committee will enter into a like bond, with such security 
as may be deemed sufficient for the payment of the 
money, according to the above proposition, etc., etc." 

The Mormons have always maintained that their latei 
troubles were " solely on account of their religion," but 
that they were driven from Jackson County because 


" the mob desired to get possession of their lands." The 
above document certainly tends to disprove that charge. 
The foremost men in the county offered their personal 
security for the payment, but the Mormons rejected the 
proposition, on the ground that the Lord had said, " Zion 
should never be moved." The citizens of Jackson then 
became apprehensive that they would .be attacked from 
Clay County, and stirred up those in the latter county 
who considered they already had cause to complain of 
the Mormons ; so they " requested " the latter, in May, 
1836, to remove, which they did, this time settling in 
Carroll, Davis and Caldwell Counties. In the last named 
they founded the town of Far- West, and these counties 
being new and unoccupied, they prospered greatly for a 

In June, 1837, the first organized foreign mission was 
sent to England, consisting of H. C. Kimball, Orson 
Hyde and W. Richards. On the 30th of July following, 
they baptized the first converts there, in the river Rib- 
ble ? and the first confirmation of members was at Wal- 
kerford, August 4th. The first Conference of English 
Mormons was held in the cock-pit at Preston, the 25th 
of the following December. 

In the autumn of the same year, the " Kirtland Safety 
Society Bank," engineered by Smith and Rigdon, failed, 
under circumstances which created great scandal, and 
the Prophet had a revelation to " depart for the land of 
Zion," in Missouri. Smith and Rigdon left Kirtland 
" between two days," and their creditors pursued them 
for a hundred miles; but in the language of Joseph s 
Autobiography, " the Lord delivered them out of the 


hands of their persecutors." They reached Far- West in 
March, and found a fearful schism raging in the Church. 
The authority of Joseph was unequal to the task of re 
storing order, and Martin Harris, Oliver Cowdery and 
one L. E. Johnson were " cut off from the Church," 
while Orson Hyde, Thomas B. Marsh, W. W. Phelps 
and many others apostatized and brought many serious 
charges against Joe Smith and other leaders. It was 
said they were plotting treason against the State, that 
they were conspiring with the Indians, that they were 
engaged in counterfeiting and cattle-stealing, and were 
attempting to establish a community of goods as well as 
wives. The dissenters stirred up the neighboring people 
against the Saints, and for purposes of defence and re 
taliation the " Danite Band " was organized. They 
were first commanded by D. W. Patten, who took the 
name of " Captain Fearnot," and styled themselves 
" Daughters of Gideon." Afterwards they adopted their 
present name from the suggestion in GENESIS xlix. 17 : 
" Dan shall be a serpent by the way, an adder in the 
path, that biteth the horse heels, so that his rider shall 
fall backward." 

On the 4th of July, Sidney Rigdon preached what he 
called, " Sidney s last sermon ; " in which he threatened 
Gentiles and apostates with violence, and declared that 
the " Saints were above all law." Troubles soon after 
arose in Davis County, at elections; the Mormons all 
voting one way secured control of the County ; a gen 
eral fight occurred at the August election in the town of 
Gallatin, in which a number were seriously wounded on 
both sides. For two months there were occasional fights 


all over Davis County, and the Mormons at length de 
clared their "independence of all earthly rulers and 
magistrates." The Clerk of the county, a Mormon, 
was commanded by Joe Smith to issue no more writs 
against the Saints ; and the Justice of the Peace in Gal- 
latin was mobbed for entertaining suits against them. 
Scattering parties of militia began to assemble under 
arms in the neighboring counties, one of which, com 
manded by Captain Bogart, came to battle with a party 
of seventy Mormons and defeated them. Another party 
of Mormons attacked the militia near Kichmond, in Clay 
County, and killed two of them; the latter returned 
the fire, killing " Captain Fearnot." The Mormons then 
rose en masse and drove out all the officers of Davis 
County not of their faith, and burned and plundered 
the town of Gallatin, another small village, and much of 
the surrounding country, driving out the inhabitants. 

About this time, Brigham Young fled for his life to 
Quincy, Illinois. The troubles grew so extensive and 
complicated, that after many attempts to learn something 
definite from " the seat of war," Governor Lilburn W. 
Boggs called out fifteen thousand militia to restore order. 
The first detachment had a sort of battle with the Mor 
mons in Carroll County, after which, Governor Boggs 
issued an order that the Mormons " should be expelled 
from the State," adding, " even if it was necessary to ex 
terminate them." This is the celebrated " extermina 
ting order," and Governor Boggs the " Nero " of Mor 
mon historians. Another body of militia were fired 
upon by the Mormons at Haun s Mill, and in revenge 
exterminated the whole Mormon party, variously esti- 


mated at from sixteen to thirty. Only two escaped 
alive. The Mormon forces then began to retreat on 
every hand, and finally united in the town of Far- 
West, where they were surrounded by a large militia 
force under Generals Doniphan, Lucas and Clarke, and 
compelled to surrender at discretion. Most of their 
plunder was recaptured and delivered to the owners, and 
the great body of the Mormons were released under a 
promise to leave the State. 

Joe Smith, Hyrum Smith, and forty others were held 
for trial, and the militia officers forthwith organized a 
Court Martial and condemned several of them to be 
shot ! But General Doniphan, a sound lawyer and 
brave man, by a firm use of his authority and influence, 
prevented this foolishly illegal action. The prisoners 
were taken before the nearest Circuit Judge and put 
upon trial " for treason, murder, robbery, arson, larceny, 
and breach of the peace." They could not well have 
been tried for more ; but it seems by the evidence that 
many of them were guilty on most of the charges. 
They were committed to jail to await their final trial. 
The evidence in the case was printed by order of the 
Missouri Legislature, and presents a singular instance of 
how a few knaves may lead to their destruction a whole 
people, if sufficiently ignorant and fanatical. Compara 
tive peace was restored, but the history of civil commo 
tions shows that private revenge will seek such a period 
for its gratification, and in many neighborhoods fearful 
outrages were perpetrated upon individual Mormons by 
those who held a personal animosity against them. 
Their leaders had provoked a conflict for which the in- 


nocent suffered ; and the most quiet and unoffending 
portion of the Mormons were hunted out and rudely 
hurried from their homes at the most inclement season 
of the year, often without a chance to supply themselves 
or dispose of their property, and much suffering was the 
result. They now numbered over twelve thousand, and 
in the month of December this large body began the 
journey into Illinois, which the most of them reached 
in January, 1839. They spread over the western coun 
ties wherever they could find food or employment, par 
ticularly about the town of Quincy, in Adams county ; 
while many went as far east as Springfield, and others 
to St. Louis. They were everywhere received as suf 
ferers for their religion, and to some extent for their 
" free-state " sentiments ; for Illinois was just then be 
ginning to be agitated by the anti-slavery excitement, 
and the Mormons had been driven from a slave State. 
The Missouri border had never been well spoken of, nor 
was it till long afterwards ; and the Illinoisans rather 
seemed pleased with the opportunity of showing how 
superior they were to the " border ruffians." They re 
garded but little the Mormon statement that their reli 
gion was the only cause of trouble ; in fact the more in 
telligent knew that such could not be the case ; but they 
made haste to assume that the Mormons were "New 
York and New England Yankees, driven out as abolition 
ists," because the Missourians would not tolerate such 
sentiments. The peopl6 of Illinois, particularly of the 
western counties, knew little and cared less about dif 
ferences of speculative theology. That portion known 
as the " Military Tract" had but lately come into mar- 


ket, and was settled very rapidly; the religious training 
of the people had not kept pace with the advance, of 
their material interests, and a sermon to them was a 
sermon, whether preached by Arminian or Calvinist. 
orthodox Trinitarian or heterodox Unitarian. Perhaps 
they were not impious or skeptical ; religion was " at 
loose ends," but there was always a sentiment in its 
favor, only sectarianism was little understood, talked 
of, or cared for. In short the charity of these people 
was broad enough to cover all sects, and no man was 
persecuted or called in question for his religious belief. 
Under these circumstances they gave the Mormon peo 
ple protection, and welcomed them to their homes and 
tables ; they listened to the story of their wrongs with 
tears in their eyes ; they grasped the outcasts by the 

hand, and swore to stand bv them to the bitter end. 


Subscriptions were opened for them in many places; 
even the Indians, yet upon a near reservation, con 
tributed liberally, and several sections made kindly 
overtures, and pressingly invited the fugitives to settle 
among them. They had not yet caught sight of the 
cloven foot of the monster, or seen its miscreated front. 
The Missourians found, in the meantime, that they 
had "caught an elephant;" they had Joe Smith, his 
brother Hyrum, and forty others in jail on a multitude 
of charges ; but^many of the witnesses were gone, the 
trial would have been long and expensive, and it was 
probably the best policy to get them all out of the 
State in such a way that none would re-enter it, rather 
than condemn a few to the penitentiary. Accordingly, 
they were removed from place to place, loosely guarded, 


and on the 15th of April, Joseph and a few others 
escaped from their guards, who were either drunk or 
pretended to be. They hastily made their way to 
Quincy, followed by the small remnant of Mormons 
which had been left at Far- West. The remaining 
prisoners escaped and followed soon after, and in the 
language of Governor Boggs next message, " the young 
and growing State was happily rid of the fanatical 
sect ;" but in the language of Mormon poetry, 

" Missouri, 

Like a whirlwind in her fury, 

Drove the Saints and spilled their blood." 

Early in May, Joe Smith went to Commerce, in 
Hancock County, Illinois, by invitation of Dr. Isaac 
Galland, from whom he obtained a large tract of land 
near the head of the Des Moines Rapids, and shortly 
had another revelation for his people to settle there. 
To a proper understanding of their future history a 
brief sketch of the locality is necessary, which has 
been kindly furnished me by R. W. McKinney, Esq., 
present Postmaster at Nauvoo, who has resided in that 
vicinity since 1837 : 

" Hancock is a river county, washed on the west by 
the Mississippi for forty miles, taking into account the 
windings of the river. It was originally nearly all 
prairie, extending eastward in a direct line from 
Commerce twenty-five miles ; high and rolling, with a 
soil of inexhaustible fertility, and with most of the 
timber fringing the streams along the eastern border. 
The western part of the county, bordering on the Des 
Moines Rapids ; was always a favorite spot of beauty to 


the voyager on the Mississippi; the eye was here 
relieved by a most inviting prospect, the river was 
fringed by low wooded hills, from which gushed 
clear and sparkling brooks, passing with low musical 
murmurs over their rocky beds until they were finally 
lost in the < Father of Waters/ 

"But the early progress of Hancock County was 
anything but encouraging. While other sections of 
the State, with fewer advantages and a less healthy 
climate, rapidly augmented in wealth and population, 
this remained almost a wilderness, and this by reason 
of uncertain titles. 

" Hancock County, fair, healthful, and fertile, even 
as the Garden of the Lord, was one of those unfor 
tunate counties comprised in that afflicted section lying 
between the Illinois and Mississippi rivers, known as 
the Military Tract. It had been set apart by Act of 
Congress as bounty land for the soldiers of the War of 
1812 ; but few of them emigrated there, and nearly all 
of the patents, or 6 soldiers rights, as they were called, 
were thrown upon the market for sale. This furnished, 
for a score of years, a rich harvest for speculators and 
land jobbers, and the Military Tract became the 
happy hunting ground of sharks and sharpers of 
every description. A race of < bloated patent holders 
was thus created, whose broad tracts of wilderness land 
rivalled in extent the proudest dukedoms and baronies 
of the old world. It was against sound public policy 
to create such a land monopoly on the public domain ; 
but much greater evils grew out of this thing in the 
establishment of a conflict of titles, creating doubt and 


uncertainty, casting a shadow on every man s home 
stead who dared to erect it on the Tract, and driving 
away honest and enterprising settlers. A system arose 
in the East of forging patents by having absent or de 
ceased soldiers represented by others, and even by 
making duplicate copies entire without affidavit, or aid 
from the Land Office. 

66 In hundreds of instances there were three patents 
upon the same section, with facilities to make a thou 
sand, in fact, the entire Tract was eventually strewn 
with patents as thick as autumn leaves in an un 
broken forest. So great grew the evils of this system, 
and from the non-payment of taxes by non-residents, 
that the Legislature of Illinois went to work to devise 
a remedy. But the Legislators of new States are not 
generally very learned or capable statesmen, and the 
sharpers laughed at the idea of illiterate men thwarting 
the plans of men whose business it was to pierce the 
centre of the most explicit statute. The Legislature 
having tried sharp and pointed statutes on the fra 
ternity before, but without success, instead of tinkering 
and amending laws which John Doe, et al., 9 had 
laughed at, tried the virtue of a more sweeping enact 
ment. They enacted, in substance, that if any one 
held possession of land for seven years under color 
of title, such possession should be proof of title conclu 
sive against all the world, and that John Doe et al., 
with their pockets full of patents, should be forever 
barred and excluded. When John Doe and his com 
peers took in the force of this statute, not a smile lit 
up their solemn countenances. They were caught at 


last. But everybody was disappointed by the final 
operation of the statute. It only created or attracted 
another swarm of flies, more hungry, voracious, and 
pestilent than any that had preceded them ; the 
heavens and the earth were darkened by their myriads, 
and no friendly swallow appeared to drive them away/ 
" No sooner was the Delinquent List exposed for 
sale for non-payment of taxes, than a crowd appeared 
in and around the Court House, hungry and haggard, 
the like of which had surely not been seen since Pha 
raoh s lean kine emerged from the river Nile. Here 
were congregated broken down tradesmen, tinkers 
and vagabonds; rough, roaring, swearing fellows, and 
smooth-faced, hypocritical, canting knaves, jostled each 
other, and mingled and commingled in the halls of jus 
tice, each one striving with the few dollars he had con 
trived to save out of the general wreck by cheating his 
creditors, to retrieve his fortunes, and the result was a 
land-monopoly more corrupt than any that had pre 
ceded it. The law had been aimed at the non-resident 
jobber, to compel the payment of taxes ; but this un 
scrupulous crowd hurled it without mercy or discrimi 
nation at the heads of everybody ; if it carried away the 
inheritance of the widow and orphan, it was all the 
same to them. The wise Legislators stood aghast at 
the havoc they had innocently caused. They had 
called spirits from the vasty deep/ and contrary to all 
past experience they had come. These sharpers in 
spired general terror, and no wonder ; for had the in 
congruous and villanous crowd made a descent into 
hell, the devil would have fled howling to the most re- 


tired and gloomy corner of his domain, leaving them to 
contend and squabble among themselves for a tax 
title on his burning throne ! It was now an indis 
criminate fight on the Military Tract/ in which all 
sorts of persons, with all sorts of papers, documents, 
and titles, rushed to the conflict and couched their 
lances for the fray. In this hot contest the unsophisti 
cated settler, not conversant with these matters, had 
but little show. He could much more readily, with 
the slightest possible assistance, read his title clear to 
mansions in the skies than so establish his claim to a 
single foot of land covered by soldiers rights, forged 
patents, and tax titles on the whole Military Tract. 

" Fortunately, Hancock County was not altogether 
covered by these titles. The Act granted the soldier 
6 one hundred and sixty acres of land, no less, no more. 
Hence, those quarters called fractional, with less or 
more than one hundred and sixty acres, were subject to 
entry at the Land Office. These skirted the banks of 
the river and along the township lines of the whole 
county, and were rapidly taken up and settled before 
the arrival of the Mormons, at which time Hancock 
County contained a sparse population of several thou 
sand. Owing to greater security of title, most of them 
were settled along the Mississippi. The Des Moines 
Rapids excited much attention as a favorable site. 
Among the conspicuous men who visited this section 
was General Robert E. Lee, then a Lieutenant of Topo 
graphical Engineers, in the employ of the War Depart 
ment, for the purpose of making a survey of the rapids. 
His visit was in 1832, and he remained in the county 


the whole season, and was favorably known to all the 
old settlers, and much respected for his urbanity and 
gentlemanly bearing. It was then a favorite idea with 
some, that the Mississippi would in time be bridged at 
these Rapids, and that at no other place could a perma 
nent structure be erected. Hancock was organized as 
a county in 1829, and the Capital permanently estab 
lished a few years after at Carthage. 

" Meanwhile the courts traveled around the country 
after the manner of a public exhibition, holding terms 
at such points as met the views of the lawyers, or per 
haps where it was considered that law and justice were 
most needed. Among the lawyers who then practised 
in Hancock, were Malcolm McGregor, Archibald Wil 
liams and 0. H. Browning; the former, a brilliant 
genius, died young, and the latter two have since be 
come known to fame/ 

" First in history was a Post Office at the Rapids, 
called Venice, but there was no town of that name. 
In the year 1834, Commerce was laid out by Messrs. 
Alex. White and James B. Teas ; and shortly after a 
Mr. Hotchkiss, of New Haven, Conn., laid out Com 
merce City, just above the other town. All proved 
failures, but many still had confidence that this was 
t7ie place for a great city in the future. Among the 
owners of the bottom land was Dr. Isaac Galland, a 
man of some enterprise, who, immediately after the fail 
ure of Hotchkiss, opened a correspondence with Joe 
Smith, which resulted in an agreement that the latter 
should settle all his people near Commerce." 

To the foregoing graphic sketch it is only necessary 



to add, that the Prophet purchased a small tract and 
received gratis a larger one; a convenient revelation 
was vouchsafed for the Saints to gather to this stake of 
Zion ; they complied with rapidity, the plat of a great 
city was laid out and the Mormon star was once more 
in the ascendant. 








Rapid growth of Nauvoo Apparent prosperity " The vultures gather to 
the carcass" Crime, polygamy and politics Subserviency of the 
Politicians Nauvoo Charters A government within a government 
Joe Smith twice arrested Released by S. A. Douglas Second time 
by Municipal Court of Nauvoo McKinney s Account Petty thieving 
Gentiles driven out of Nauvoo " Whittling Deacons " " Danites" 
Anti-Mormons organize a Political Party Treachery of Davis and 
Owens Defeat of Anti-Mormons Campaign of 1843 Cyrus Walker, 
a great Criminal Lawyer "Revelation" on Voting The Prophet 
cheats the Lawyer Astounding perfidy of the Mormon Leaders Great 
increase of popular hatred Just anger against the Saints. 

A CITY rose as if by magic. Temporary in character 
as most of the buildings were, rude log houses or frame 
shanties, they served to shelter the rapidly gathering 
Saints. The first house on the new site was erected 
June llth, 1839, and in eighteen months thereafter 
there were two thousand dwellings, besides school 
houses and other public buildings. The new city was 
named NAUVOO, a word which has no signification in 
any known language, but in the " reformed Egyptian " 
of Joe Smith s imaginary history, is said to mean 
" The Beautiful." The site was indeed beautiful, but 
not the most feasible they could have selected. Instead 
of locating immediately at the head of the Eapids, 
where there was a convenient landing at all seasons, 
they chose a spot one mile below, only approachable 
by steamboats at high water. The temporary struo 


tures, in no long time, gave way to more permanent 
buildings; improvements multiplied on every hand, 
and Joe Smith had almost daily revelations directing 
how every work should be carried on. Here, it was 
foretold, was to be built a great city and temple, which 
should be the great gathering place of " Zion," and 
central rendezvous of the sect, " until such time as the 
Lord should open the way for their return to Zion, 
indeed" Jackson County, Missouri; and from here 
were to spread gigantic operations for the conversion of 
the world. One by one most of the Missouri apostates 
came creeping back into the Church ; Orson Hyde was 
restored to his place as apostle, and was able to explain 
his apparent defection. A missionary board was organ 
ized, and arrangements perfected for foreign missions 
embracing half the world. On the 29th of August, 
Orson Pratt and Parley P. Pratt set out on a mission 
to England, followed, September the 20th, by Elders 
Brigham Young, H. C. Kimball, George A. Smith, R. 
Hedlock, and T. Turley. Brigham had been appointed 
"President of the Twelve Apostles" in 1836, in place 
of Thomas B. Marsh, the apostate. They landed at 
Liverpool the 6th of April, 1840, and entered with zeal 
upon their work. Brigham assumed entire control of 
the enterprise, established various missions, baptized 
numerous converts, labored among the common people, 
preached, prayed, wrote and argued, lived hard, and 
travelled hundreds of miles on foot. May the 29th, 
1840, he established and issued the first number of the 
Latter-Day Saints Millennial Star, a periodical never 
suspended since. He organized a number of flourishing 


churches, and early in 1841 returned to Nauvoo, bring 
ing with him seven hundred and sixty-nine converts. 
Shortly before this time, Sidney Rigdon had addressed 
a memorial to the Legislature of the State of Pennsyl 
vania, praying for redress for the alleged losses of the 
Saints in Missouri, and calling upon the Congressional 
delegation from that State to move the General Govern 
ment in their behalf; and in October, 1839, Joseph 
Smith, Sidney Rigdon, Elias Higbee and Orrin Porter 
Rockwell set out for Washington, delegated to seek 
redress. They reached the Capital, November the 28th, 
and were admitted forthwith to an audience with Presi 
dent Van Buren, who heard them through > and, accord 
ing to their report, replied, " Gentlemen, your cause is 
just, but I can do nothing for you," adding, in under 
tone, " I should lose the vote of the State of Missouri." 
By his own account this last remark was, " The Gene 
ral Government cannot interfere in the domestic con 
cerns of Missouri." Nothing resulted from either 
application; but the attention of the country was 
attracted to Nauvoo. The rapid growth of the city 
excited the wonder of eastern people, and numerous 
curiosity hunters, correspondents and tourists hastened 
to visit it. They were treated with extreme complais 
ance, and in their reports the city lost nothing of its 
wonders. In October, 1840, a petition with many 
thousand names was forwarded for an Act of Incorpo 
ration for Nauvoo, and about the same time Joe Smith 
had another revelation that the Temple must be com 
menced at once, and ground was broken therefor Octo 
ber the 3d. The sudden and surprising prosperity of 


the sect attracted to them a number of ambitious and 
unscrupulous men, of whom four deserve particular 

Dr. Isaac Galland, was, in the early part of his life, 
a notorious horse-thief and counterfeiter, belonging to 
the " Massac Gang," as it was -called, on the Ohio 
river. He had then nominally reformed and moved 
into Hancock County, where he was in 1834, a candi 
date for the Legislature, but was defeated by a small 
majority. Soon after, he came into possession of a 
large tract of land, and induced Joe Smith to settle 
on a part with a view to enhancing the value of the 

Jacob Backinstos came to Hancock from Sangamon 
County, where he had got credit for a stock of goods, 
sold them, and defrauded his creditors ; after which he 
came over to the Mormons seeking his fortunes. His 
brother married a niece of Joe Smith, but Backinstos 
held off and took rank as a " managing Democrat," a 
sort of local politician. In this capacity he rendered 
some service to Judge Stephen A. Douglas, who, in 
turn, appointed him Clerk of the Hancock Circuit 
Court, this giving him great political power with the 
Mormons. By them he was at different times elected 
Sheriff and member of the Legislature, and continued a 
" Jack Mormon " to the end of the chapter. 

"General" James Arlington Bennett was an ad 
venturer of some talent, whose " range " was from 
Virginia to New York City, where he had an occa 
sional connection with the press. He early wrote to 
Joe Smith, proposing a religious and political alliance, 


adding, with refreshing candor, "You know Moham 
med had his right hand man." Joe replied in a tone 
of good humored sarcasm, adding, however, a sort of 
offer for Bennett to visit Nauvoo. 

The latter came soon after, and was baptized into the 
church, but not beiiag trusted to the extent he desired, 
soon departed. 

Dr. John C. Bennett was usually considered "one 
of the greatest scamps in the Western country." He 
was a man of real talent, some ambition, overbearing 
zeal, and all engrossing lust ; at the same time rather 
good looking, of smooth manners and easy address. 
Besides being a medical graduate and practising physi 
cian, he had acquired considerable military and engi 
neering skill, and had been Adjutant General of the 
State of Illinois. He now brought his talents and 
rascality to an alliance with Joe Smith ; for a year and 
a-half he was his intimate friend and trusted coun 
selor, when, as has often happened before, a beautiful 
woman set them at outs, and forever put an end to 
this touching friendship. These, and a score of others 
of like character, attached themselves to the rising sect 
and became Joe Smith s unscrupulous tools and allies. 
As for the common Saints, the pliable mass, though 
not nearly so foolish and fanatical as in Jackson County, 
they were quite as obsequious and worked steadily to 
build up the material interests of " Zion." 

The missions in England, Wales and Scotland, pros 
pered greatly, and many thousands of foreign Saints 
arrived in Nauvoo ; some remained, but the majority 
were scattered in settlements through the country, 


which the Prophet called "Stakes of Zion." They 
were not to rival the great city, but to be its feeders 
and tributaries. The swamp land adjacent to Nauvoo 
was drained, and the site rendered quite healthy ; the 
rapids were surveyed by J. C. Bennett, and a wing 
dam projected which was to make a commodious har 
bor in front of Nauvoo, and secure driving power suffi 
cient to turn all the factory wheels of a vast commercial 

These were the palmy days of Joe Smith ; this was 
the "Golden age" of Mormonism. The former was no 
more the wandering lad, with " peep-stone " and hazel 
rod, or the fugitive vagabond fleeing from Missouri 
rifles ; he was at the head of a now consolidated and 
rapidly augmenting sect; he was courted and flattered 
of politicians ; he was absolute ruler and main proprie 
tor of a city already populous, and destined to be rich 
and powerful. Bright visions of future aggrandizement 
and wealth floated through his brain, and he confidently 
looked forward to the time when he should be virtual 
dictator of a powerful State. But into the very noon 
of this halcyon day floated the faint rumbling of a dis 
tant earthquake, and afar upon the political and social 
horizon appeared a little cloud, "no bigger than a man s 
hand," which stayed not till it darkened the whole 
heaven of the future, and dashed this proud fabric to 
the ground. 

There now devolves upon me the narration of a 
change in public sentiment, swift and violent, almost 
without parallel in America ; and the reader will learn 
with surprise that in a brief period hatred took the place 


of friendship, and the same people who had received the 
Mormons with gladness were in hot haste to drive them 
out at the bayonet s point. The consideration of what 
caused this unprecedented change in public sentiment, 
and the intense hatred against the Mormons, presents 
some points of pertinent inquiry to politicians, and per 
haps some lessons to religious sects. The various 
causes which led to the Mormon troubles in Illinois, 
and their final expulsion, may be grouped under three 
heads : 

I. Criminal. II. Moral and Social. III. Political. 

I. In the first, it may well be said, the Mormons 
were destined to experience, in all its bitterness, the 
force of the homely adage in regard to giving a dog a 
bad name. The Mississippi Valley, from St. Louis to 
Galena, had been for years unusually infested with 
reckless and blood-stained men. The whole of south 
eastern Iowa and much of northeastern Missouri was 
in a comparatively wild and lawless state ; the " half- 
breed" tract of the former, from unsettled land titles 
and other causes, was appropriated as a refuge for and 
overrun by coiners, horse-thieves and robbers ; and the 
latter section, adjacent, was little if any better. The 
law was enforced with slackness, or the combination of 
rogues was too great for the ordinary machinery of jus 
tice; people had but little confidence in courts and 
juries, and, in more atrocious cases than common, sat 
isfied themselves with lynch law. 

The islands and groves farther up the river, near 
Davenport and Rock Island, were the hiding places of 
regularly organized bands of marauders; as also were 


the bayous and hollows west of Nauvoo. The writer 
was but a boy, but remembers well the thrills of horror 
that ran through the West at the murder of Miller and 
Liecy in Lee County, Iowa, of Col. Davenport at Rock 
Island, of an entire family of five persons in Adams 
County, and others too numerous to mention. Long 
afterwards, while the writer was travelling through 
Hancock, Pike, and Adams counties, no family thought 
of retiring at night without barring and double-locking 
every ingress ; and the names of John Long, Aaron 
Long, Granville Young, Robert Birch, the Hodges and 
Foxes, and dozens of other murderers, were as common 
as household words. 

To all that class the bad name given the Mormons 
in Missouri was so much capital, and it gathered around 
them, with the real vulture instinct. Hundreds of li 
centious villains, cut throats, and robbers made their way 
into Nauvoo, were baptized into the Church as a con 
venient cover for their crimes, and made that their 
secret headquarters. Property stolen far up the river, 
or east of the city, was run through and concealed in 
the western bayous, or hastily disposed of to innocent 
purchasers, so that the owners generally found it among 
the Mormons. The criminals were, in many instances, 
traced directly to Nauvoo ; but once within the charmed 
circle, all power to punish them was gone. 

Their secret confederates were ready to "swear " them 
clear, and too often the cry of " persecution " was suf 
ficient to mislead really honest Mormons, and cause 
them to defend one who, though really guilty, claimed 
the name of a Saint. Thus, while the Mormons could 


truly say there was less crime in Nauvoo than in most 
other cities of its size, it was still true that more crimi 
nals issued thence than from any other. 

How many of the real Mormons were concerned in 
these depredations it is impossible to say, probably very 
few ; but the fact remained that the criminals had most 
of them assumed the name of Mormons, that they were 
not thrust out and punished, and that the really inno 
cent portion obstinately refused to entertain any charge 
against the guilty, making the Church a complete cover 
and exemption for crime. An angry people could not 
be expected to go into their city and discriminate 
between them ; they struck blindly at the whole com 
munity, and thus while two-thirds of them were proba 
bly guiltless of crime, all suffered alike. In the outer 
settlements there was actual cause to complain of the 
foreign Saints ; thousands of them had " gathered " in 
great haste and extreme poverty ; they had nothing, and 
knew not how to rapidly accommodate themselves to 
their new pursuits, and at the same time very naturally 
refused to starve in a plentiful country. 

Their doctrines virtually invited them to take what 
they needed, and they did. 

As to the heads of the Church and their newly-ac 
quired allies, enough has been said to show that much 
of their conduct was on the very border-line of rascal 
ity, if it did not altogether step over it. 

II. Of the second class of causes, but little need be 
added to the history of polygamy, to be more fully re 
cited hereafter. Of the ten thousand intrigues of Smith, 
Bennett, Rigdon and other leaders, it is useless to speak, 


except to give their public results. While the estab 
lished denominations of Illinois were threatened, and 
her political stability endangered, her people were also 
shocked by the introduction of new, and to them, re 
volting vices. 

III. But the great cause of popular hostility, which 
finally led to the worst result, was the Mormon system 
of voting solidly, at the dictation of a few men 

They have always insisted on this principle, pretend 
ing that there would be no union in their Church, if the 
members were allowed to vote by individual will. Such 
a course must ever have one effect, to cause the Church 
to be regarded as a mere political entity, to be fought 
accordingly, and in time, arouse the fiercest opposition. 
It will hardly do to say no church has a right to so di 
rect its vote, and yet, if persisted in, it must be a con 
stant source of faction. Any such church would con 
stitute a dangerous power in a republican government ; 
and would soon have arrayed against it all those who 
were defeated by its vote, all who failed to get its sup 
port, all who disdained to stoop to the arts necessary to 
obtain it, and all those who clearly saw the evil tendency 
of such a system. In two years after he entered Illi 
nois, Joe Smith was absolute master of three thousand 
votes ; practically, he might just as well have been al 
lowed to cast so many himself. The offices of the 
county were in his gift ; no man could hope to reach 
Congress from that district, without his favor, and it was 
highly probable, that by the next election, his simple 
will would determine who should be Governor of the 


Such power in the hands of a corrupt man, used with 
a singular perfidy and in the interests of the worst 
clique ever assembled, would alone be almost sufficient 
to determine the people upon the expulsion of him and 
his fanatical sect. The particular situation, at the time, 
rendered this evil ten-fold more apparent. For the first 
tune since its organization, the Whig Party had a fair 
prospect of carrying the State and the nation ; but 
Illinois was doubtful. 

If Henry Clay should again be the nominee of the 
Whigs, Kentucky, Louisiana and other Southern States 
were considered certain for that party, and, in certain 
very probable contingencies, Illinois would turn the 
scale one way or the other. It was quite certain the 
Mormons would, by 1844, give the casting vote in Illi 
nois, and Joe Smith had perfect control of the Mormon 
vote. Such contingencies are liable to frequently occur 
in our politics, and henceforth set it down as an Amer 
ican axiom, that any church assuming to cast its vote 
as a unit, for its own interests, under the dictation of its 
spiritual head or heads, is the deadly foe of our liberties, 
and justly an object of distrust and dislike to every 
lover of his country. With this digression, I resume 
the thread of history. 

The "Harrison Campaign" of 1840 was in full tide, 
and the politicians gathered thick around Joe Smith. 
His people had been driven from a Democratic State 
by order of a Democratic Governor, and himself denied 
redress by a Democratic President ; while his " memo 
rial " against Missouri had been introduced and counte 
nanced in the Senate of the United States by Henry 


Clay, and in the House by John F. Stuart, both 

He felt friendly to them, but finding he had great 
power, determined to use it well and took good care 
not to commit himself. When wined, dined, toasted, 
and feasted by managers of both parties, he stated in 
general terms that he felt no particular interest in 
politics ; he had tried the Yankees of New York, and 
the "free soilers" of the Western Keserve, and had 
met with rough treatment ; he had gone thence to the 
pro-slavery Missourians, and had met with rougher treat- 
rnent ; the Democrats had robbed him, and the Whigs 
refused him redress, and he had little confidence in either. 

But there were certain things absolutely necessary 
for his city to receive from the Legislature, to protect 
him and his people from mobs, and the party that 
could most certainly give him these would obtain his 
support. This cheerful frankness was met by renewed 
protestations of respect and good-will, and both parties 
were eager to grant him favors. 

After secret consultation with his counselors at 
Nauvoo, Joe had a revelation to support the Whig 
ticket, which the Mormons did unanimously in 1840 
and 41. In the Legislature of 40- 41, it became an 
object with the Democrats to conciliate them, and at 
that session Dr. J. C. Bennett came with a charter, 
mainly drawn up by himself and Joe Smith, for the 
incorporation of Nauvoo. The charter was referred to 
the Judiciary Committee who reported favorably, the 
ayes and noes were called in neither house, and the 
charter passed without a dissenting vote. 


The annals of ancient and modern legislation might 
be searched in vain for a parallel to that Nauvoo 
Charter. It gave all the powers ever granted to in 
corporated cities, and gave them power to pass all laws 
" not repugnant to the Constitution of the United States, 
or of this State" which was afterwards interpreted to 
mean that they might pass local ordinances contrary to 
the laws of the State. It provided for a Mayor, four 
Aldermen, and nine Councillors, and established a 
Mayor s Court with exclusive jurisdiction of all cases 
arising under the city ordinances. 

It also established a Municipal Court, to be com 
posed of the Mayor as Chief Justice, and four Alder 
men as associates, and gave this court the power to 
issue writs of Habeas Corpus. And this not only to 
try the sufficiency of writs issuing from any other court, 
which is a power rarely granted a Municipal Court, 
but to go beyond that and try the original cause of 
action. Hitherto none but Judges of the Supreme and 
Circuit Courts could issue such writs, and there were 
just nine persons in the State empowered to do so; 
but this Act at one fell swoop conferred it upon the 
five judges of this Municipal Court, and those the per 
sons above all others most liable to abuse it. It also 
incorporated the militia of Nauvoo into a body to be 
called the " Nauvoo Legion," independent of all other 
militia officers in the State, except the Governor as 
Comrnander-in-Chief. It established a court-martial for 
this Legion composed of the commissioned officers, en 
tirely independent of all other officers, and in the 
regulations not governed ~by the laws of the State ! 


This Legion was to be at the disposal of the Mayor 
in executing the ordinances of the city. Another 
charter incorporated a great tavern to be known as the 
Nauvoo House. " Thus/ says Governor Ford, " it was 
proposed to re-establish for the Mormons a government 
within a government ; a legislature with power to pass 
ordinances at war with the laws of the State ; courts 
to execute them with but little dependence upon the 
constitutional judiciary, and a military force at their 
own command, to be governed by its own laws and 
ordinances, and subject to no State authority but that 
of the Governor. 

" The powers conferred were expressed in language 
at once ambiguous and undefined ; as if on purpose to 
allow of misconstruction. The great law of the sep 
aration of the powers of government was wholly dis 
regarded. The Mayor was at once the executive power, 
the judiciary, and part of the legislature. The Com 
mon Council, in passing ordinances, were restrained 
only by the Constitution. One would have thought 
that these charters stood a poor chance of passing the 
Legislature of a republican people jealous of their liber 
ties. Nevertheless they did pass unanimously through 
both houses. Messrs. Little and Douglas managed with 
great dexterity with their respective parties. Each 
party was afraid to object to them, for fear of losing 
the Mormon vote, and each believed that it had secured 
their favor. A city government, under the charter, was 
organized in 1841, and Joe Smith was elected Mayor. 

" In this capacity he presided in the Common Council, 
and assisted in making the laws for the government of 


the city ; and as Mayor, also, he was to see these laws 
put into force. He was ex-qfficio judge of the Mayor s 
Court, and chief justice of the Municipal Court, and in 
these capacities he was to interpret the laws which he 
had assisted to make. The Nauvoo Legion was also 
organized, with a great multitude of high officers. It 
was divided into divisions, brigades, cohorts, regiments, 
battalions and companies. Each division, brigade and 
cohort had its General, and over the whole, as Com- 
mander-in-Chief, Joe Smith was appointed Lieutenant- 
General. These offices, and particularly the last, were 
created by an ordinance of the Court-martial composed 
of the commissioned officers of the Legion. 

" The Common Council passed many ordinances for 
the punishment of crime. The punishments were gen 
erally different from, and vastly more severe than the 
punishments provided by the laws of the State." 

Elder Howard Cor ay, who was at that time a confi 
dential clerk of Joe Smith s, states that he was present 
at the time Smith and Bennett were constructing this 
Charter; that Bennett objected to certain clauses as 
being " too strong," to which Smith replied, " We must 
have that power in our courts, for this work will gather 
of all mankind ; the Turk, with his ten wives., will come 
to Nauvoo, and we must have laws to protect him with 
these wives." Elder Coray, now a devoted Brighamite, 
at Salt Lake, advanced this to disprove the statement 
of Joe Smith s sons that their father did not establish 
polygamy. It merely proves, as will hereafter be 
shown, that he was in that practice long before the 
date of his pretended revelation. 


It was, indeed, necessary for him to fence out the 
Missourians with strong ordinances, for his old enemies 
in that State were busy in schemes against him. In 
the fall of 1841, the Governor sent a requisition to 
Illinois for Smith s arrest, and after some evasion it was 
executed. A writ of Habeas Corpus was sued out be 
fore Judge S. A. Douglas, whose circuit embraced Han 
cock. On technical grounds Douglas released- Smith, 
which the latter considered a great favor from the 
Democrats. Again, in 1842, Smith was arrested on a 
requisition, and this time forcibly rescued by his follow 
ers. The election of 1842 was approaching; the 
Whigs nominated Joseph Duncan for Governor, and the 
Democrats Thos. L. Ford. After an immense amount 
of wire pulling, Joe Smith issued a proclamatiou to his 
people there seems to have been no revelation this 
time pronouncing "Judge Douglas a master-spirit," 
and commanding the people to vote* the Democratic 
ticket. Ford was elected, and assumed the duties of 
Governor, late in 1842. He has embodied the official 
acts of his Administration in his " History of Illinois," 
and throughout this part of my narrative the quotations 
are from that work, unless otherwise credited. 

The Democrats would almost certainly have carried 
the State without the Mormons; but in 1843, there 
was to be an election for Congressman in their district, 
and therein they were absolute. But the great reaction 
had set in, and the Mormons were fast becoming odious 
to the body of the people. After the political account, 
the reader will be interested in the an ti- Mormon ac 
count, and I quote from the narrative of E. W. 


McKinney, Esq., before alluded to, a witness of the 
facts : 

" The preaching of Mormonism was a greater success 
than could have been reasonably expected in so en 
lightened an age, and one to a great extent inclined to 
skepticism. A new spirit of emigration was excited, 
and every convert was urged to hasten to where he 
could gaze upon the divine face of the Prophet, and 
where the wealth of the Gentile world would flow in 
upon them. Two years had not elapsed since the first 
fugitives arrived at Nauvoo before the Mormons out 
numbered the old settlers. The latter began to think 
they had enough for the present. None of the prom 
ised advantages had accrued from the settlement of the 
Mormons among them. They had created but little 
trade or commerce, had made no improvement of the 
rapids, had established no manufactories, erected no 
school-houses, organized no institutions for instruction, 
and made no provision for the support of the poor. 
They were pressed into Joe s service, and employed 
upon the erection of a temple of an order of architecture 
such as the world had never seen. They now assumed 
a haughty bearing and arrogant speech towards their 
old friends and protectors, and the latter were constantly 
sneered at as blind and erring Gentiles, whose steps 
were tending downward to the deepest pit of hell. The 
Saints were to possess the earth and the Gentiles be 
crushed beneath their footsteps. This doctrine had a 
fearful effect upon the common Mormon; he looked 
upon the old settler much as the followers of Moses and 
Joshua looked upon the Canaanites. If the earth was 


to be delivered to the Saints with the fullness thereof, 
why not take possession at once, or so much of it as to 
supply present wants ? The old settlers began to feel 
that the inflated declarations of the Prophet meant 
something more than idle gasconade. Their cattle, 
which had pastured safely on the broad prairies, now 
failed to come up ; their poultry took wings and flew 
away to some undiscovered country, never to return, 
and their barns and granaries were depleted with un 
heard of rapidity. If one visited Nauvoo in search of 
estrays, if by accident he peeped into the shambles or 
slaughter-pens of the Saints, he was rudely rebuffed as 
a disturber of the peace of Zion. He was fortunate if 
he escaped arrest, and did not often escape annoyance. 
The Mormons prided themselves on their genius in de 
vising modes of annoyance by which a suspicious stran 
ger could be driven away without resort to violence ; 
the Prophet had systemized annoyance, and reduced it 
to a science. He had organized clubs of loafers and 
boys into what he called whittling deacons. 

" They were composed of the lowest grade of vaga 
bonds in Nauvoo, and were stationed around the streets 
and corners, armed with pieces ot pine board and 
sharp dirk-knives, always ready for instant service. If 
a stranger were seen on the streets, the first thing was 
to find out if he were obnoxious. An experienced spy 
was placed upon his track, who followed him until it 
was ascertained what the stranger was. If he appeared 
hostile to the Saints, if he spoke disparagingly of the 
Prophet or his religion, ( the whittling deacons were 
put at his heels. 


"They would surround him with pine sticks and 
dirk-knives, and whistling gravely, keep up a continual 
whittling, the shavings flying into the face and over the 
person of the obnoxious one, and the sharp knives being 
flourished dangerously close to his ears. If timid and 
nervous he retreated soon ; but if he faced the music, 
the whittling was more energetic, the whistling louder 
and shriller, the knives approached closer and flashed 
more brightly, till his retreat was a necessity. Strange 
that a person who claimed to be commissioned as a 
Prophet, could have authorized such low and disgrace 
ful work ; but we have the authority of the Saints that 
it was Joe Smith s own invention, and was considered 
a brilliant stroke of genius. If the suspected person 
was contumacious and stood out against the whittling 
deacons, his case was referred to a higher tribunal, the 
6 Danite Band/ The whittling deacons were com 
posed of Saintly loafers, this of Saintly ruffians. Many 
of them were outlaws, criminals who had fled from jus 
tice and who sought and received protection from Joe. 
No man was too deeply stained with crime to gain that 
protection, if the Prophet could use him. If a fugitive 
from justice proved a worthless and inefficient tool, he 
was given up with a great flourish of trumpets, and 
with glowing comments by the newspaper press as to 
what an orderly and law abiding people the Mormons 

" Who ever heard of Joe Smith giving up Porter 
Rockwell, or that he ever lost any respect on account 
of his crimes. This lawless banditti went after the 
contumacious stranger with bowie-knives and Colt s re- 


volvers. Their business was to terrify and insult him, 
to salute his ears with strange oaths and blasphemies, 
to menace him with threats of instant death and to 
flourish their deadly weapons in his face. But were 
there no police to appeal to ? These assailants were 
themselves the police, powerful only for evil. If the 
suspected was still fool-hardy enough to refuse to leave, 
his case was reported to a higher tribunal, who gave 
secret and mysterious warnings, written in mystic char 
acters and stained with blood, which were dropped in 
the way of the suspected, were found in his bed-room, 
under his pillow or about his person. Dire was his fate 
if he disregarded this last solemn admonition. He 
would never again be heard from ; the mission of the 
t destroying angel was sudden, sure and complete. 

" The Prophet s ambition and love of display had been 
sated by a shower of civic honors thrust upon him by 
the Corporation Act. " His love of power and desire 
for vengeance were gratified by a review of his solid 
squares of infantry, his squadrons of cavalry and 
parks of artillery. He was the only man of his age 
beneath the rank of Grand Duke, that could summon 
a well-equipped army from his retainers. But he 
had other vices to gratify besides ambition and love of 

" How to gratify his licentious desires became with 
him a great study. To overcome the virtue of his fe 
male followers and establish prostitution as a religious 
rite, he had a revelation. None of his compeers or suc 
cessors could compete with him in revelations. His son 
Joe, who claims to be his legitimate successor, has been 


so reticent as to receive from the Brighamites, and de 
serve, the title of the dumb Prophet/ The elder Joe, 
had revelations on all sorts of subjects ; building houses, 
plowing lands and selling merchandise, and now author 
izing hun to seduce and degrade his female devotees. 
His elders were now instructed that the time had arrived 
when seven women should take hold of one man ; that 
no woman could be saved unless united to a husband in 
a spiritual sense ; that such union was enjoined by di 
vine authority, and to resist it was to resist the ordinance 
of God. Here was the dilemma for the female Saint: 
she must succumb to a libidinous priest, or be sent to 
perdition; she must accept prostitution or damnation, 
and there was no escape. It was at first claimed that 
this connection was purely spiritual and platonic ; but 
the admissions of incautious Saints, and the testimony 
of many women, soon left no doubt in any intelligent 
mind that the system was one of complete concubinage. 

" The two young Smiths, who lately made a raid into 
Utah, denying that their father practiced polygamy, 
ought to know, as every intelligent person does know, 
that the will of Joe Smith was absolute in Nauvoo, and 
all the councils, sanhedrims and priests in the city could 
never have established polygamy there, if he had but 
shook his little finger in opposition. 

" The Mormons were not only introducing a new 
religion, but striving to introduce a new civilization ; 
or rather laboring to abolish all civilization, and to re 
establish a barbarism old as the infancy of the world. 
If an old patriarch, who lived immediately after the 
earth emerged from the deluge, through ignorance 


married a sister or an aunt, the Mormon assumed the 
same right. If another patriarch armed his numerous 
servants, and invaded the tented city of a rival, carried 
his wives and children into captivity, and drove away 
his sheep, cattle and oxen, it was a divine precedent 
which the Saint would do well to follow. As in those 
remote ages the whole people labored and toiled for 
the aggrandizement of their chieftain in erecting castles 
for his protection, or guarding the flocks and herds in 
which his wealth consisted, so the Mormon chieftain 
employed his retainers .in the erection of a gorgeous 
temple. The anti-Mormons saw that the Mormons 
were industrious, and saw too that much of their labor 
was misdirected, and that they derived no benefit from 
it, more than the enslaved multitudes who toiled on 
the Egyptian pyramids in the traditional ages of the 
world. They saw that Hancock County, under the 
control of the dominant sect, was receding to the re 
motest and most barbarous ages of the world. They 
farther understood that the multitudes who lived in 
shanties, and worked without pay, were not likely to 
starve as long as they were taught that the earth and 
all things therein- belonged to the Saints of the Lord. 
It was thought high time to impose some barrier to 
the further increase of the dominant Mormons. No one 
then thought of violence or war ; there had been no 
lawless demonstrations prior to the Mormons arrival, 
and in justice to the old settlers it should be noted 
there has been none since their expulsion. Every one 
considered that most of the evils resulted from the 
power vested in the Prophet by the Mormon Charter, 


and the creation of the Legion. It was, therefore, 
thought best to constitute a new political organization, 
uniting all anti-Mormons without regard to previous 
predilections, having for its object united opposition to 
the Mormons, and repeal of all the Mormon Charters 
and disbanding of the Nauvoo Legion. A general 
mass-meeting was called, and was fully attended. 
Whigs and Democrats fraternized and rivalled each 
other in their zeal to rid the country of the growing 
incubus. But when it came to county nominations, 
unfortunately there were more aspirants than offices. 
Those who received nominations were content; but 
the rejected ones affected to consider themselves badly 
abused men. Among them were two who went right 
over with their influence to Joe Smith. The first was 
a Reverend Thomas Owens, a renegade Baptist preacher, 
and the other Jacob C. Davis, a lawyer, too indolent 
to labor or study, but the political oracle of the red- 
eyed loafers who congregated together in the low 
groggeries of the town where he lived. This brace 
of worthies wended their way to Nauvoo, and in 
formed the Mormon autocrat of the combination 
against him; but tendered him their sympathy and 
support, offering to run as the Mormon candidates for 
the Legislature. The Prophet chose Jacob Davis as 
his candidate for the State Senate, and Bill Smith, his 
own brother, and Thomas Owens, his candidates for the 
Lower House. The rest of the county ticket was filled 
out by the Prophet from his own Mormon tools. 

"The issue was for the first time clearly drawn, the 
election in due time came off, and the Prophet was 





triumphant. He had elected everything on the county 
ticket. By his combinations he had completely de 
feated the anti-Mormon move, and had for county- 
officers his trusty friends, devoted to his interests. If 
his enemies chose to appeal from the decision of the 
polls, he was ready for them. His battalions were 
models of discipline, devoted to his service, numbered 
by thousands, and armed with an efficiency which dis 
tinguished no other troops in America. The walls of 
the Temple were progressing rapidly. The anti-Mor 
mons looked upon the structure with many doubts and 
apprehensions. Everything the Mormons did was veiled 


in mystery. This structure resembled no church, its 
walls of massive limestone were impervious to the shot 
of the heaviest cannon. It had two tiers of circular 
windows which looked to the wondering Gentiles very 
much as if they were port-holes for the manning of 
cannon. The building was near the center of a square 
of four acres, to be surrounded by a massive wall ten 
feet in height and six in thickness. This, the Mor 
mons said, was for a promenade; the anti-Mormons 
would have told you, it could have been constructed for 
no other purpose than a fortification, and one which 
would have stood a heavy bombardment without being 

"Another charter provided for the erection of a large 
hotel, and it was denominated the Lord s boarding 
house/ to which a revelation is added that Joe Smith 
and his heirs were to have a suite of rooms dedicated 
to their use forever/ 

" It was the boast of Joe that this would be the 
great Mission House of the world; that in its parlor 
he would entertain princes, kings and emperors from 
Europe and Asia, who would leave their distant homes 
to receive information and instruction from him in the 
new faith. So completely had Joe s head been turned 
and so wild and visionary had he become, that it was 
not without reason that his wife, only a few years after 
his death, published a statement in the Quincy Whig 
that she had no belief in his prophetic character, and 
considered his pretended revelations the emanations of 
a diseased mind. It may be some gratification to know 
that the apostolic dignitaries did not always agree 


among themselves, after the establishment of spiritual 
wifery, in the distribution of female prizes. They had 
no disputes in polemic theology. The oracle Joe settled 
everything of that sort by immediate revelation. But 
when the face of a handsome female Saint was seen 
peering from under the curtains of an immigrant wagon, 
it was like throwing the apple of discord among the 
lascivious priests of the new religion ; and however 
submissive the sacred college may have been to the 
settlement of a theological tenet, when the same oracle 
pronounced a verdict in regard to a female prize against 
one of them, his curses were loud and deep. In fact, 
this system was soon the means of destroying the Mor 
mon unity right at home; the entering wedge that 
divided Nauvoo into factions, and gave the anti-Mor 
mons a clue to success. 

" The name of Cyrus Walker had long been con 
spicuous in western Illinois. He was an eminent 
lawyer, who had acquired a great reputation in Ken 
tucky, where he came into competition with Ben 
Hardin, John Rowan and the Wickliffs. He was past 
middle life, and had never been a politician; but in 
1843 the Whigs needed a popular candidate, in the 
Hancock district, for Congress. There was no hope of 
his election unless Joe Smith and his followers could 
be manipulated, and thus balance the Democratic ma 
jority. Mr. Walker resided in the adjoining county of 
MeDonough, and was thought to be just the man, as 
in a long criminal practice his mind had become a per 
fect storehouse of expedients, artifices and dodges. He 
was nominated, and accepted in the full belief that he 


was a match for the tricky Prophet. His chances were 
rather doubtful, as the Whigs had been most active in 
the anti- Mormon Convention. Owen and Davis, Demo 
crats, had deserted to the Mormon camp ; but no Whig 
had been guilty of such defection. But it was confi 
dently anticipated Walker could out-general the 
common-place Mr. Hoge, the Democratic candidate. 
Meanwhile the peace of the Mormon Zion was dis 
turbed. Men who had toiled without remuneration 
began to murmur, and the families of those who went 
forth to preach the gospel, without 6 purse or scrip/ 
often suffered greatly in their absence. Dr. John C. 
Bennett, to whose instructions the Legion owed its ad 
mirable drill and discipline, had not risen to that high 
rank in the Hierarchy which he fancied his talents en 
titled him to, and had been slighted in the distribution 
of female prizes. He had seceded, and was a conspira 
tor against the Prophet, denouncing, him with a bitter 
ness born of imaginary slight and wrong. He traveled 
through the West, secured large crowds wherever he 
lectured, of all who were attracted by the disgusting 
details of Mormon depravity. But at the same time 
the Prophet was engaged in exposing and denouncing 
him ; while he proved Joe to be immoral and licentious, 
the latter proved the same thing against him, and the 
community soon became satisfied that it was a quarrel 
between two great rascals, and they were not called upon 
to decide which was the greater. Joe had apparently 
forgotten all about the indictment still pending against 
him in Missouri ; but Bennett had not, and by his in 
trigues, a fresh requisition was issued, and Joe was 


arrested in Henderson County, at one of the Stakes of 
Zion, some twenty-five miles from Nauvoo. But the 
officers soon found themselves surrounded by a detach 
ment of the Nauvoo Legion, and the whole party was 
conducted in triumph to that city. The Municipal 
Court met to try the legality of the requisition and the 
regularity of the proceedings, and Cyrus Walker was 
called upon for his opinion. Their judgment was in no 
wise controlled by his arguments ; but his approval of 
such jurisdiction was of great value to Joe Smith. He 
was profuse in his thanks to Walker, and promised ear 
nestly to support him. Walker fully believed that this 
settled every Mormon vote in his favor, was satisfied 
he need do nothing more, and returned home to study 
up the political questions of the day, and fit himself for 
his future duties in Congress. 

" But there was some ( wire-pulling going on of 
which he little dreamed; there was a great deal of 
running to and fro of managing Democrats between 
Nauvoo and Springfield,, and suddenly the Mormons 
were called in a mass meeting, the second day before 
the election, when Hyrum Smith arose and announced 
that he had just received a revelation from heaven that 
the Mormons were to vote for the Democrat, Mr. Hoge ! 
They were still in doubt till the Prophet arrived next 
day, when the whole voting population of Nauvoo again 
assembled to hear from him. He stated that he was 
not prepared to advise them with regard to election 
matters ; he could only inform them that he had pledged 
his own vote to Mr. Walker, and would keep his pledge ; 
but he had received no communication from the Lord 


on the subject ; he had not seen the Lord, nor had he 
gone to seek the Lord about the matter. He was not 
disposed to call upon the Lord at the request or* desire 
of any Gentile politician ; if the Lord really wanted to 
see him, there was nothing to prevent His calling upon 
him. So far as he was concerned, the people might 
vote for Walker, Hoge, or the devil ; it was all the 
same to him. But/ continued the Prophet, I am in 
formed my brother Hyrum has seen the Lord, and has 
something to say to you. I have known brother Hyrum 
ever since he was a boy, and never knew him to lie. 
When the Lord speaks let all the earth keep silent. 
Thereupon brother Hyrum took the stand and boldly 
announced that he had seen the Lord, who had instructed 
him to support Mr. Hoge, and brethren, you are all 
commanded to vote for Mr. Hoge, for thus saith the 
Lord God Almighty/ This short address of the Pa 
triarch was no doubt the most powerful and convincing 
6 stump speech ever delivered. When the count was 
rendered next day, Mr. Cyrus Walker had one vote, 
whilst Hoge s counted by thousands. It is difficult to 
realize that in this enlightened age and most enlightened 
nation, any assembly could be found, so deplorably igno 
rant as to be controlled by two such blackguard impos 
tors, yet so it was ; they listened to these blasphemous 
deceivers as though God spoke from the heavens. Mr. 
Walker did not go to Congress. He withdrew forever 
from politics, devoted himself to his profession and grew 
rich. He heard the result of the Nauvoo election with 
deep mortification. He had been a match for the 
shrewdest and most cultivated members of his own pro- 


fession ; he was now tricked and sold by a miserable 
impostor, beneath the notice of any respectable man. 
Mr. Walker retired to his bed on that night the most 
bitter, uncompromising and persevering anti-Mormon 
in the State of Illinois." 

To this interesting recital it is only necessary to 
add a few facts from the official record. Early in May, 
1843, Governor Lilburn W. Boggs, of Missouri, while 
sitting in the evening near an open window, was shot 
from without and seriously wounded in the head. By 
the testimony of various apostates it appears, that Joe 
Smith had frequently foretold the " sudden vengeance 
of God on the Nero of Missouri," who had used the 
State troops to expel the Mormons ; and that about this 
time, Orrin Porter Rockwell was for some time absent 
from Nauvoo, and when Joe Smith was asked his where 
abouts, he replied with a laugh, " 0, just gone to fulfil 
prophecy." On these and other statements an indict 
ment was found in Missouri against Smith and Rock 
well, and soon after the officers of that State secured 
another requisition from Governor Ford for Joe Smith. 
He was arrested and released by his own Municipal 
Court, with the advice of Mr. Walker, as already re 
lated. The agents of Missouri went forthwith to make 
application to Governor Ford, for a body of militia to 
enforce the writ, and Walker was sent by the Mormons 
as their attorney to resist the application. Governor 
Ford declined either to act at once, or to say how he 
would finally act ; as he afterwards stated, because he 
was not clear as to his duty, and knew the politicians 
only wanted his decision to carry back to the Mormons. 


In this state of uncertainty the Mormon leaders sent 
"Jake" Backinstos to manoeuvre at Springfield, and 
ascertain if possible what the Governor would finally 
do. Governor Ford was absent at St. Louis, and a 
prominent Democrat, in his interest at Springfield, gave 
the most solemn assurances in the Governor s name, 
that the militia would not be sent against the Mormons, 
if they voted the Democratic ticket. Neither Governor 
Ford nor any other responsible official knew aught of 
this promise in his name, till after the Mormons left the 
State. With this promise, Backinstos reached Nauvoo 
but two days before the election, with what result has 
already been seen. Such damning political treachery 
was not without due punishment. The Whigs now 
saw with amazement, that the most solemn promises 
meant nothing from Joe Smith; the Democrats gen 
erally felt that a sect of such political power, for sale 
every day and every hour in the day, and uncertain till 
the last hour of election, was no safe ally, and both 
parties awaked to the startling fact, that Joe Smith 
was actual dictator of their politics and chose their 
rulers. The anti-Mormon excitement was accelerated 
ten-fold, and ceased not till their final and complete ex 
pulsion from the State. And disastrous as was that 
expulsion, terrible as were the sufferings of individual 
Mormons, it is scarcely too much to say they richly de 
served it, for this one act of perfidy and folly. 




Ford s account Double treachery in the Quincy district New and start 
ling developments in Nauvoo Tyranny of Joe Smith Revolt of a por 
tion of his followers The "Expositor" It is declared "a nuisance" 
and "abated" Flight of apostates Warrants issued for Smith and 
other Mormons Constables driven out of Nauvoo Militia called for 
Nauvoo fortified Mormon war imminent Governor Ford takes the 
field in person Flight of the Prophet and Patriarch to Iowa Their re 
turn and arrest The Governor pledged for their safety In his absence 
the jail is attacked Death of the Smiths Character of the Prophet 

As from this point nearly everything connected with 
the Illinois history of the Mormons is official and politi 
cal, I here take up Governor Ford s account : 

" It appears that the Mormons had been directed by 
their leaders to vote the Whig ticket in the Quincy, as 
well as the Hancock district. In the Quincy district, 
Judge Douglas was the Democratic candidate, and 0. 
H. Browning the candidate of the Whigs. The lead 
ing Mormons at Nauvoo having never determined in 
favor of the Democrats until a day or two before the 
election, there was not sufficient time, or it was neg 
lected, to send orders from Nauvoo into the Quincy 
district, to effect a change there. The Mormons in that 
district voted for Browning. Douglas and his friends, 
being afraid that I might be in his way for the United 
States Senate in 1846, seized hold of this circumstance 


to affect my party standing, and thereby gave counte 
nance to the clamor of the Whigs, secretly whispering 
it about that I had not only influenced the Mormons to 
vote for Hoge, but for Browning also. This decided 
many of the Democrats in favor of the expulsion of the 

" No further demand for the arrest of Joe Smith 
having been made by Missouri, he became emboldened 
by success. The Mormons became more arrogant and 
overbearing. In the winter of 1843-4, the Common 
Council passed some further ordinances to protect their 
leaders from arrest, on demand from Missouri. They 
enacted that no writ issued from any other place than 
Nauvoo, for the arrest of any person in it, should be 
executed in the city, without an approval endorsed 
thereon by the Mayor ; that if any public officer, by 
virtue of any foreign writ, should attempt to make any 
arrest in the city, without such approval of his process, 
he should be subject to imprisonment for life, and that 
the Governor of the State should not have the power 
of pardoning the offender without the consent of the 
Mayor. When these ordinances were published, they 
created general astonishment. Many people began to 
believe in good earnest that the Mormons were about 
to set up a separate government for themselves in defi 
ance of the laws of the State. Owners of property 
stolen in other counties made pursuit into Nauvoo, and 
were fined by the Mormon courts for daring to seek 
their property in the holy city. To one such I granted 
a pardon. Several of the Mormons had been convicted 
of larceny, and they never failed in any instance to 


procure petitions signed by 1,500 or 2,000 of their 
friends for their pardon. But that which made it more 
certain than everything else, that the Mormons con 
templated a separate government, was that about this 
time they petitioned Congress to establish a territorial 
government for them in Nauvoo ; as if Congress had 
any power to establish such a government, or any other, 
within the bounds of a State. 

"To crown the whole folly of the Mormons, in the 
spring of 1844, Joe Smith announced himself as a can 
didate for President of the United States. His follow 
ers were confident that he would be elected. Two or 
three thousand missionaries were immediately sent out 
to preach their religion, and to electioneer in favor of 
their prophet for the Presidency. This folly at once 
covered that people with ridicule in the minds of all 
sensible men, and brought them into conflict with the 
zealots and bigots of all political parties ; as the arro 
gance and extravagance of their religious pretensions 
had already aroused the opposition of all other denomi 
nations in religion. It seems, from the best information 
that could be got from the best men who had seceded 
from the Mormon church, that Joe Smith about this time 
conceived the idea of making himself a temporal prince 
as well as spiritual leader of his people. He instituted 
a new and select order of the priesthood, the members 
of which were to be priests and kings temporally and 
spiritually. These were to be his nobility, who were 
to be the upholders of his throne. He caused himself 
to be crowned and anointed king and priest, far above 
the rest; and he prescribed the form of an oath of 


allegiance to himself, which he administered to his 
principal followers. To uphold his pretensions to roy 
alty, he deduced his descent by an unbroken chain 
from Joseph the son of Jacob, and that of his wife 
from some other renowned personage of Old Testament 
history. The Mormons openly denounced the goverment 
of the United States as utterly corrupt, and as being 
about to pass away, and to be replaced by the govern 
ment of God, to be administered by his servant Joseph. 
It is at this day certain, also, that about this time, 
the prophet re-instituted an order in the Church called 
the Danite Band/ These were to be a body of police 
and guards about the person of their sovereign, who 
were sworn to obey his orders as the orders of God 

" Soon after these institutions were established, Joe 
Smith began to play the tyrant over several of his fol 
lowers. The first act of this sort which excited atten 
tion, was an attempt to take the wife of William Law, 
one of his most talented and principal disciples, and 
make her a spiritual wife. By means of his Common 
Council, without the authority of law, he established a 
recorder s office in Nauvoo, in which alone the titles of 
property could be recorded. In the same manner and 
with the same want of legal authority, he established 
an office for issuing marriage licenses to Mormons, so 
as to give him absolute control of the marrying pro 
pensities of his people. He proclaimed that none in 
the city should purchase real estate to sell again, but 
himself. He also permitted no one but himself to 
have a license in the city for the sale of spirituous 


liquors ; and in many other ways he undertook to regu 
late and control the business of the Mormons. This 
despotism, administered by a corrupt and unprincipled 
man, soon became intolerable. William Law, one of 
the most eloquent preachers of the Mormons, who 
appeared to me to be a deluded but conscientious and 
candid man, Wilson Law, his brother, Major-General 
of the Legion, and four or five other Mormon leaders, 
resolved upon a rebellion against the authority of the 
Prophet. They designed to enlighten their brethren 
and fellow-citizens upon the new institutions, the new 
turn given to Mormonism, and the practices under the 
new system, by procuring a printing-press and estab 
lishing a newspaper in the city, to be the organ of their 
complaints and views. But they never issued but one 
number ; before the second could appear, the press was 
demolished by an order of the Common Council, and 
the conspirators were ejected from the Mormon 

" The Mormons themselves published the proceedings 
of the Council in the trial and destruction of the heret 
ical press ; from which it does not appear that any one 
was tried, or that the editor or any of the owners of the 
property had notice of the trial, or were permitted to 
defend in any particular. 

" The proceeding was an exparte proceeding, partly 
civil and partly ecclesiastical, against the press itself. 
No jury was called or sworn, nor were the witnesses re 
quired to give their evidence upon oath. The council 
lors stood up one after another, and some of them sev 
eral times, and related what they pretended to know. 


In this mode it was abundantly proved that the owners 
of the proscribed press were sinners, whorem asters, 
thieves, swindlers, counterfeiters and robbers; the evi 
dence of which is reported in the trial at full length. 
It was altogether the most curious and irregular trial 
that ever was recorded in any civilized country ; and 
one finds difficulty in determining whether the proceed 
ings of the Council were more the result of insanity or 
depravity. The trial resulted in the conviction of the 
press as a public nuisance. The Mayor was ordered to 
see it abated as such, and if necessary, to call the Legion 
to his assistance. The Mayor issued his warrant to the 
City Marshal, who, aided by a portion of the Legion, 
proceeded to the obnoxious printing-office, and destroyed 
the press and scattered the types and other materials. 

" After this, it became too hot for the seceding and 
rejected Mormons to remain in the holy city. They 
retired to Carthage, the county-seat of Hancock County, 
and took out warrants for the Mayor and members of 
the Common Council, and others engaged in the outrage, 
for a riot. Some of those were arrested, but were im 
mediately taken before the Municipal Court of the city 
on habeas corpus, and discharged from custody. 

" On the seventeenth day of June following, a com 
mittee of a meeting of the citizens of Carthage, pre 
sented themselves to me with a request that the militia 
might be ordered out to assist in executing process in 
the city of Nauvoo. I determined to visit in person 
that section of country, and examine for myself the 
truth and nature of their complaints. No order for the 
militia was made ; and I arrived at Carthage on the 
morning of the 21st day of the same month. 


" Upon my arrival, I found an armed force assembled 
and hourly increasing, under the summons and direction 
of the constables of the county, to serve as a posse com- 
itatus to assist in the execution of process. The general 
of the brigade had also called for the militia, en masse, 
of the counties of McDonough and Schuyler, for a sim 
ilar purpose. Another assemblage to a considerable 
number had been made at Warsaw, under military com 
mand of Col. Levi Williams. 

" The first thing which I did on my arrival was to 
place all the militia then assembled, and which were 
expected to assemble, under military command of their 
proper officers. I next dispatched a messenger to 
Nauvoo, informing the Mayor and Common Council of 
the nature of the complaint made against them; and 
requested that persons might be sent to me to lay their 
side of the question before me. A Committee was 
accordingly sent, who made such acknowledgments 
that I had no difficulty in concluding what were the 

" It appeared clearly, both from the complaints of the 
citizens and the acknowledgments of the Mormon Com 
mittee, that the whole proceedings of the Mayor, the 
Common Council, and the Municipal Court, were 
irregular and illegal, and not to be endured in a free 
country ; though, perhaps, some apology might be made 
for the Court, as it had been repeatedly assured by 
some of the best lawyers in the State, who had been 
candidates for office before that people, that it had full 
and competent power to issue writs of habeas corpus in 
all cases whatever. The Common Council violated the 


law in assuming the exercise of judicial power; in 
proceeding exparte without notice to the owners of the 
property ; in proceeding against the property in rem ; 
in not calling a jury; in not swearing all the witnesses; 
in not giving the owners of the property, accused of 
being a nuisance, in consequence of being libelous, an 
opportunity of giving the truth in evidence ; and in 
fact, by not proceeding by civil suit or indictment, as 
in other cases of libel. The Mayor violated the law in 
ordering this erroneous and absurd judgment of the 
Common Council to be executed. And the Municipal 
Court erred in discharging them from arrest. 

"As this proceeding touched the liberty of the press, 
which is justly dear to any Republican people, it was 
well calculated to raise a great flame of excitement. 
And it may well be questioned whether years of 
misrepresentation by the most profligate newspaper 
could have engendered such a feeling as was produced 
by the destruction of this one press. It is apparent 
that the Mormon leaders but little understood, and 
regarded less the true principles of civil liberty. A 
free press, well conducted, is a great blessing to a free 
people ; a profligate one is likely soon to deprive itself 
of all credit and influence by the multitude of false 
hoods put forth by it. In addition to these causes of 
excitement, there were a great many reports in 
circulation, and generally believed by the people. 

"Fortunately for the purposes of those who were 
active in creating excitement, there were many known 
truths which gave countenance to some of these accusa 
tions. It was sufficiently proved in a proceeding at 


Carthage whilst I was there, that Joe Smith had sent 
a band of his followers to Missouri, to kidnap two men 
who were witnesses against a member of his Church 
then in jail, about to be tried on a charge of larceny. 
It was also a notorious fact, that he had assaulted and 
severely beaten an officer of the county, for an alleged 
non-performance of his duty, at a time when that 
officer was just recovering from a severe illness. It is 
a fact also, that he stood indicted for the crime of 
perjury, as was alleged, in swearing to an accusation 
for murder, in order to drive a man out of Nauvoo, 
who had been engaged in buying and selling lots and 
land, and thus interfering with the monopoly of the 
Prophet as a speculator. It is a fact also, that his 
Municipal Court, of which he was Chief Justice, by- 
writ of habeas corpus, had frequently discharged indi 
viduals accused of high crimes and offences against the 
laws of the State ; and on one occasion had discharged 
a person accused of swindling the Government of the 
United States, who had been arrested by process of the 
Federal Courts ; thereby giving countenance to the 
report, that he obstructed the administration of justice, 
and had set up a government at Nauvoo, independent 
of the laws and Government of the State. This idea 
was further corroborated in the minds of the people, by 
the fact that the people of Nauvoo had petitioned 
Congress for a Territorial Government to be established 
there, and to be independent of the State Government. 
It was a fact also, that some larcenies and robberies 
had been committed, and that Mormons had been 
convicted of the crimes, and that other larcenies had 


been committed by persons unknown, but suspected to 
be Mormons. Justice, however, requires me here to 
say, that upon such investigation as I then could make, 
the charge of promiscuous stealing appeared to be 

" Another cause of excitement, was a report industri 
ously circulated, and generally believed, that Hiram 
Smith, another leader of the Mormon Church, had 
offered a reward for the destruction of the press of the 
6 Warsaw Signal, a newspaper published in the county, 
and the organ of the opposition to the Mormons. It 
was also asserted, that the Mormons scattered through 
the settlements of the county, had threatened all 
persons who turned out to assist the constables, with 
the destruction of their property and the murder of 
their families, in the absence of their fathers, brothers 
and husbands. A Mormon woman in McDonough 
County was imprisoned for threatening to poison the 
wells of the people who turned out in the posse ; and a 
Mormon in Warsaw publicly avowed that he was 
bound by his religion to obey all orders of the prophet, 
even to commit murder, if so commanded. 

a But the great cause of popular fury was, that the 
Mormons at several preceding elections had cast their 
vote as a unit ; thereby making the fact apparent, that 
no. one could aspire to the honors or offices of the 
country within the sphere of their influence, without 
their approbation and votes. 

" As my object in visiting Hancock was expressly to 
assist in the execution of the laws, and not to violate 
them, or to witness or permit their violation, as I was 


convinced that the Mormon leaders had committed a 
crime in the destruction of the press, and had resisted 
the execution of process, I determined to exert the 
whole force of the State, if necessary, to bring them 
to justice. But seeing the great excitement in the 
public mind, and the manifest tendency of this excite 
ment to run into mobocracy, I was of opinion, that 
before I acted, I ought to obtain a pledge from the 
officers and men to support me in strictly legal meas 
ures, and to protect the prisoners in case they surren 
dered. I was determined, if possible, the forms of law 
should not be made the catspaw of a mob, to seduce 
these people to a quiet surrender, as the convenient 
victims of popular fury. I therefore called together 
the whole force then assembled at Carthage, and made 
an address, explaining to them what I could, and what 
I could not, legally do; and also adducing to them 
various reasons why they as well as the Mormons 
should submit to the laws ; and why, if they had re 
solved on revolutionary proceedings, their purpose 
should be abandoned. The assembled troops seemed 
much pleased with the address ; and upon its conclu* 
sion, the officers and men unanimously voted, with 
acclamation, to sustain me in a strictly legal course, 
and that the prisoners should be protected from vio 
lence. Upon the arrival of additional forces from 
Warsaw, McDonough, and Schuyler, similar addresses 
were made, with the same result. 

" It seemed to me that these votes fully authorized 
me to promise the accused Mormons the protection of 
the law in case they surrendered. They were accord- 


ingly duly informed that if they surrendered they 
would be protected, and if they did not, the whole 
force of the State would be called out, if necessary, to 
compel their submission. A force of ten men was de 
spatched with the constable to make the arrests, and 
to guard the prisoners to headquarters. 

" In the meantime, Joe Smith, as Lieutenant-Gen- 
eral of the Nauvoo Legion, had declared martial law in 
the city; the Legion was assembled, and ordered under 
arms ; the members of it residing in the country were 
ordered into town. The Mormon settlements obeyed 
the summons of their leader, and marched to his assist 
ance. Nauvoo was one great military camp, strictly 
guarded and watched ; and no ingress or egress was 
allowed except upon the strictest examination. In 
one instance, which came to my knowledge, a citizen 
of McDonough, who happened to be in the city, was 
denied the privilege of returning, until he made oath 
that he did not belong to the party at Carthage, that 
he would return home without calling at Carthage, 
and that he would give no information of the move 
ments of the Mormons. 

"However, upon the arrival of the constable and 
guard, the Mayor and Common Council at once signi 
fied their willingness to surrender, and stated their 
readiness to proceed to Carthage next morning at eight 
o clock. Martial law had previously been abolished. 
The hour of eight o clock came, and the accused failed 
to make their appearance. The constable and his escort 
returned. The constable made no effort to arrest any 
of them, nor would he or the guard delay their departure 


one minute beyond the time, to see whether an arrest 
could be made. Upon their return, they reported that 
they had been informed that the accused had fled, and 
could not be found. 

"In the meantime, I made a requisition upon the 
officers of the Nauvoo Legion for the State arms in their 
possession. It appears that there was no evidence in 
the quartermaster-general s office of the number and de 
scription of the arms with which the Legion had been 
furnished. Dr. Bennett, after he had been appointed 
quartermaster-general, had joined the Mormons, and 
had disposed of the public arms as he pleased, without 
keeping or giving any account of them. On this subject 
I applied to General Wilson Law for information. He 
had lately been the Major-general of the Legion. He 
had seceded from the Mormon party ; was one of the 
owners of the proscribed press ; had left the city, as he 
said, in fear of his life, and was one of the party asking 
for justice against its constituted authorities. He was 
interested to exaggerate the number of arms rather than 
to place it at too low an estimate. From his informa 
tion I learned that the Legion had received three pieces 
of cannon, and about two hundred and fifty stand of 
small arms and their accoutrements. Of these, the 
three pieces of cannon and two hundred and fifty stand 
of small arms were surrendered. These arms were de 
manded because the Legion was illegally used in the de 
struction of the press, and in enforcing martial law in 
the city, in open resistance to legal process, and the 
posse comitatus. 

" I demanded the surrender also, on account of the 


great prejudice and excitement which the possession of 
these arms by the Mormons had always kindled in the 
minds of the people. A large portion of the people, by 
pure misrepresentation, had been made to believe that 
the Legion had received from the State as many as thirty 
pieces of artillery and five or six thousand stands of small 
arms, which, in all probability, would soon be wielded 
for the conquest of the country, and for their subjection 
to Mormon domination. I was of opinion that the re 
moval of these arms would tend much to allay this ex 
citement and prejudice; and in point of fact, although 
wearing a severe aspect, would be an act of real kind 
ness to the Mormons themselves. 

" On the 23d or 24th day of June, Joe Smith, the 
Mayor of Nauvoo, together with his brother Hyrurn 
and all the members of the Council, and all others de 
manded, came into Carthage and surrendered them 
selves prisoners to the constable, on the charge of riot. 
They all voluntarily entered into a recognizance before 
the Justice of the Peace, for their appearance at court 
to answer the charge. And all of them were discharged 
from custody except Joe and Hyrum Smith, against 
whom the magistrate had issued anew writ, on a com 
plaint of treason. They were immediately arrested by 
the constable on this charge, and retained in his custody 
to answer it. 

" Soon after the surrender of the Smiths, at their re 
quest I dispatched Captain Singleton with his company, 
from Brown County to Nauvoo, to guard the town ; and 
I authorized him to take command of the Legion. He 
reported to rue afterwards, that he called out the Legion 


for inspection; and that, upon two hours notice, two 
thousand of them assembled, all of them armed ; and 
this after the public arms had been taken away from 
them. So it appears that they had a sufficiency of 
private arms for any reasonable purpose. 

" After the Smiths had been arrested on the new 
charge of treason, the Justice of the Peace postponed 
the examination, because neither of the parties were 
prepared with their witnesses for trial. Meanwhile he 
committed them to the jail of the county for greater 
security. The jail in which they were confined, is a 
considerable stone building ; containing a residence for 
the jailor, cells for the close and secure confinement of 
prisoners, and one larger room not so strong, but more 
airy and comfortable than the cells. They were put 
into the cells by the jailor ; but upon their remonstrance 
and request, and by my advice, they were transferred 
to the larger room ; and there they remained until the 
final catastrophe. Neither they nor I seriously appre 
hended an attack on the jail, through the guard sta 
tioned to protect it. Nor did I apprehend the least 
danger on their part of an attempt to escape. For I 
was very sure that any such an attempt would have 
been the signal of their immediate death. Indeed, if 
they had escaped, it would have been fortunate for the 
purposes of those who were anxious for the expulsion 
of the Mormon population. For the great body of 
that people would most assuredly have followed their 
Prophet and principal leaders, as they did in their flight 
from Missouri. I learned afterwards that the leaders 
of the anti-Mormons did much to stimulate their fol- 


lowers to the murder of the Smiths in jail, by alleging 
that the Governor intended to favor their escape. If 
this had been true, and could have been well carried 
out, it would have been the best way of getting rid of 
the Mormons. The leaders would not have dared to 
return, and all their church would have followed. I 
had such a plan in my mind, but I had never breathed 
it to a living soul, and was thus thwarted in ridding 
the State of the Mormons two years before they actu 
ally left, by the insane fury of the anti-Mormons. 

" The force assembled at Carthage amounted to about 
twelve or thirteen hundred men, and it was calculated 
that four or five hundred more were assembled at War 
saw. Nearly all that portion resident in Hancock were 
anxious to be marched into Nauvoo. This measure was 
supposed to be necessary, to search for counterfeit money 
and the apparatus to make it, and also to strike a salu 
tary terror into the Mormon people, by an exhibition of 
the force of the State, and thereby prevent future out 
rages, murders, robberies, burnings, and the like, appre 
hended as the effect of Mormon vengeance on those who 
had taken a part against them. On niy part, at one time, 
this arrangement was agreed to. The morning of the 
27th day of June was appointed for the march; and Gold- 
en s Point,near the Mississippi river, and about equidistant 
from Nauvoo and Warsaw, was selected as the place of 
rendezvous. I had determined to prevail on the Justice 
to bring out his prisoners, and take them along. A coun 
cil of officers, however, determined that this would be 
highly inexpedient and dangerous, and offered such sub 
stantial reasons for their opinions as induced me to 
change my resolution. 


" Two or three days preparation had been made for 
this expedition. I observed that some of the people 
became more and more excited and inflammatory, the 
further the preparations were advanced. Occasional 
threats came to my ears of destroying the city and mur 
dering or expelling the inhabitants. I had no objection 
to ease the terrors of the people by such a display of 
force, and was most anxious also to search for the al 
leged apparatus for making counterfeit money; and, in 
fact, to inquire into all the charges against that people, 
if I could have been assured of my command against 
mutiny and insubordination. But I gradually learned 
to my entire satisfaction, that there was a plan to get 
the troops into Nauvoo, and there to begin the war, prob 
ably by some of our own party, or some of the seceding 
Mormons, taking advantage of the night to fire on our 
own force, and then laying it to the Mormons. I was 
satisfied there were those amongst us fully capable of 
such an act, hoping that in the alarm, bustle and con 
fusion of a militia camp, the truth could not be dis 
covered, and that it might lead to the desired collision. 

"All these considerations were duly urged by me 
upon the attention of a council of officers, convened on 
the morning of June 27th. I also urged upon the 
council, that such wanton and unprovoked barbarity 
on their part would turn the sympathy of the people 
in. the surrounding counties in favor of the Mormons, 
and therefore it would be impossible to raise a volun 
teer militia force to protect such a people against them. 
Many of the officers admitted that there might be 
danger of collision. But such was the blind fury pre 


vailing at the time, though not showing itself by much 
visible excitement, that a small majority of the council 
adhered to the first resolution of inarching into Nauvoo; 
most of the officers of the Schuyler and McDonough 
militia voting against it, and most of those of the 
County of Hancock voting in its favor. 

"A very responsible duty now devolved upon me to 
determine whether I would, as Commander-in-Chief, be 
governed by the advice of this majority. I had no 
hesitation in deciding that I would not ; but on the 
contrary, I ordered the troops to be disbanded, both at 
Carthage and Warsaw, with the exception of three com 
panies, two of which were retained as a guard to the 
jail, and the other to accompany me to Nauvoo. 

" I ordered two companies under the command of Cap 
tain R. F. Smith, of the Carthage Grays, to guard the 
jail. In selecting these companies, and particularly 
the company of the Carthage Grays for this service, I 
have been subjected to some censure. It has been said 
that this company had already been guilty of mutiny, 
and had been ordered to be arrested whilst in the en 
campment at Carthage; and they and their officers 
were the deadly enemies of the prisoners. Indeed it 
would have been difficult to find friends of the prisoners 
under my command, unless I had called in the Mor 
mons as a guard ; and this I was satisfied would have 
led to immediate war, and the sure death of the 

"Although I knew that this company were the ene 
mies of the Smiths, yet I had confidence in their loyalty 
and integrity; because their captain was universally 


spoken of as a respectable citizen and honorable man. 
The company itself was an old independent company, 
well armed, uniformed and drilled ; and the members of 
it were the elite of the militia of the county. I relied 
upon this company especially, because it was an inde 
pendent company, for a long time instructed and prac 
ticed in military discipline and subordination. I also 
had their word of honor, officers and men, that they 
would do their duty according to law. Besides all this 
the officers and most of the men resided in Carthage ; 
and in the near vicinity of Nauvoo ; and, as I thought, 
must know that they would make themselves and their 
property convenient and conspicuous marks of Mor 
mon vengeance, in case they were guilty of treachery. 

"I had at first intended to select a guard from the 
County of McDonough, but the militia of that county 
were very much dissatisfied to remain ; their crops were 
suffering at home ; they were in a perfect fever to be 
discharged ; and I was destitute of provisions to supply 
them for more than a few days. They were far from 
home, where they could not supply themselves. Whilst 
the Cartilage company could board at their own homes, 
and would be put to little inconvenience in comparison. 

" It is true also, that at this time I had not believed 
or suspected that an attack would be made upon the 
prisoners in jail. It is true that I was aware that a 
great deal of hatred existed against them, and that 
there were those who would do them an injury if they 
could. I had heard of some threats being made, but 
none of an attack upon the prisoners while in jail. 
These threats seemed to be made by individuals not 


acting in concert. They were no more than the bluster 
which might have been expected, and furnished no in 
dication of numbers combining for this or any other 
purpose. Having ordered the guard and left Gen. 
Deming in command and discharged the residue of the 
militia, I immediately departed for Nauvoo, eighteen 
miles distant, accompanied by Colonel Buckmaster, 
Quartermaster General, and Captain Dunn s company 
of dragoons. 

"After we had proceeded four miles, Col. Buckmaster 
intimated to me a suspicion that an attack would be 
made upon the jail. He stated the matter as a mere 
suspicion, arising from having seen two persons con 
verse together at Carthage with some air of mystery. 
I myself entertained no suspicion of such an attack; 
at any rate, none before the next day in the afternoon ; 
because it was notorious that we had departed from 
Carthage with the declared intention of being absent 
at least two days. I could not believe that any person 
would attack the jail whilst we were in Nauvoo, and 
thereby expose my life and the life of my companions 
to the sudden vengeance of the Mormons, upon hearing 
of the death of their leaders. Nevertheless, acting 
upon the principle of providing against mere possibili 
ties, I sent back one of the company with a special 
order to Captain Smith to guard the jail strictly, and 
at the peril of his life, until my return. 

" We proceeded on our journey four miles further. 
By this time I had convinced myself that no attack 
would be made upon the jail that day or night. I 
supposed that a regard for my safety and the safety of 


my companions would prevent an attack until those to 
be engaged in it could be assured of our departure from 
Nauvoo. I still think that this ought to have ap 
peared to me to be a reasonable supposition. I there 
fore determined at this point to omit making the 
search for counterfeit money at Nauvoo, and defer an 
examination of all other abominations charged on that 
people, in order to return to Carthage that same night, 
that I might be on the ground in person, in time to 
prevent an attack upon the jail, if any had been medi 
tated. To this end we called a halt; the baggage 
wagons were ordered to remain where they were until 
towards evening, and then return to Carthage. 

" Having made these arrangements, we proceeded on 
our march, and arrived at Nauvoo about four o clock 
of the afternoon of the 27th day of June. As soon as 
notice could be given, a crowd of the citizens assembled 
to hear an address which I proposed to deliver to them. 
The number present has been variously estimated at 
from one to five thousand. 

" In this address I stated to them how, and in what, 
their functionaries had violated the laws. Also, the 
many scandalous reports in circulation against them, 
and that these reports, whether true or false, were 
generally believed by the people. I distinctly stated 
to them the amount of hatred and prejudice which pre 
vailed everywhere against them, and the causes of it, 
at length. 

" I also told them plainly and emphatically, that if 
any vengeance should be attempted, openly or secretly 
against the persons or property of the citizens who had 


taken part against their leaders, that the public hatred 
and excitement were such, that thousands would as- 
semhle for the total destruction of their city and the 
extermination of their people ; and that no power in 
the State would be able to prevent it. During this ad 
dress some impatience and resentment were manifested 
by the Mormons, at the recital of the various reports 
enumerated concerning them, which they strenuously 
and indignantly denied to be true. They claimed to 
be a law-abiding people, and insisted that as they 
looked to the law alone for their protection, so were 
they careful themselves to observe its provisions. Upon 
the conclusion of this address, I proposed to take a vote 
on the question whether they would strictly observe 
the laws, even in opposition to their Prophet and 
leaders. The vote was unanimous in favor of this 

" The anti-Mormons contended that such a vote from 
the Mormons signified nothing; and truly the subse 
quent history of that people showed clearly that they 
were loudest in their professions of attachment to the 
law, when they were guilty of the greatest extrava 
gances ; and in fact, that they were so ignorant and 
stupid about matters of law, that they had no means of 
judging of the legality of their conduct, only as they 
were instructed by their spiritual leaders. 

" A short time before sundown we departed on our 
return to Carthage. When we had proceeded two 
miles, we met two individuals, one of them a Mormon, 
who informed us that the Smiths had been assassinated in 
jail, about five or six o clock of that day. The intelli- 


gence seemed to strike every one with a kind of dumbness. 
As to myself it was perfectly astounding; and I an 
ticipated the very worst consequences from it. The 
Mormons had been represented to me as a lawless, 
infatuated and fanatical people, not governed by the 
ordinary motives which influence the rest of mankind. 


If so, most likely an exterminating war would ensue, 
and the whole land would be covered with desolation. 
Acting upon this supposition, it was my duty to pro 
vide as well as I could for the event. I therefore took 
the two messengers in custody back to Carthage, in 
order to gain time and make such arrangements as 
could be made, to prevent any sudden explosion of 
Mormon excitement. I also despatched messengers to 
Warsaw, to advise the citizens of the event. But the 
people there knew all about it, and, like myself, feared 
a general attack. The women and children were moved 
across the river, and a committee despatched that night 
to Quincy for assistance. The next morning by day 
light, the ringing of the bells in the city of Quincy an 
nounced a public meeting. The people assembled in 
great numbers. The Warsaw committee stated to the 
meeting, that a party of Mormons had attempted to 
rescue the Smiths out of jail ; that a party of Missourians 
and others had killed the prisoners to prevent their 
escape ; that the Governor and his party were at Nau- 
voo, at the time when intelligence of the fact was 
brought there; that they had been attacked by the 
Nauvoo Legion, and had retreated to a house where 
they were then closely besieged. That the Governor 
had sent out word that he could maintain his position 


for two days, and would be certain to be massacred if 
assistance did not arrive by the end of that time. It 
is unnecessary to say that this entire story was a fabri 
cation. The effect of it, however, was that by ten o clock 
on the 28th of June, between two and three hundred 
men from Quincy, under command of Major Flood, 
embarked on board a steamboat for Nauvoo, to assist 
in raising the siege, as they honestly believed. 

" Upon hearing of the assassination of the Smiths, I 
was sensible that my command was at an end; that my 
destruction was meditated, as well as that of the Mor 
mons ; and that I could not reasonably confide longer in 
one party or the other. I am convinced that it was the 
expectation that the Mormons would assassinate me, on 
the supposition that I had planned the murder of the 
Smiths. Hence the conspirators committed their act 
while I was at Nauvoo. 

"It was many days after the assassination of the 
Smiths before the circumstances of the murder became 
fully known. It then appeared that, agreeably to pre 
vious orders, the posse at Warsaw had marched on the 
morning of the 27th of June in the direction of Gold- 
en s Point, with a view to join the force from Carthage, 
the whole body then to be marched into Nauvoo. 
When they had gone eight miles, they were met by the 
order to disband ; and learning, at the same time, that 
the Governor was absent at Nauvoo, about two hun 
dred of these men, many of them disguised by blacking 
their faces with powder and mud, hastened immediately 
to Carthage. There they encamped at some distance 
from the village, and soon learned that one of the com- 

-n rrny-i 



panies left as a guard had disbanded and returned to 
their homes ; the other company, the Carthage Grays, 
was stationed by the Captain in the public square, a 
hundred and fifty yards from the jail, whilst eight men 
were detailed by him, under the command of Sergeant 
Franklin A. Worrell, to guard the prisoners. A com 
munication was soon established between the conspirat 
ors and the company ; and it was arranged that the 
guard should have their guns charged with blank car 
tridges, and fire at the assailants when they attempted 
to enter the jail. General Deming, who was left in 
command, being deserted by some of his troops, and 
perceiving the arrangement with the others, and having 
no force upon which he could rely, for fear of his life, 
retired from the village. The conspirators came up, 
jumped the slight fence around the jail, were fired 
upon by the guard, which, according to arrangement, 
was overpowered immediately, and the assailants en 
tered the prison, to the door of the room, where the 
two prisoners were confined, with two of their friends, 
who voluntarily bore them company. An attempt was 
made to break open the door; but Joe Smith being 
armed with a six barrelled pistol, furnished by his 
friends, fired several times as the door was bursted 
open, and wounded three of the assailants. At the 
same time several shots were fired into the room, by 
some of which John Taylor received four wounds and 
Hiram Smith was instantly killed. Joe Smith now 
attempted to escape by jumping out of the second-story 
window ; but the fall so stunned him that he was un 
able to arise, and, being placed in a sitting posture by 


the conspirators below, they despatched him with four 
balls shot through his body. 

" Thus fell Joe Smith, the most successful impostor 
in modern times; a man who, though ignorant and 
coarse, had some great natural parts, which fitted him 
for temporary success, but which were so obscured and 
counteracted by the inherent corruption and vices of 
his nature, that he never could succeed in establishing 
a system of policy which looked to permanent success 
in the future. His lusts, his love of money and power, 
always set him to studying present gratification and 
convenience, rather than the remote consequences of 
his plans. It seems that no power of intellect can 
save a corrupt man from this error. The strong 
cravings of the animal nature will never give fair 
play to a fine understanding ; the judgment is never 
allowed to choose that good which is far away, in pre 
ference to enticing evil near at hand. And this may 
-be considered a wise ordinance of Providence, by which 
the counsels of talented but corrupt men are defeated 
in the very act which promised success. 

" It must not be supposed that the pretended Prophet 
.practiced the tricks of a common impostor ; that he 
was a dark and gloomy person, with a long beard, a 
grave, and severe aspect, and a reserved and saintly 
carriage of his person ; on the contrary he was full of 
levity, even to boyish romping ; dressed like a dandy, 
and at times drank like a sailor and swore like a 
pirate. He could, as occasion required, be exceedingly 
meek in his deportment, and then again rough and 
boisterous as a highway robber ; being always able to 


satisfy his followers of the propriety of his conduct. 
He always quailed before power, and was arrogant to 
weakness. At times he could put on the air of a peni 
tent, as if feeling the deepest humiliation for his sins, 
and suffering unutterable anguish, and indulging in 
the most gloomy forebodings of eternal woe. At such 
times, he would call for the prayers of the brethren in 
his behalf, with a wild and fearful energy and earnest 
ness. He was full six feet high, strongly built, and 
uncommonly well muscled. No doubt he was as much 
indebted for his influence over an ignorant people, to 
the superiority of his physical vigor, as to his greater 
cunning and intellect. 

" His followers were divided into the leaders and 
the led ; the first division embraced a numerous class 
of broken-down, unprincipled men of talents, to be 
found in every country, who, bankrupt in character 
and fortune, had nothing to lose by deserting the 
known religions, and carving out a new one of their 
own. They were mostly infidels, who, holding all re 
ligions in derision, believed they had as good a right 
as Christ or Mahomet, or any of the founders of former 
systems, to create one for themselves; and if they 
could impose it upon mankind, to live upon the labor 
of their dupes. Those of the second division were the 
credulous, wondering part of men, whose easy belief 
and admiring natures are always the victims of novelty 
in whatever shape it may come ; who have a capacity 
to believe any strange and wonderful matter, if it only 
be new, whilst the wonders of former ages command 
neither faith nor reverence; they are men of feeble 


purposes, readily subjected to the will of the strong, 
giving themselves up entirely to the direction of their 
leaders ; and this accounts for the very great influence 
of those leaders in controling them. In other respects 
some of the Mormons were abandoned rogues, who had 
taken shelter in Nauvoo, as a convenient place for the 
headquarters of their villany ; and others were good, 
honest, industrious people, who were the sincere vic 
tims of artful delusion. Such as these were more the 
proper objects of pity than persecution. With them, 
their religious belief was a kind of insanity ; and cer 
tainly no greater calamity can befall a human being 
than to have a mind so constituted as to be made the 
sincere dupe of a religious imposture." 

It were vain to attempt to describe the mingled 
feelings of grief and rage which agitated the people of 
Nauvoo, when the death of Joe Smith was announced 
there. All his errors and tyrannies seemed to be 
obliterated from their minds ; he had " sealed the truth 
with his blood," and stood henceforth a sainted martyr. 
The spiritual wives of the dead Prophet filled the city 
with their cries, but his lawful wife Emma was quiet 
and resigned. When Joseph and Hyrum retreated 
across the river to avoid the constable first sent from 
Carthage, she had joined with the Apostle William 
Marks in writing them an indignant letter, in which 
she charged them as "cowardly shepherds, who had 
left the sheep in danger and fled." This statement 
rests upon the testimony of Joseph F. Smith, son of 
Hyrum, now an Apostle at Salt Lake, who adds : 
"When Joseph saw that letter his great heart almost 


bursted, and he said, If that is all my wife and friends 
care for my life, then I don t care for it/ and returned 
and gave himself up." 

The whole people turned out, in deep mourning, and 
with every demonstration of grief, and the remains of 
Joseph and Hyrum were honored with a magnificent 
funeral. Joseph was thirty-nine, and Hyrum forty-four 
years old. In the short space of fifteen years Joe 
Smith and his coadjutors had brought forth a new 
Bible, ordained a new morality, established a new 
theology, and founded a Church with missions in half 
the civilized world. Organized in 1830, the Church, 
at the time of their death, numbered probably two 
hundred thousand throughout the world. The Mor 
mons themselves claimed half a million. But they 
have probably never exceeded the former number since 
that time. Under the lead of Brigham Young they 
made tolerable progress for a few years, but are certainly 
losing in numbers at present. In the very germ of the 
new sect was planted a fatal principle of progress in 
evil, which, by its appeal to the vagaries and vices of 
men, gave a predisposition to rapid rise and the 
assurance of early decay. From a living and erring 
Prophet of personal prowess and prestige, the progress 
was regular and natural to intrigue, grossness and 
materialism; materialism and sanctified lust necessi 
tated polygamy, and polygamy has in the perfect order 
of nature proved the mother of incest and blood 
atonement. From the worship of a human demigod 
of passion, under a light and false mantle of religion, 
the descent was easy to the worship of only sensual 


forms and practices. There is nothing more surprising 
in it than in the progress from the serpent s egg to the 
deadly viper. Nor is it strange that the sect increased 
rapidly; every century, and almost every generation, 
has witnessed the sudden rise of a corrupt and law- 
defying sect; and modern society still presents ample 
materials. As like produces like, and everything its 
kind in nature, so the evil-hearted and credulous will 
be led to worse evil by any religion that does not 
convert and reform. The various sects, too, have lost 
much of that burning and aggressive vigor which 
distinguished their rise ; and redemptive agencies have 
not, in all respects, kept pace with sinful allurement, 
and a fair field has been left for delusion. The 
minister in many cases still travels on horseback, while 
the devil goes by rail. With all the power of evan 
gelical organization and gospel at work, Satan too often 
rides upon the whirlwind of popular passion, and 
subsidizes by trick and prejudice the very enthusiasm 

of man s nature. 


The Methodists, who formerly prided themselves on 
a hearty simplicity and earnest work among the masses, 
have too often attained to the elegant conservatism of 
the Old Mother ; they are in some places fixed almost in 
gilded formalism, and in others reduced to the preju 
diced following after traditions of religion, both lacking 
much the kindling of the " fire from the altar." The 
Baptists, who were also the hardy pioneers, have so en 
trenched themselves about as to be separated from other 
denominations in sympathy, and almost from the world, 
leaving themselves open, at least, to the charge of follow- 


ing " the water-god of exclusive errorists." The Pres 
byterians, whose universal suffrage should be peculiarly 
suited to the genius of our whole people, seem to have 
struck but a certain class of quietly reserved tastes ; and 
they appear to the world as much interested in preserv 
ing the authority of an ancient Confession of Faith as in 
vitalizing their republicanism for the conversion of the 
people. The Campbellites have developed a controver 
sial spirit which may well be suspected of having gone 
beyond a mere zeal for the truth. The Episcopalians, 
with an organization essentially monarchical in form, 
looking to its dignitaries for authority and power, di 
vided even here as to the policy of carrying this princi 
ple further, cannot yet be said to be fully naturalized as 
an American church. All have attained to a more 
formal, or sober and intellectual sort of religion. Nor 
should we quarrel with this, of itself. Intellectual men 
must have an intellectual faith ; a mere emotional ex 
perience is quite impossible to them, nor would it con 
tent them. Notwithstanding this, the Unitarians, a sect 
whose faith is more purely one of philosophy and taste. 
have shown little vitality in extending their bounds. 
There is still the great mass of men who will be content 
with nothing short of a simple religion, warmed with a 
generous enthusiasm ; and this, in the hands or under 
the direction of corrupt or crazy men, becomes a wild, 
fierce fanaticism. Not that religion should accommodate 
the vices of human nature ; but while it reforms them 
it should give virtuous direction to that enthusiasm 
which will otherwise rend and tear them. It is not at 
all too late for another suscessful delusion. Millions 


pant for novelty, for a personal god, for present light 
and prophecy, for something harmonious entirely with 
our own day and nation, more real, more tangible, not 
a mere matter of two thousand years of church erudi 
tion and history, grand as they are in the triumphs of 
an improving civilization. 

In the midst of such excitement in the West came 
the impostor, and to the lowest manifestation of this 
want Mor monism was addressed. But Mormonism 
could never be a success in America, because it contro 
verted the inherent American idea ; it turned back to 
sensualism for its inspiration, and to despotism for its 
model. Had it been founded on progressive instead of 
retrograde ideas, had it developed individuality and 
personal freedom, had it claimed a higher consideration 
for the feminine in creation and a more perfect inde 
pendence for woman, had it stepped forward and not 
back, then it might have helped reform all America, and 
founded a permanent, new order. 

The religious public may then be re-assured; Mor 
monism is not the religion or sect which is to play havoc 
among existing systems. But the signs of the times 
indicate a new or modified phase of religion. We will 
have a distinctly American Church. The Roman Em 
pire Christianized made Roman Catholicism, which has 
been reformed as its people have in the governments ; 
Russia made the finished Greek system ; Italy is Ultra 
montane Catholic; England has the Establishment; 
Scandinavia has the Lutheran Church ; each nation has 
developed one central, theologic and ecclesiastical idea, 
and we are not yet so fully completed and individual- 


ized, as to be without the same want and yearning. Per 
haps one of the present sects will modify and advance 
to the needed place ; or from the spirit of union in many, 
may come the ascendant and satisfying one. The Church 
of the future must be both intellectual and emotional ; 
it must look to the future for its hope, and to our own 
land for its governing polity, and not to worn out sys 
tems which have proved too weak for earthly means ; 
as truth is immortal it must look only for new develop 
ments of truth ; it must purify the marriage relation, 
and recognize the political and social independence of 
woman ; it must believe in sanctification, if even it does 
not claim to have obtained it, and it must make un 
ceasing war upon every species of oppression, and every 
form of intemperance. Such a Church must have more 
truth than error both in method and creed, and for it, 
a broad field is open. 

But Mormonism was a mushroom growth upon a rich 
bed of decay, which sprang up merely because some 
thing better was not planted, but had no enduring root. 
It might flourish for half a century or more, upon the 
scum of vice in America and the ignorance of Europe, 
but could enjoy at best but a sort of living death, and 
must soon wither and decay. 




No Successor to the Prophet David Hyrum Smith, the " Son of Promise * 
Contest for the Leadership Diplomacy of Brighara Young Curious 
Trials All of Brigham s Opponents "cut off" Troubles Renewed 
Fights, Outrages, Robberies and Murder Another Election and more 
Treachery Singular "Wolf Hunt" Capture and Trial of Smith s 
Murderers Of the Mormon Rioters Failure and Defects of the Law 
Further Outrages on Gentiles Trouble in Adams County The " One 
ness " The People of Adams Drive out the Mormons Revenge by the 
Mormons Murders of McBratney, Worrell, Wilcox and Daubeneyer 
Retaliation, and Murder of Durfee The Mormons Ravage Hancock 
Flight of the Gentiles Militia Called and Hancock put under Martial 
Law The Mormons Begin to Leave Illinois Fresh Quarrels More 
Mormon Treachery Bombardment of Nauvoo, and Final Expulsion of 
the Mormons. 

THE hostility of the Gentiles suddenly relaxed, and 
a brief period of repose followed. But it was necessary 
to provide for the government of the Church. The 
theocratic polity had been fully established by Joe 
Smith, but no provision made for a successor. The 
Prophet had, it is true, laid his hands on the head of 
his eldest son Joseph and ordained him a king and 
priest in his stead, and but a short time before his 
death he stated that, "the man was not born who was 
to lead this people, but of Emma Smith then promising 
him an heir should be born a son who would succeed 
in the Presidency after a season of disturbance." This 
son, named from his father s direction David Hyrum, 


was born at the Mansion House, on the 17th of No 
vember following. This is the "son of promise" whom 
thousands of the Mormons still regard as the predes 
tined leader who is finally to bring them back to 
Jackson County. 

But an immediate leader was needed. Many had 
revelations that Joseph would, like the Saviour, rise 
from the dead, and some reported that they had seen 
him coursing the air on a great white horse. But all 
these were finally condemned by the priesthood as 
"lying revelations." William Smith, the Prophet s 
only surviving brother, claimed the succession on that 
account. Sidney Bigdon, who was one of the First 
Presidency, from his peculiar relations to the Church, 
asserted the strongest claim. James Strang had an 
immediate revelation that he was to lead the people 
into Wisconsin. Lyman Wight received a divine 
order to go to Texas, and Gladden Bishop, John E. 
Page, Cutler, Hedrick, Brewster and others laid in 
their claims. 

On the 15th of August, the Twelve Apostles, headed 
by Brigham Young, addressed an " Encyclical letter to 
all the Saints in the world," and the 7th of October, the 
Saints of Nauvoo and vicinity met in council to deter 
mine who should take control. Brigham had been 
absent in Boston, and Bigdon, very busy among the 
people, had succeeded in getting a special convention 
called ; but Brigham arrived the very day of the meet 
ing, and signally defeated . Eigdon. The people voted 
that the government should for the present be in the 
"College of Twelve Apostles," which was in effect 


making Brigham chief ruler. The next day Brigham 
made a savage address against Sidney Rigdon, who, 
meanwhile, had a revelation that all the wealthy mem 
bers were to follow him to western Pennsylvania, and 
establish a new " stake " for the others to gather to ! 
Brigham then denounced Rigdon and all his revelations 
as from the devil, and moved that he be "cut off." 
Nearly a hundred voted in the negative, when it was 
immediately resolved they were " in a spirit of apos 
tasy," and they were " cut off." It was then proposed 
and unanimously carried, that " all who should hereafter 
defend Rigdon should be cut off," which ended the so- 
called election. Rigdon took a small band to Pennsyl 
vania, and most of the other aspirants also took off 
various sects, known in the Brighamite church as " Glad- 
denites," " Strangites," " Brewsterites," " Cutlerites," 
" Gatherers," etc. Most of these sects have fallen to 
pieces. The Times and Seasons, a weekly periodical, 
had been established at Nauvoo soon after its settlement, 
and in the fifth volume may be found a full account of 
these curious trials. 

Brigham Young now took entire control, hastened the 
completion of the upper rooms of the Temple, and 
hurried the people through t^eir " endowments." These 
consist of a mystical ceremony representing the various 
stages in man s progress, during which the candidates 
are initiated and passed to the various degrees of the 
priesthood, and sworn to obey all orders of their supe 
riors. The penalties for violation of these oaths are, 
according to the uniform testimony of various apostates, 
" having the throat cut," the " bowels slit across/ 


"heart plucked out/ or the "blood spilt upon the 
ground," according to the several degrees. Brigham 
consolidated his power rapidly, but by the opening of 
1845, outside hostility again began to be felt,, and the 
leaders secretly resolved to abandon Nauvoo. 

The malcontents from the city, and those who had 
suffered, would run away to anti-Mormon neighbor 
hoods, and stir up hatred against the Saints. Gentiles, 
who owned property near Nauvoo, found it practically 
worthless, for they could sell it to no other Gentiles ; 
and in the county at large, where the Mormons settled 
around an old resident, his society was gone ; he could 
have no church nor school privileges ; he could not 
affiliate or be neighborly with the new comers, and 
often suspected them of trespass and constant annoyance. 
His land lost half its value, and the near presence of 
foreigners of the fanatic sect caused him to be forever 
on his guard. It became a settled conviction in the 
minds of the people that they cftuld have no peaceful 
enjoyment of their property while the Saints remained. 
Gentiles combined in groups for society and protection, 
and Mormons did the same at command of the Church, 
to which they were bound by such absolute oaths ; and 
this, of course, led to local and sectional hatred, which, 
among people who habitually wore arms, soon culmi 
nated in blood. Men became afraid to stir abroad, ex 
cept in squads; riots and regular skirmishes, amounting 
almost to pitched battles, took place ; blood was shed, 
lives were lost, and the exasperation of both parties was 
raised to the highest pitch. The Western press teemed 
with accounts of the enormities of Nauvoo, no doubt, 


greatly exaggerated, but still with considerable basis of 
truth. A horrible murder was committed in Lee 
County, Iowa, and the perpetrators were traced directly 
to Nauvoo. At least a dozen Mormons swore positively 
that the accused were in that city at the time of the 
murder ; and yet so contradictory was their testimony, 
and so plain the rest of the evidence, that the mur 
derers, two brothers named Hodges, were convicted and 
hanged at Montrose, Iowa. It was whispered about 
that they would be rescued by a Mormon force, and 
nearly every man in southern Iowa, then but eighty 
miles wide, the rest to the Missouri being Indian coun 
try, attended the execution. This case excited all 
of Iowa as well as Illinois afresh against Nauvoo. 
Conspicuous among the journals of that period, in 
advocating the expulsion or extermination of the Mor 
mons, were the Sangamo Journal, Burlington Hawk-eye, 
Quincy Whig and Warsaiu Signal. At the same time, 
the executive of the State was accused openly of favoring 
the Mormons. Perhaps no fact in Mormon history so 
fully illustrates the blind unreason of the laity, or the 
corruption and treachery of their leaders, as their treat 
ment of the Governor, Thomas L. Ford. He had been 
elected with the aid of their votes, and had always 
maintained that the crusade against them was only for 
political effect ; he had been their friend in most diffi 
cult situations, and had even strained the facts to make 
a sort of excuse for them ; he had done all that was 
supposed necessary to save the Smiths, and had risked 
his popularity and life to bring their murderers to pun 
ishment. And yet they are never weary of heaping 


abuse upon him, because he did not accede to other 
demands on their part ; they generally accuse him of 
conniving at the murder of the Smiths, and heap exe 
crations upon his memory. It must be remembered, 
that Governor Ford wrote his history the year after 
the Mormons left, that it is not so much a history of 
the State as a defence of his administration, that, pol- 
litically, he was more of an enemy to the anti-Mormons 
of western Illinois than to the Mormons, and con 
sequently inclined to make as favorable a showing as 
possible for the latter. With this comment, or caution 
rather, I return to his account : 

"About one year after the apostles were installed in 
power, they abandoned for the present the project of 
converting the world to the new religion. All the 
missionaries and members abroad were ordered home ; 
it was announced that the world had rejected the 
gospel by the murder of the Prophet and Patriarch, 
and was to be left to perish in its sins. In the 
meantime, both before and after this, the elders at 
Nauvoo quit preaching about religion. The Mormons 
came from every part pouring into the city ; the con 
gregations were regularly called together for worship, 
but instead of expounding the new gospel, the zealous 
and infuriated preachers now indulged only in curses 
and strains of abuse of the Gentiles, and it seemed to 
be their design to fill their followers with the greatest 
amount of hatred to all mankind excepting the Saints. 
A sermon was no more than an inflammatory stump 
speech, relating to their quarrels with their enemies, 
and ornamented with an abundance of profanity. 


From my own personal knowledge of this people, I 
can say, with truth, that I have never known much of 
any of their leaders who was not addicted to profane^ 
swearing. No other kind of discourses than these were 
heard in the city. Curses upon their enemies, upon 
the country, upon Government, upon all public officers, 
were now the lessons taught by the elders, to inflame 
their people with the highest degree of spite and malice 
against all who were not of the Mormon Church, or its 
obsequious tools. The reader can readily imagine how 
a city of fifteen thousand inhabitants could be wrought 
up and kept in a continual rage by the inflammatory 
harangues of its leaders. 

" In the meantime, the anti- Mormons were not idle ; 
they were more than ever determined to expel the 
Mormons; and, being passionately inflamed against 
them, they made many applications for executive 
assistance. On the other hand, the Mormons invoked 
the assistance of Government to take vengeance upon 
the murderers of the Smiths. The anti-Mormons 
asked the Governor to violate the Constitution, which 
he was sworn to support, by erecting himself into a 
military despot and exiling the Mormons. The Mor 
mons on their part, in their newspapers, invited the 
Governor to assume absolute power, by taking a 
summary vengeance upon their enemies, by shooting 
fifty or a hundred of them, without judge or jury. 
Both parties were thoroughly disgusted with Consti 
tutional provisions, restraining them from summary 
vengeance; each was ready to submit /to arbitrary 
power, to the fiat of a dictator, to make me a king for 


the time being, or at least that I might exercise the 
power of a king, to abolish both the forms and spirit 
-of free government, if the despotism to be erected upon 
its ruins could only be wielded for their benefit, and to 
take vengeance on their enemies. 

"Another election was to come off in August, 1844, 
for members of Congress and for the Legislature ; and 
an election was pending throughout the nation for a 
President of the United States. The war of partj^ was 
never more fierce and terrible than during the pen 
dency of these elections. As a means of allaying the 
excitement, and making the question more managea 
ble, I was most anxious that the Mormons should not 
vote at this election, and strongly advised them against 
doing so. But Col. E. D. Taylor went to their city a 
few days before the election, and the Mormons being 
ever disposed to follow the worst advice they could get, 
were induced by him and others to vote for all the 
democratic candidates. Col. Taylor found them very 
hostile to the Governor, and on that account much dis 
posed not to vote at this election. The leading Whig 
anti-Mormons believing that I had an influence over 
the Mormons, for the purpose of destroying it, had as 
sured them that the Governor had planned and been 
favorable to the murder of their Prophet and Patriarch. 
The Mormons pretended to suspect that the Governor 
had given some countenance to the murder, or at least 
had neglected to take the proper precautions to pre 
vent it. 

" In the course of the fall of 1844, the anti- Mormon 
leaders sent printed invitations to all the militia cap- 


tains in Hancock, and to the captains of militia in all 
the neighboring counties in Illinois, Iowa, and Mis 
souri, to be present with their companies at a great 
wolf hunt in Hancock ; and it was privately announced 
that the wolves to be hunted were the Mormons, and 
Jack Mormons.* Preparations were made for assem 
bling several thousand men, with provisions for six 
days ; and the anti- Mormon newspapers, in aid of the 
movement, commenced anew the most awful accounts 
of thefts and robberies, and meditated outrages by the 
Mormons. The Whig press in every part of the United 
States came to their assistance. The Democratic news 
papers and the leading Democrats, who had received the 
benefit of the Mormon votes to their party, quailed 
under the tempest, leaving no organ for the correction 
of public opinion, either at home or abroad, except the 
discredited Mormon newspaper at Nauvoo. But very 
few of my prominent Democratic friends would dare to 
come up to the assistance of their Governor, and but few 
of them dared openly to vindicate his motives in en 
deavoring to keep the peace. They were willing and 
anxious for Mormon votes at elections, but they were 
unwilling to risk their popularity with the people, by 
taking a part in their favor, even when law and justice 
and the Constitution were all on their side. Such 
being the odious character of the Mormons, the hatred 
of the common people against them, and such being 
the pusillanimity of leading men, in fearing to encoun 
ter it. 

" In this state of the case I applied to Brigadier-Gen- 
* A slang name applied to Gentiles who favor the Mormons. 


eral J. J. Hardin of the State militia, and to Colonels 
Baker and Merriman, all Whigs, but all of them men of 
military ambition, and they together with Colonel Wil 
liam Weatherford, a Democrat, with my own exertions, 
succeeded in raising about five hundred volunteers ; and 
thus did these Whigs, that which my own political 
friends with two or three exceptions, were slow to do, 
from a sense of duty and gratitude. 

" With this little force under the command of General 
Hardin, I arrived in Hancock County on the 25th of 
October. The malcontents abandoned their design, and 
all the leaders of it fled to Missouri. The Carthage 
Grays fled almost in a body, carrying their arms along 
with them. During our stay in the county the anti- 
Mormons thronged into the camp, and conversed freely 
with the men, who were fast infected with their preju 
dices, and it was impossible to get any of the officers 
to aid in expelling them. Colonels Baker, Merriman 
and Weatherford volunteered their services if I would 
go with them, to cross with a force into Missouri, to 
capture three of the anti-Mormon leaders, for whose 
arrest writs had been issued for the murder of the 
Smiths. To this I assented, and procured a boat which 
was sent down in the night, and secretly landed a mile 
above Warsaw. Our little force arrived at that place 
about noon ; that night we were to cross the Missouri 
at Churchville, and seize the accused there encamped 
with a number of their friends; but that afternoon 
Colonel Baker visited the hostile camp, and on his 
return refused to partcipate in the expedition, and so 
advised his friends. There was no authority for com- 


pelling men to invade a neighboring State, and for this 
cause, much to the vexation of myself and others, the 
matter fell through. It seems that Colonel Baker had 
already partly arranged the terms for the accused to 
surrender. They were to be taken to Quincy for ex 
amination under a military guard; the attorney for 
the people was to*be advised to admit them to bail, 
and they were to be entitled to a continuance of their 
trial at the next Court at Carthage; upon this, two 
of the accused came over and surrendered themselves 

" I employed able lawyers to hunt up the testimony, 
procure indictments and prosecute the offenders. A 
trial was had before Judge Young in the summer of 
1845. The Sheriff and panel of jurors selected by the 
Mormon Court were set aside for prejudice, a new panel 
was ordered and elisors were appointed for this purpose ; 
but as more than a thousand men had assembled under 
arms at the court, to keep away the Mormons and their 
friends, the jury was made up of these military followers 
of the court, who all swore that they had never formed 
or expressed an opinion as to the guilt or innocence of 
the accused. The Mormons had one principal witness, 
who was with the troops at Warsaw, had marched with 
them until they were disbanded, heard their consulta 
tions, went before them to Carthage and saw them mur 
der the Smiths. But before the trial came on they had 
induced him to become a Mormon; and being much more 
anxious for the glorification of the Prophet than to 
avenge his death, the leading Mormons made him pub 
lish a pamphlet giving an account of the murder, in 


which he professed to have seen a bright and shining 
light descend upon the head of Joe Smith, to strike some 
of the conspirators with blindness, and that he heard 
supernatural voices in the air confirming his mission as 
a Prophet ! Having published this in a book, he was 
compelled to swear to it iisrcpurt, which of course de 
stroyed the credit of nis evidence. This witness was 
afterwards expelled from the Mormons, but no doubt 
they will cling to his evidence in favor of the divine 
mission of the Prophet. Many other witnesses were 
examined who knew the facts, but, under the influence 
of the demoralization of faction, denied all knowledge 
of them. It has been said, that faction may find men 
honest, but it scarcely ever leaves them so. This was 
verified to the letter, in the history of the Mormon 
quarrel. The accused were all acquitted. 

" At the next term, the leading Mormons were tried 
and acquitted for the destruction of the heretical press. 
It appears that, not being interested in objecting to the 
Sheriff or jury selected by a court elected by them 
selves, they, in their turn, got a favorable jury deter 
mined upon acquittal; and yet the Mormon jurors a, 
swore that they had formed no opinion as to the guilt 
or innocence of their accused friends. It appeared that 
the laws furnished the means of suiting each party with 
a jury. The Mormons could have a Mormon jury to 
be tried by, selected by themselves ; and the anti-Mor 
mons, by objecting to the Sheriff and regular panel, 
could have one from the anti-Mormons. Henceforth no 
leading man on either side could be arrested without the 
aid of an army, as the men of one party could not 


safely surrender to the other for fear of being murdered ; 
when arrested by a military force, the Constitution pro 
hibited a trial in any other county without the consent 
of the accused. No one would be convicted of any 
crime in Hancock ; and this put an end to the adminis 
tration of the criminal law in that distracted county. 
Government was at an end there, and the whole com 
munity was delivered up to the dominion of a frightful 
anarchy. If the whole State had been in the same 
condition, then indeed would have been verified to the 
letter what was said by a wit, when he expressed an 
opinion that the people were neither capable of gov 
erning themselves, nor of being governed by others." 

Late in 1845, the Mormon Charters were revoked by 
the Legislature, which act that body evidently considered 
a cure for all the evils of Mormonism. 

" Nauvoo was now a city of about 15,000 inhabitants 
and was fast increasing, as the followers of the Prophet 
were pouring into it from all parts of the world; and 
there were several other settlements and villages of Mor 
mons in Hancock County. Nauvoo was scattered over 
about six square miles, a part of it being built upon the 
flat, skirting and fronting on the Mississippi River, but 
the greater portion of it upon the bluffs back, east of 
the river. The great Temple, which is said to have 
cost a million of dollars in money and labor, occupied a 
commanding position on the brow of this bluff, and 
overlooked the country around for twenty miles in Illi 
nois and Iowa. 

" The anti-Mormons complained of a large number of 
larcenies and robberies. The Mormon press at Nauvoo 


and the anti-Mormon papers at Warsaw, Quiney, Spring 
field, Alton, and St. Louis, kept up a constant fire at 
each other ; the anti-Mormons all the time calling upon 
the people to rise and expel, or exterminate the Mormons. 
The great fires in Pittsburg and in other cities about 
this time, were seized upon by the Mormon press to 
countenance the assertion that the Lord had sent them 
to manifest his displeasure against the Gentiles ; and to 
hint that all other places which should countenance 
the enemies of the Mormons, might expect to be 
visited by hot drops of the same description. This 
was interpreted by the anti-Mormons to be a threat by 
Mormon incendiaries, to burn down all cities and places 
not friendly to their religion. About this time also, a 
suit had been commenced in the circuit court of the 
United States against some of the Twelve Apostles, on 
a note given in Ohio. The deputy marshal went to 
summon the defendants. They were determined not to 
be served with process, and a great meeting of their 
people being called, outrageously inflammatory speeches 
were made by the leaders ; the marshal was threatened 
and abused for intending to serve a lawful process, and 
here it was publicly declared and agreed to by the 
Mormons, that no more process should be served in 
Nauvoo. Also, about this time, a leading anti-Mormon 
by the name of Dr. Marshall made an assault upon 
Gen. Deming, the Sheriff of the County, and was killed 
by the Sheriff in repelling the assault. The Sheriff was 
arrested and held to bail by Judge Young, for man 
slaughter; though, as he had acted strictly in self- 
defence, no one seriously believed him to be guilty 


of any crime whatever. But Dr. Marshall had many 
friends disposed to revenge his death, and the rage of the 
people ran very high, for which reason it was thought 
best by the judge to hold the Sheriff to bail for some 
thing, to save him from being sacrificed to the public 

" Not long after the trials of the supposed murderers 
of the Smiths, it was discovered on the trial of a right 
of property near Lima, in Adams county, by Mormon 
testimony, that that people had an institution in their 
Church called a " Oneness," which was composed of an 
association of five persons, over whom one was appointed 
as a kind of guardian. This one was trustee for the rest, 
was to own all the property of the association ; so that 
if it were levied upon by an execution for debt, the 
Mormons could prove that the property belonged to one 
or the other of the parties, as might be required to defeat 
the execution. And not long after this discovery, in the 
fall of 1845, the anti-Mormons of Lima and Green 
Plains held a meeting to devise means for the expulsion 
of the Mormons from their neighborhood. They ap 
pointed some persons of their own number to fire a few 
shots at the house where they were assembled ; but to 
do it in such a way as to hurt none who attended the 
meeting. The meeting was held, the house was fired at, 
but so as to hurt no one j. and the anti-Mormons sud 
denly breaking up their meeting, rode all over the coun 
try, spreading the dire alarm that the Mormons had 
commenced the work of massacre and death. 

" This startling intelligence soon assembled a mob, 
which proceeded to warn the Mormons to leave the 


neighborhood, and threatened them with fire and sword 
if they remained. A very poor class of Mormons 
resided there, and it is very likely that the other 
inhabitants were annoyed beyond further endurance 
by their little larcenies and rogueries. The Mormons 
refused to remove; and about one hundred and seventy- 
five houses and hovels were burnt, the inmates being 
obliged to flee for their lives. They fled to Nauvoo in 
a state of utter destitution, carrying their women and 
children, aged and sick, along with them as best they 
could. The sight of these miserable creatures aroused 
the wrath of the Mormons of Nauvoo. As soon as 
authentic intelligence of these events reached Spring 
field, I ordered General Hardin to raise a force and 
restore the rule of law. But whilst this force was 
gathering, the Sheriff of the County had taken the 
matter in hand. General Deming had died not long 
after the death of Dr. Marshall, and the Mormons had 
elected Jacob B. Backinstos to be Sheriff in his place. 
Being just now regarded as the political leader of the 
Mormons, Backinstos was hated with a sincere and 
thorough hatred by the opposite party. 

" When the burning of houses commenced, the great 
body of the anti-Mormons expressed themselves strongly 
against it, giving hopes thereby that a posse of anti- 
Mormons could be raised to put a stop to such incen 
diary and riotous conduct. But when they were called 
on by the new Sheriff, not a man of them turned out 
to his assistance, many of them no doubt being 
influenced by their hatred of the Sheriff. Backinstos 
then went to Nauvoo, where he raised a posse of 


several hundred armed Mormons, with which he swept 
over the country, took possession of Carthage, and 
established a permanent guard there. The anti-Mor 
mons everywhere fled from their houses before the 
Sheriff, some of them to Iowa and Missouri, and others 
to the neighboring counties in Illinois. The Sheriff 
was unable or unwilling to bring any portion of the 
rioters to battle, or to arrest any of them for their 
crimes. The posse came near surprising one small 
squad, but they made their escape, all but one, before 
they could be attacked. This one, named McBratney, 
was shot down by some of the posse in advance, by 
whom he was hacked and mutilated as though he had 
been murdered by the Indians. 

" The Sheriff was also in continual peril of his life 
from the anti-Mormons, who daily threatened him with 
death the first opportunity. As he was going in a 
buggy from Warsaw in the direction of Nauvoo, he 
was pursued by three or four men to a place in the 
road where some Mormon teams were standing. Back- 
instos passed the teams a few rods, and then stopping, 
the pursuers came up within one hundred and fifty 
yards, when they were fired upon, with an unerring 
aim, by some one concealed not far to one side of them. 
By this fire* Franklin A. Worrell was killed. He 
was the same man who had commanded the guard at 
the jail at the time the Smiths were assassinated ; and 
there made himself conspicuous in betraying his trust, 

* It has since transpired that "Port" Rockwell fired the fatal 
shot ; and the gun he used is still preserved as a triumphant relic, in 
Salt Lake City. 


by consenting to the assassination. It is believed that 
Backinstos expected to be pursued and attacked, and 
had previously stationed some men in ambush, to fire 
upon his pursuers. He was afterwards indicted for the 
supposed murder, and procured a change of venue to 
Peoria County, where he was acquitted of the charge. 
About this time also, the Mormons murdered a man by 
the name of Daubeneyer, without any apparent pro 
vocation ; and another anti-Mormon, named Wilcox, 
was murdered in Nauvoo, as it was believed, by order 
of the twelve apostles. The anti-Mormons also com 
mitted one murder. Some of them, under Backman, 
set fire to some straw near a barn belonging to Durfee, 
an old Mormon of seventy years; and then lay in 
ambush until the old man came out to extinguish the 
fire, when they shot him dead from their place of 
concealment. The perpetrators of this murder were 
arrested and brought before an anti-Mormon justice of 
the peace, and were acquitted, though their guilt was 
sufficiently apparent. 

"During the ascendancy of the Sheriff and the absence 
of the anti-Mormons from their homes, the people who 
had been burnt out of their homes assembled at Nau 
voo, from whence, with many others, they sallied forth 
and ravaged the country, stealing and plundering what 
ever was convenient to carry or drive away. When 
informed of these proceedings I hastened to Jackson 
ville, where, in a conference with General Hardin, 
Major Warren, Judge Douglas, and the Attorney 
General, Mr. McDougall, it was agreed that these 
gentlemen should proceed to Hancock in all haste, with 


whatever forces had been raised, few or many, and put 
an end to these disorders. It was now apparent that 
neither party in Hancock could be trusted with the 
power to keep the peace. . It was also agreed that all 
these gentlemen should unite their influence with mine 
to induce the Mormons to leave the State. General 
Hardin lost no time in raising three or four hundred 
volunteers, and when he got to Carthage he found a 
Mormon guard in possession of the Court House. This 
force he ordered to disband and disperse in fifteen 
minutes. The plundering parties of Mormons were 
stopped in their ravages. The fugitive anti-Mormons 
were recalled to their homes, and all parties above four 
in number on either side were prohibited from assem 
bling and marching over the country. 

" Whilst General Hardin was at Carthage, a conven 
tion previously appointed assembled at that place, 
composed of delegates from the eight neighboring 
counties. The people of the neighboring counties 
were alarmed lest the anti-Mormons should entirely 
desert Hancock, and by that means leave one of the 
largest counties in the State to be possessed entirely 
by Monnons. This they feared would bring the sur 
rounding counties into immediate collision with them. 
They had, therefore, appointed this convention to con- 
.sider measures for the expulsion of the Mormons. The 
twelve apostles had now become satisfied that the Mor 
mons could not remain, or if they did the leaders would 
be compelled to abandon the sway and dominion they 
exercised over them. They had now become* con 
vinced that the kind of Mahomet anism which they 


sought to establish could never be maintained in 
the near vicinity of a people whose morals and preju 
dices were all outraged and shocked by it, unless in 
deed they were prepared to establish it by force of 
arms. Through the intervention of General Hardin, 
acting under instructions from me, an agreement was 
made between the hostile parties for the voluntary 
removal of the greater part of the Mormons in the 
spring of 1846. 

"The two parties agreed that, in the meantime, they 
would seek to make no arrests for crimes previously 
committed ; and on my part, I agreed that an armed 
force should be stationed in the county to keep the 
peace. The presence of such a force, and amnesty 
from prosecutions on all sides, were insisted on by the 
Mormons that they might devote their time and energies 
to prepare for their removal. General Hardin first 
diminished his force to one hundred men, leaving Major 
William B. Warren in command. And this force being- 
further reduced during the winter to fifty, and then to 
ten men, was kept up until the last of May, 1846. 
This force was commanded with great prudence and 
efficiency during all this winter and spring by Major 
Warren ; and with it he was enabled to keep the tur 
bulent spirit of faction in check, the Mormons well 
knowing that it would be supported by a much larger 
force whenever the Governor saw proper to call for it. 
In the meantime, they somewhat repented of their 
bargain, and desired Major Warren to be withdrawn. 
Backinstos was anxious to be again at the head of his 
posse, to goster over the county and to take vengeance 


on his enemies. The anti-Mormons were also dissatis 
fied, because the State force preserved a threatening 
aspect toward them as well as the Mormons. He was 
always ready to enforce arrests of criminals for new 
offences on either side ; and this pleased neither party. 
Civil war was upon the point of breaking out more than 
a dozen times during the winter. Both parties com 
plained of Major Warren ; but I, well knowing that he 
was manfully doing his duty, in one of the most difficult 
and vexatious services, steadily sustained him against 
the complaints on both sides. Great credit is due 
General Hardin and Major Warren for their services, 
which had the happiest results, and prevented a civil 
war in the winter time, when much misery would have 
followed it. 

" During the winter of 1845- 46, the Mormons made 
the most prodigious preparations for removal. All the 
houses in Nauvoo, and even the Temple, were converted 
into workshops ; and before spring more than twelve 
thousand wagons were in readiness. The people from 
all parts of the country flocked to Nauvoo to purchase 
houses and farms, which were sold extremely low, lower 
than the prices at a sheriff s sale, for money, wagons, 
horses, oxen, cattle, and other articles of personal prop 
erty, which might be needed by the Mormons during 
their exodus into the wilderness. By the middle of 
May it was estimated, that sixteen thousand Mormons 
had crossed the Mississippi and taken up their line of 
march westward ; leaving behind them in Nauvoo a 
small remnant of a thousand souls, being those who 
were unable to sell their property, or having none to 
sell, were unable to get away. 


" The twelve Apostles went first with about two 
thousand of their followers. Indictments had been 
found against nine of them in the Circuit Court of the 
United States for the district of Illinois, at its Decem 
ber term, 1845, for counterfeiting the current coin of 
the United States. The United States Marshal had 
applied to me for a militia force to arrest them ; but in 
pursuance of the amnesty agreed on, and consequent 
considerations, I declined the application unless regu 
larly called on by the President according to law. 
The arrest of the leaders would end the preparations 
for removal, and it was notorious that none of them 
could be convicted ; for they always commanded evi 
dence and witnesses enough to render conviction im 
possible. But with a view to hasten their removal 
they were made to believe that the President would 
order the regular army to Nauvoo as soon as naviga 
tion opened in the spring. This had its intended 
effect; the twelve with about two thousand followers 
immediately crossed the Mississippi before the breaking 
up of the ice. But before this, the deputy marshal 
had sought to arrest the accused without success. 

" Notwithstanding but few of the Mormons remained 
behind, after June, 1846, the anti-Mormons were no 
less anxious for their expulsion by force of arms ; being 
another instance of a party not being satisfied with 
success not brought about by themselves, and by 
measures of their own. It was feared that the Mor 
mons might vote at the August election of that year ; 
and that enough of them yet remained to control the 
elections in the county, and perhaps in the district for 




^f ! !3 


Congress. They, therefore, took measures to get up a 
new quarrel with the remaining Mormons. And for 
this purpose they attacked and severely whipped a 
party of eight or ten Mormons, which had been sent 
out in the country to harvest some wheat in the neigh 
borhood of Pontoosuc, and who had provoked the 
wrath of the settlement by hallooing, yelling, and 
other arrogant behavior. Writs were sworn out in 
Nauvoo against the men of Pontoosuc, who were kept 
for several days under strict guard until they gave bail. 
Then, in their turn, they swore out writs for the 
a*rrest of the constable and his posse who had made 
the first arrest, for false imprisonment. The Mormon 
posse were no doubt really afraid to be arrested, be 
lieving that instead of being tried they would be mur 
dered. This made an excuse for an anti-Mormon 
posse of several hundred men; but the matter was 
finally adjusted without any one being taken. A com 
mittee of anti-Mormons was sent into Nauvoo, who 
reported that the Mormons were making every possi 
ble preparation for removal ; and the leading Mormons 
on their part agreed that their people should not vote 
at the next election. 

"The August election sqon came, and the Mormons 
all voted the whole Democratic ticket. I have since 
been informed by Babbitt, the Mormon elder and agent 
for the sale of Church property, that they were induced 
to vote this time from the following considerations : 

" The President of the United States had permitted 
the Mormons to settle on the Indian lands on the Mis 
souri River, and had taken five hundred of them into 


the service as soldiers in the war with Mexico ; and, in 
consequence of these favors, the Mormons felt under 
obligations to vote for Democrats in support of the Ad 
ministration ; and so determined were they that their 
support of the President should be efficient, that they 
all voted three or four times each for a member of Con 

" This vote of the Mormons enraged the Whigs anew 
against them ; the probability that they might attempt 
to remain permanently in the country, and the certainty 
that many designing persons for selfish purposes were 
endeavoring to keep them there, revived all the excite 
ment which had ever existed against that people. In 
pursuance of the advice and under the direction of 
Archibald Williams, a distinguished lawyer and a Whig 
politician of Quincy, writs were again sworn out for 
the arrest of persons in Nauvoo, on various charges. 
But to create a necessity for a great force to make the 
arrests, it was freely admitted by John Carlin, the con 
stable sent in with the writs, that the prisoners would 
be murdered if arrested and taken out of the city. And 
now having failed to make the arrests, the constable 
began to call out the posse comitatus. This was about 
the 1st of September, 1846. The posse soon amounted 
to several hundred men. The Mormons, in their turn, 
swore out several writs for the arrest of leading anti- 
Mormons. Here was writ against writ; constable 
against constable ; law against law, and posse against 

" Whilst the parties were assembling their forces, the 
trustees of Nauvoo being new citizens, not Mormons, 


applied to the Governor for a militia officer to be sent 
over with ten men, they supposing that this small force 
would dispense with the services of the civil posse on 
either side. There was such a want of confidence on 
all sides, that no one would submit to be arrested by an 
adversary, for fear of assassination. 

" In looking around over the State for a suitable officer, 
those upon whom I had relied in all previous emergen 
cies having gone to the Mexican war, the choice fell 
upon Major Parker, of Fulton County. He w r as a 
Whig, and was selected partly for that reason, believ 
ing that now, as in previous cases, a Whig would have 
more influence in restraining the anti-Mormons than a 

" The posse continued to increase until it numbered 
about eight hundred men ; and whilst it was getting 
ready to march into the city, it was represented to me 
by another committee, that the new citizens of Nauvoo 
were themselves divided into two parties, the one siding 
with the Mormons, the other with their enemies. The 
Mormons threatened the disaffected with death, if they 
did not join in defence of the city. For this reason, I 
sent over M. Bray man, Esq., a judicious citizen of 
Springfield, with suitable orders restraining all com 
pulsion, in forcing the citizens to join the Mormons 
against their will, and generally to inquire into and re 
port all the circumstances of the quarrel. Soon after 
Mr. Brayman arrived there, he persuaded the leaders 
on each side into an adjustment of the quarrel. It was 
agreed that the Mormons should immediately surrender 
their arms to some person to be appointed to receive 


them, and to be re-delivered when they left the State, 
and that they would remove from the State in two 
months. This treaty was agreed to by General Single 
ton, Colonel Chittenden and others on the side of the 
An ties, and by Major Parker and some leading Mor 
mons on the other side. But when the treaty was sub 
mitted to the anti-Mormon forces for ratification, it was 
rejected by a small majority. General Singleton and 
Colonel Chittenden, with a proper self respect, immedi 
ately withdrew from command ; they not being the first 
great men placed at the head of affairs at the beginning 
of violence, who have been hurled from their places be 
fore the popular frenzy had run its course. And with 
them also great Archibald Williams, the prime mover 
of the enterprise, he not being the first man who has 
got up a popular commotion and failed to govern it 
afterwards. Indeed, the whole history of revolutions 
and popular excitements leading to violence, is full of 
instances like these. Mr. Brayman, the same day of 
the rejection of the treaty, reported to me that nearly 
one-half of the anti-Mormons would abandon the en 
terprise and retire with their late commanders, leav 
ing a set of hair-brained fools to be flogged or to disperse 
at their leisure. It turned out, however, that the cal 
culations of Mr. Brayman were not realized ; for when 
Singleton and Chittenden retired, Thomas S. Brockman 
was put in command of the posse. This Brockman 
was a Campbellite preacher, nominally belonging to the 
Democratic party. He was a large, awkward, uncouth, 
ignorant, semi-barbarian ; ambitious of office, and bent 
upon acquiring notoriety. After the appointment of 


Brockman, I was not enabled to hear in any authentic 
shape of the movements on either side, until the anti- 
Mormon forces had arrived near the suburbs of the 
city, and were about ready to commence an attack. 
The information which was received, was by mere 
rurnor of travelers, or by the newspapers from St. 
Louis. And I will remark that during none of these 
difficulties, have I been able to get letters and dispatches 
from Nauvoo by the United States mail, coming as it 
was obliged to do, through anti-Mormon settlements 
and Post Offices." 

The Governor s account proceeds to state the efforts 
and failure to raise an additional force of militia to quell 
the disturbance ; that, if any had been raised, it 
would have only operated to increase the excite 
ment and the anti-Mormon force ; that, it was his 
solemn conviction, no sufficient force could have been 
raised, to fight in favor of the Mormons ; that, no force 
could have more than temporarily suppressed the 
difficulties, and such was the public prejudice against 
the Mormons, that, ten chances to one, any large force 
of militia which might have been ordered there would 
have joined the rioters, rather than fought in favor of 
the Mormons. 

" The forces under Brockman numbered about 800 
men ; they were armed with the State arms, which 
had been given up to them by independent militia 
companies in the adjacent counties. They also had 
five six-pounder iron cannon, belonging to the State, 
which they had obtained in the same way. The Mor 
mon party and their allies, being some of the new 


citizens under the command of Major Clifford, num 
bered at first about two hundred and fifty men, but 
were diminished by desertions and removals, before any 
decisive fighting took place, to about one hundred and 
fifty. Some of them were armed with sixteen shooting 
rifles, which experience proved ineffective in their 
hands, and a few of them with muskets. They had four 
or five cannon, rudely and hastily made by themselves 
out of the shaft of a steamboat. The Mormons and 
their allies took position in the suburbs, about one 
mile east of the temple, where they threw up some 
breastworks for the protection of their artillery. The 
attacking force was strong enough to have been divided 
and marched into the city, on each side of this battery, 
and entirely out of the range of its shot; and thus the 
place might have been taken without the firing of a 
gun. But Brockman, although he professed a desire 
to save the lives of his men, planted his force directly 
in front of the enemy s battery, but distant more than 
half a mile ; and now both parties commenced a fire 
from their cannon, and some few persons on each side 
approached near enough to open a fire with their rifles 
and muskets, but not near enough to do each other ma 
terial injury. 

" In this manner they continued to fire at each other, 
at such a distance, and with such want of skill, 
that there was but little prospect of injury, until the 
anti-Mormons had exhausted their ammunition, when 
they retreated in some disorder to their camp. They 
were not pursued, and here the Mormons committed 
an error, for all experience of irregular forces has 


shown, that however brave they may be, a charge on 
them when they have once commenced a retreat, is 
sure to be successful. Having waited a few days to 
supply themselves with ammunition from Quincy, the 
Anties again advanced to the attack, but without com 
ing nearer to the enemy than before, and that which 
at the time was called a battle, was kept up three or 
four days, during all which time the Mormons admit a 
loss of two men and a boy killed, and three or four 
wounded. The Anties admit a loss on their side of one 
man mortally, and nine or ten others not so danger 
ously wounded. The Mormons claimed that they had 
killed thirty or forty of the Anties. The Anties 
claimed that they had killed thirty or forty of the 
Mormons ; and both parties could have proved their 
claim by incontestable evidence, if their witnesses had 
been credible. But the account which each party 
renders of its own loss should be taken as the true one, 
unless such account can be successfully controverted. 
During all the skirmishing and firing of cannon, it is 
estimated that from seven to nine hundred cannon 
balls, and an infinite number of bullets, were fired on 
each side, from which it appears that the remarkable 
fact of so few being killed and wounded, can be ac 
counted for only by supposing great unskilfulness in 
the use of arms, and by the very safe distance which 
the parties kept from each other. 

" At last through the intervention of an anti-Mormon 
committee of one hundred from Quincy, the Mormons 
and their allies were induced to submit to such terms 
as the posse chose to dictate, which were that the Mor- 


mons should immediately give up their arms to the 
Quincy committee, and remove from the State. The 
trustees of the Church and five of their clerks were per 
mitted to remain for the sale of Mormon property, and 
the posse were to march in unmolested, and to leave a 
sufficient force to guarantee the performance of these 

" Accordingly the constable s posse marched in with 
Brockman at their head, consisting of about eight hun 
dred armed men, and six or seven hundred unarmed, 
who had assembled, from all the country around, from 
motives of curiosity, to see the once proud city of Nau- 
voo humbled, and delivered up to its enemies, and to 
the domination of a self-constituted and irresponsible 
power. They proceeded into the city slowly and care 
fully, examining the way from fear of the explosion of 
a mine, many of which had been made by the Mormons, 
by burying kegs of powder in the ground with a man 
stationed at a distance to pull a string communicating 
with the trigger of a percussion lock affixed to the keg. 
This kind of contrivance was called* by the Mormons a 
4 hell s half-acre. When the posse arrived in the city, 
the leaders of it erected themselves into a tribunal to 
decide who should be forced away and who re 
main. Parties were dispatched to hunt for Mormon 
arms and for Mormons, and to bring them to the judg- 
Qient, where they received their doom from the mouth 
of Brockman, who then sat a grim and unawed tyrant 
for the time. As a general rule, the Mormons were 
ordered to leave within an hour or two hours ; and by 
rare grace some of them were allowed until next day, 
and in a few cases longer. 


" The treaty specified that the Mormons only should 
be driven into exile. Nothing was said in it concern 
ing the new citizens, who had, with the Mormons, 
defended the city. But the posse no sooner obtained 
possession, than they commenced expelling the new 
citizens. Some of them were ducked in the river, 
being in one or two instances actually baptized in the 
name of the leaders of the mob ; others were forcibly 
driven into the ferry boats, to be taken over the river, 
before the bayonets of armed ruffians ; and it is asserted 
that the houses of most of them were broken open and 
their property stolen during their absence. 

"Although the mob leaders, in the exercise of un 
bridled power, were guilty of many enormities to the 
persons of individuals, and though much personal 
property was stolen, yet they abstained from materially 
injuring houses and buildings. The most that was 
done in this way was the stealing of the doors and sash 
of the windows from a few houses by somebody ; each 
party equally alleging that it was done by the other. 

" The Mormons had been forced away from their 
homes unprepared for a journey. They and their 
women and children had been thrown houseless upon 
the Iowa shore, without provisions or the means of get 
ting them, or to get away to places where provisions 
might be obtained. It was now the height of the sickly 
season. Many of them were taken from sick beds, 
hurried into the boats, and driven away by the armed 
ruffians now exercising the power of government. The 
best they could do was to erect their tents on the banks 
of the river, and there remain to take their chances of 



perishing by hunger, or by prevailing sickness. In this 
condition the sick, without shelter, food, nourishment 
or medicines, died by scores. The mother watched her 
sick babe, without hope, until it died, and when she sunk 
under accumulated miseries, it was only to be quickly 
followed by her other children, now left without the 
least attention ; for the men had scattered out over the 
country seeking employment and the means of living. 
Their distressed condition was no sooner known, than 
all parties contributed to their relief; the anti-Mormons 
as much as others." 






The Via Dolorosa of Mormon History Through Iowa Great suffering 
" Stakes of Zion " Settlement in Nebraska il Mormon Battalion" 
Journey to Utah Founding of Salt Lake City Early accounts Out 
rages upon California emigrants Travelers murdered Apostates 
" missing " Dangers of rivalry in love with a Mormon Bishop Usurpa 
tions of Mormon Courts and officers Federal Judges driven out 
Murders of Babbitt and Williams Flight of Judges Stiles and Drum- 
m0 nd The Army set in motion for Utah New officers appointed Sus 
picious delay of the army The "Mormon War" begun. 

THE last of the Mormons was exiled from the State 
which had gladly received them seven years before, 
and we turn to their march through Iowa the Via 
Dolorosa of Mormon history. A band of pioneers 
through Iowa left Nauvoo the 20th day of January, 
1846, and the same day the High Council issued a cir 
cular announcing the general intention to leave. Early 
in February several thousand Mormons crossed the 
Mississippi, many of them on the ice, and started 
directly west, along a line near the northern boundary 
of Missouri. They were divided into companies of ten 
wagons each, under control of captains, and this semi- 
military order was maintained throughout. As the 
spring advanced, many of the able-bodied men scattered 
to various places in Missouri and Iowa, seeking em 
ployment of every kind, and the remaining men, with 


a great band of women and children, pursued their way. 
In that climate and at that season, their sufferings were 
necessarily great. The high waters, wet prairie, damp 
winds and muddy roads of spring troubled them worse 
than the frosts of winter, and sickness and death in 
creased. "All night," says a woman who made the 
journey, " the wagons came trundling into camp with 
half-frozen children screaming with cold, or crying for 
bread, and the same the next day, and the next, the 
whole line of march. 

" The open sky and bare ground for women and 
children in February is a thing only to be endured 
when human nature is put to the rack of necessity, 
and many a mother hastily buried her dead child by 
the wayside, only regretting she could not lie down 
with it herself and be at peace." 

On their way they established " Stakes," and when 
the weather had sufficiently advanced, enclosed large 
fields and planted them with grain for those who were 
to follow after. The most noted of these " stakes " 
were Garden Grove and Mt. Pisgah. They bridged 
the Nishnabatona, Nodaway and Grand Rivers, besides 
many smaller streams, and later, when the grass was 
grown, turned northward. 

But the advance of the season seemed to increase the 
amount of disease ; hundreds who had been frost-bitten 
and chilled during the winter died along the way, and 
the route was lined with graves. Still the zeal of the 
survivors sustained them, and the cruel ambition of 
their leader forced them on ; and though many de 
serted and turned away to various Gentile settlements, 




a majority remained. As successive parties left Nau- 
voo, the trains were spread over a line of a hundred 
miles ; but during the latter part of the season they 
concentrated in the Pottawattomie country, extending 
up and down the Missouri from Council Bluffs. Here 
they built ferry boats, and a part crossed the river. 
Preparations for the winter were made on both sides ; 
cabins were built, rude tents erected, and " dugouts," 
dwellings half underground, constructed. Many young 
men went back to the States, and hired out to 
work for provisions, which were forwarded to the 
camp. According to other witnesses, a band of horse 
and cattle thieves was organized under the control of 
Orson Hyde, and a gang of counterfeiters sent into 
Missouri. In the July previous they had been visited 
by Captain James G. Allen, of the United States 
Dragoons, with whom Brigham Young entered into 


negotiations to furnish a battalion for the Mexican 
War. The Mormons were the more ready to enter 
this service, as they expected to be discharged in Cali 
fornia, where the Church then intended to settle. 
Five hundred men were enrolled in a few days, and 
proceeded to Leavenworth, where they were mustered 
into the service of the United States. An agent of 
Brigham Young accompanied them thus far and re 
ceived twenty thousand dollars of their advanced 
bounty, which was understood to be for the support of 
their families during their absence. Several of them, 
since apostatized, testify that none of it was ever so 
appropriated. The battalion was placed under the 
command of Colonel Philip Saint George Cooke, and 
started forthwith on the noted overland march of 
General Kearny. 

They marched two thousand and fifty miles to San 
Diego, California, passing through the mountains of 
southern Colorado and New Mexico, and across the 
" desert of death." One company of them re-enlisted 
for a short time in California, many apostatized and the 
rest made their way to Salt Lake City. The main 
body of the Saints meanwhile concentrated at what is 
now Florence, six miles north of Omaha, which they 
called Winter Quarters. There they built five hundred 
log houses, one grist-mill, and several " horse mills ; " 
there the Church was completely reorganized; the " Quo 
rum of Three " re-established, and it was unanimously 
resolved that " the mantle of the Prophet Joseph had 
fallen on the Seer and Revelator, Brigham Young ; " who 
was accordingly chosen to all .the offices and titles of 
the dead Prophet. * 


On the eastern side of the Missouri, were still some 
two thousand wagons scattered in various camps, each 
bearing the name of its leader. Many of these names 
remain in the local nomenclature of that country, as Cut 
lers, Perkins, Millers, etc. At this time they were visited 
by Colonel (since General) Thos. L. Kane, of Philadel 
phia, who continued with them some time, crossed a 
portion of the plains with them, and figured extensively 
in an important period of Mormon history. Elder 
John Hyde, the noted apostate, says that Kane there 
embraced Mormonism, but this seems quite improbable. 
During the winter, Orson Pratt, Parley P. Pratt and 
John Taylor went on a mission to England, giving gen 
eral notice to the Saints abroad, that the next " gath 
ering place would be in Upper California." At a con 
ference held before they left Nauvoo, to determine their 
destination, Lyman Wight had strongly urged Texas, 
John Taylor proposed Vancouver s Island, many were 
in favor of Oregon and Brigham Young insisted upon 
California. They finally fixed indefinitely upon "some 
valley in the Rocky Mountains." 

In accordance with this conclusion, the " Pioneer 
Band," a hundred and forty-three men, driving seventy 
wagons, under the command of Brigham Young, left 
"Winter Quarters, April 14th, 1847, and followed Fre 
mont s Trail westward up the Platte River. West of 
the Black Hills, they diverged and followed a " trapper s 
trail " for four hundred miles, and from Bear River west 
ward, laid out a new route through Emigration Canon 
to Jordan Valley. 

The company entered the valley July 24th, now 




,=s*__ ^ ^ 

"-"":j^- . ^ : ^l 
:;_,-y . :-:^-fe^**= 


celebrated as "Anniversary Day." They found willows 
and other scant vegetation about a rod wide along City 
Creek, and this stream they dammed, and dug an irri 
gating ditch. They planted a few potatoes, from which 
they raised enough that year to serve for seed for a 
large plat, though no bigger than chestnuts. They pro 
ceeded also to lay out a city, and in October Brigham 
Young and a few others went back to Winter Quarters. 
The people had suffered greatly with cholera, fever 
and inflammatory diseases, and the "Old Mormon 
Graveyard" at Florence contains seven hundred graves 
of that winter, of which two hundred are of children. 
Vast numbers had "fallen into apostasy," or turned 
away and joined themselves to recusant sects; and all 
their fair-weather friends had forsaken them. But the 
little remnant were at least consolidated in sentiment, 


strengthened and confirmed together by mutual suffer 
ing, firm and self-reliant; and something over four thou 
sand made the journey to Salt Lake the following season. 
But the small party left in the valley had raised but 
a scant crop, and though the new comers had trans 
ported all the provisions they could, there was great 
scarcity. Every head of a family issued rations to 
those dependent upon him, and many children received, 
for months, "each one buiscuit a day and all the sego 
roots they could dig." Wolves, raw hides, rabbits, 
thistle roots, segos, and everything that would support 
life was resorted to. In 1849, a plentiful crop was 
raised, furnishing enough for food and a small surplus. 
February 20th, 1848, emigration from Great Britain 
was re-commenced after a suspension of two years. On 
the 10th of November of that year the inhabitants of 
Nauvoo were awakened, at an early hour by a fire in 
the Mormon Temple, which was soon beyond th^ir 
control and in a short time everything was destroyed 
but the bare walls. The city was largely occupied by 
a colony of Icarians, French Communists, under the 
lead of M. Cabet, and they had begun to refurnish the 
building for a social hall and schoolroom. The Hancock 
Patriot of that date gives a full account of the mis 
fortune, showing conclusively that the building had 
been fired by an incendiary. " But it is," says the 
Patriot, " impossible to assign a probable motive. The 
destroyer certainly had less worthy feelings than the 
man who fired the Ephesian Dome. Admit that it 
was a monument of folly and evil, it was at least a 
splendid, and harmless one." 


Many have since supposed that it was fired by an 
emissary from a rival city. The walls still stood in such 
perfect preservation, that nearly two years after the 
citizens determined to roof and finish it for an Academy ; 
but on May 27th 1850, a violent hurricane swept over 
Iowa and Illinois and prostrated the structure, leaving 
only a portion of the western wall, and now naught but 
a shapeless pile of stones marks the spot. Mormon 
annals give many interesting incidents of their first three 
years in Utah, but this record can deal particularly 
only with that portion of their history where they came 
in immediate contact with the Gentiles. For two years 
they seem to have had it all their own way ; if there 
were Gentiles resident in Salt Lake City before 1849, 
lliey were " braves before Agamemnon," history makes 
no mention of them. Of course there were trappers 
and mountaineers who occasionally visited the city, and 
a few parties of emigrants passed that way even before 
the great rush of 49. Lieutenant Kuxton s " Life in 
the Far West " gives an account of a visit to the new 
city, which is both amusing and romantic, and M. Violet, 
the French chief among the Shoshonees, visited the 
Mormon settlements soon after their establishment. 
For three years the Mormons devoted all their ener 
gies to developing the country and getting ready to live ; 
their extreme poverty prevented their being either very 
enterprising in reaching out towards their neighbors, or 
particularly anxious to encroach on any one. Quite a 
number of Gentiles had met with them in various places 
on the plains and accompanied them some distance; 
but Colonel Thomas L. Kane, who made most of the 


journey with them, and witnessed their early efforts, 
has left the only account approaching to exactness of 
these early years. The great rush of gold hunters in 
1849, was coeval with a season of plenty, and the asso 
ciation seems to have been mutually beneficial to Mor 
mons and pioneers, but none of the latter appear to 
have halted in " Zion." They were in too eager haste 
to gain the new Eldorado. As early as 1846 a few 
emigrants passed this way to the Pacific coast, and the 
latter part of that year one Hastings led a party by a 
new route south of the Lake, since known as " Hastings 

It is estimated by those living at various military 
posts on the overland route, that from five to ten thou 
sand emigrants from the United States had crossed to 
the Pacific coast before the discovery of gold. Fort 
Bridger had been occupied several years by Colonel 
James Bridger, the oldest mountaineer in that region, 
who had been engaged in the Indian trade there, and 
upon the head waters of the Missouri and Columbia since 
1819. Early in 1849 General Wilson, newly appointed 
Indian Agent for California, passed through Salt Lake 
City, making a short stay, and late the same year Cap 
tain Howard Stansbury, of the United States Topo 
graphical Engineers, reached the city and remained till 
the next May. This officer with his assistant, Lieuten 
ant Gunnison, set out from Leavenworth, Kansas, on 
the 31st of May, 1849 ; traveling up the Blue Kiver to 
its head, he crossed over to the Platte and followed the 
main emigrant route as far as Fort Bridger. 

Thence he endeavored to find a more direct route to 


the head of the lake than the one usually followed by 
Fort Hall, in Idaho, which required a " northing " of 
nearly two degrees. In pursuance of this intention he 
followed the "Mormon Road" west to Bear River, 
thence followed down that stream northward, six 
miles to Medicine Butte, from which he sought a 
route due west, but was obliged to turn again to the 
south and struck upon the head of Pumbars Creek, a 
tributary of the Weber. 

From this hollow he passed over another ridge to 
Ogden Hole, long the rendezvous of the Northwest Fur 
Company, on account of its fine range for stock in 
winter. From this place he passed out into the main 
valley, and from the " bench " northwest of Ogden, on 
the 27th of August, caught his first view of Great 
Salt Lake. Thinking, as he stated, that his success 
depended somewhat upon the good-will of the Mor 
mons, he visited Salt Lake City at once, and seems to 
have formed a very favorable opinion. He acknowl 
edges the courtesy and assistance of the Mormons, " as 
soon as the true object of the expedition was under 
stood." His party were probably the first Gentiles 
who ever spent more than a month or two in Salt 
Lake City. Late in 1849, or early in 1850, Messrs. 
Livingston and Kinkead, pioneer merchants, opened a 
store in Salt Lake City, and from the extent of their 
trade, the Saints seemed to have realized handsomely 
on their sales to the California emigrants. 

Captain Stansbury completed his survery of the 
Great Salt Lake, and set out on his return to the 
States in August, 1850 ; and soon after an immense 




emigration appeared on their way to California. The 
association of the preceding year seems to have crea 
ted great confidence and nearly all these emigrants 
made a lengthy stay in the Mormon settlements. For 
three years the Mormons had been almost unheard of 
in the States, most of the prejudice against them had 
died out and had the policy of the first year been pur 
sued, mutual good-will would have been established 
on a firm basis and the settlement in Utah considered 
a real blessing. 


But renewed prosperity, plenty and increasing 
numbers had produced their usual effects, arrogance, 
spiritual pride, and a desire to dominate over " the 
unbelievers," and numerous difficulties arose. Late in 
the season a large number of emigrants were persuaded 
tluit it was unsafe to continue the westward route at 
that season, and concluded to remain all winter among 
the Mormons. They represent that all was pleasant 
until autumn was too far advanced for them to leave 
even by the southern route, after which a series of mer 
ciless exactions began, and never ceased as long as the 
Mormon civil authorities could find pretences for bogus 
legal actions, or the emigrants had anything of which 
they could be stripped. Those who had hired out to 
work for Mormons were refused their pay, and denied 
redress in the courts ; if difficulties arose, fines of from 
one to five hundred dollars were imposed for the 
slightest misdemeanors ; in all suits between Mormon 
and Gentile, the latter invariably paid the costs ; they 
were openly reviled in court by the Mormon Judges, 
and in one peculiarly aggravating instance Justice 
Willard Snow boasted to Gentiles in his court that " the 
time was near at hand, when he would judge Gentiles 
for life and death, and then he would snatch their heads 
off like chickens in the door yard." 

In one case an emigrant died near the Hot Springs, 
and his three companions buried him and proceeded on 
their way without notifying the city authorities. Com 
plaint was made that some city ordinance had been 
violated; they were pursued, taken back to the city, 
and every dollar they had, as well as their wagori and 


all their stock, were taken to pay their fine and costs. 
Another Gentile was struck over the head with a board 
by Bill Hickman, and returned the blow, for which he 
was arrested and fined eighty dollars ; the costs made 
up the amount to more than two hundred dollars, but 
as he had but little over half the sum, they kindly con 
tented themselves with taking all he had, and let him 
depart. Many who had come in with a complete 
" outfit," finished their journey on foot. When these 
emigrants reached the general rendezvous on the Sacra 
mento, they began to compare notes. And as each new 
comer added to the evidence, it was thought best to 
compile their statements to send to their eastern friends. 
Accordingly the affidavits of five hundred of them were 
selected, reduced to form, and, with their names ap 
pended, published and circulated generally in the East. 

This book, of which a copy may be found in the 
State library at Sacramento, contains statements of facts 
which seem almost incredible, even with our present 
knowledge of Mormon law and its administration ; but 
they rest on the sworn testimony of reliable men, who 
now reside in Tuolumne, Amador, Placer, Nevada, Si 
erra, and other mining counties of California. 

This publication roused all the old bitterness of feel 
ing against the Mormons, which was not a little 
heightened soon after by the shameless avowal on their 
part of polygamy and incest as features of their religion. 
Meanwhile, by the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, in 
1848, all that section had passed from the dominion of 
Mexico to that of the United States, and early in 1849, 
the Mormon authorities called a convention " of all the 


citizens of that portion of upper California lying east 
of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, to take into considera 
tion the propriety of organizing a Territorial or State 
Government." This convention met at Salt Lake 
City on the 5th of March, 1849, and in a short session 
"ordained and established a free and independent 
Government, by the name of the STATE OF DESERET," 
fixed the boundaries of the new State, and provided 
for the election of a Governor and all State officers. 
On the 2d of July following, the Legislature of the 
new State met, elected a delegate to Congress, adopted 
a memorial also to that body, in which they set forth 
their loyalty, patriotism and material progress, popula 
tion and other qualifications and asked for admission. 

Congress, however, failed to see it precisely in that 
light, and on the 9th of September, 1850, passed an 
act to organize the Territory of Utah, of which Presi 
dent Fillmore appointed Brigham Young Governor. 
In return for this courtesy, Brigham soon after preached 
one of his "live sermons," in which he said; "Why, 
when that time comes (the earthly reign of the Saints) 
the Gentiles will come begging to us to be our ser 
vants. I know several men, high in office in the Na 
tion, who would make good servants. I expect the 
President of the United States to Hack my boots" 
This was, to say the least, unkind of Brigham. At 
the same time, Lemuel C. Brandenburg was appointed 
Chief Justice ; Perry E. Brochus, and Zerubbabel Snow, 
(Mormon) Associate Justices; Seth M. Blair, (Mor 
mon) Attorney General, and B. D. Harris, Secretary. 
Thus the President had divided the offices pretty 


equally between Saint and Gentile. The officers did 
not reach Utah till July, 1851, at which time there 
were a few Gentiles resident in Salt Lake City, mostly 
carpenters and other artisans whose labor was just 
then in special demand, emigrants who had failed at 
that point on their way to the Pacific, and perhaps 
half a dozen California traders or cattle dealers. The 
new Gentile officers soon found themselves involved in 
difficulty ; Judge Brochus rashly attempted to preach 
against polygamy, and having his life threatened soon 
after left the Territory, followed in 1852, by Secretary 
Harris, leaving the government once more in the hands 
of the Mormons. Brigham Young appointed his second 
counsellor, Willard Richards, to fill the vacant Secre 
taryship, the sole remaining Judge, Z. Snow, and the 
District Attorney being " good Mormons." 

A few Spaniards who had come into Utah from the 
South were tried before Snow, and convicted " of buy 
ing Indian children for slaves," whether justly or not, 
cannot now be determined. The Indians were taken 
from the Gentiles, and turned over to the " brethren," 
to make them, according to prophecy, "a fair and 
delightsome people." An Indian war soon after broke 
out, and occasional difficulties continued through 1852, 
53, and 54. In place of the judges who had resigned, 
President Pierce appointed Judges Leonidas Shaver 
and Lazarus H. Reed; the former arrived in the fall 
of 52, the latter in June, 53. Judge Shaver was a 
" hail fellow, well met," and lived on the best of terms 
with the Mormons for some time, but at length a 
sudden quarrel occurred between him and Brigham 


Young. He occupied a room in a house belonging to 
Elder Howard Coray, but rented by a Mr. Dotson. 
One night he retired in his usual health, and the next 
morning was found dead in his bed. The Church 
authorities ordered a thorough investigation, and the 
Coroner s jury of Mormons decided that he died of 
" some disease of the head." One physician gave it as 
his opinion, that the Judge had been greatly addicted 
to the use of opium, and died in consequence of being 
suddenly deprived of it ; and this is the popular belief 
among the Mormons. Only one witness on this matter 
was ever examined in the States, arid she gave it as 
her opinion that he had been poisoned, adding that she 
had heard Brigham Young say: " Judge Shaver knew 
too much, and he dare not allow him to leave the 
Territory." Being an apostate Mormon, her evidence 
may be true or untrue. The Mormons treated Judge 
Reed with marked courtesy, and after a stay of one 
year he left with an exalted opinion of them. He 
went to his home in New York, intending to return, 
but died very suddenly while there. 

About this time, a young man named Wallace A. 
C. Bowman, a native of New York, arrived at Salt 
Lake from New Mexico, with a company of Spanish 
traders. He met Brigham Young and his "body 
guard " at Utah Lake, and, according to his com 
panion s account, had some difficulty with the latter. 
On his arrival in the city, he was arrested by Robert 
T. Burton on several charges. He was kept in 
confinement several weeks, but no evidence appearing 
against him was released. He started east at once, 


but was shot and instantly killed in a canon but a few 
miles from the city, " by Indians," according to the 
Mormon account; by Norton and Ferguson, "Danites," 
according to the same witness above mentioned. As 
in that case, it is now impossible to tell which story is 
true. John F. Kinney, of Iowa, was appointed Chief 
Justice to succeed Reed, and George P. Stiles Associate 
Justice; Joseph Holman, of Iowa, Attorney General, 
and Almon W. Babbitt Secretary. In the spring cf 
1855, W. W. Drummond, of Illinois, was also appointed 
Associate Justice. 

In the fall of 1854, Colonel Steptoe, with about three 
hundred men of the United States Army, reached Salt 
Lake and spent the winter. At the same time quite a 
number of Gentiles, on their way to or returning from 
California wintered in the city. It is now known that 
Colonel Steptoe had been secretly commissioned Gov 
ernor of Utah by President Pierce, but, being of an un- 
cautious disposition, he attempted to practice polygamy 
on a free and easy plan not approved by the Saints, 
the result of which was that he was ingeniously trapped 
by two of Brigham s " decoy women," and to avoid ex 
posure resigned his commission and recommended 
Young s continuance in that office. Utah now began 
to be regarded as the " Botany Bay of worn-out politi 
cians ;" if a man was fit for nothing else, and yet had 
to be rewarded for political services, he was sent to 

During all the period from 1852 to 1856 numerous 
" Gladdenites " and other apostate and recusant Mor 
mons were frequently slipping away and crossing to 



and Ore- 
many of 

gon; and 

these parties, as well 
as trains of Gentile 
emigrants, were har- 
assed in various 
ways which could 
hardly be accounted 
for by Indian hos 
tility. Almon W. 
Babbitt, having quar 
relled with Brigham, 
started across the 
plains in 1855 and 
was murdered "by 
Indians who spoke 
good English;" and 
of this case Brigham 
said, " He lived a 



fool and died like a fool. When officers undertake to 
interfere with affairs that do not concern them, I will 
not be far off. He undertook to quarrel with me and 
soon after was killed by the Indians! 1 

In 1852 Lieutenant Gunnison, M. Creuzfeldt, the 
botanist, and eight of their party were massacred 
near Sevier Lake, by Indians, as then reported ; but 
soon after escaped apostates stated that it was done by 
" painted Mormons." In 1851 a Mr. Tobin came to 
Salt Lake with a party and while there was quite inti 
mate with Brigham s family. It is reported also that 
he was engaged to Brigham s daughter Alice Young. 
He returned in 1856, but had some difficulty and left. 
His party was attacked at night on the Santa Clara, 
three hundred and seventy miles south, many of them 
wounded and six of their horses killed ; but they es 
caped by abandoning their baggage. 

Not an arrow was shot at them, their clothing was 
pierced by bullets, the wounds were evidently from the 
best make of rifles and they all testify that the attack 
ing party spoke English. Other parties of recusant 
Mormons were missed in Nevada ; several emigrants 
from Missouri were last heard of near Salt Lake, and 
others had their stock run off where it was reasonably 
certain there were no hostile Indians. 

A recusant testifies that "one of the Missourians had 
boasted of helping to drive the Saints from Jackson 
County, and that he was kidnapped and murdered 
under the old mint by John Kay and other Danites. " 
A young man in Cache Valley had a difficulty with 
the bishop in regard to a girl whom the bishop wanted 


for a " plural wife." The young man was seized in a 
canon by two men with blackened faces and by them 
mutilated in an unspeakable manner. He afterwards 
went to San Bernardino, California, and died insane. A 
similar difficulty arose in a settlement on the Weber, 
and the young man was found dead, having received 
two shots in the back. One general difficulty exists in 
all these cases. The witnesses were all apostate Mor 
mons. While the writer would not stigmatize a whole 
class, among whom he has many pleasant acquaintances, 
and which contains some thoroughly honest and reli 
able men, yet it must be confessed that, of those who 
have lived Mormons for a term of years the outside 
world must always remain in doubt. 

There were very few Gentiles in Salt Lake, their in 
terest required that they should know nothing outside 
their business, and they generally took care to make no 
inquiry. Hence little definite and positive proof of the 
affairs of that period was laid before the Government ; 
but these reports spread through the West and con 
stantly increased the bitterness against the Mormons. 
Had the latter shown any willingness to throw light 
upon disputed points, their case would have a much 
better appearance. But their preaching constantly ex 
cited the people to greater hostility against the Gov 
ernment, and their courts and officers regularly thwart 
ed every attempt of the Federal officials to inquire 
into reported crimes or bring offenders to justice. In 
the fall of 1856, it became no longer possible for the 
Federal Judges to maintain the independence of their 
courts. The Mormons claimed that the Territorial 


Marshal should select the jurors for Federal courts 
when doing Territorial business, instead of the United 
States Marshal. 

Pending the decision of this question, James Fergu 
son, Hosea Stout, and other Mormon lawyers and 
officials, entered the court-room with an armed mob, 
and compelled Judge Stiles to adjourn his court. 
Thomas Williams, a Mormon lawyer, who had an 
office with Judge Stiles, protested against this action, 
for which his life was threatened. He soon after tried 
to escape to California, but was murdered on the way. 

The records of the District Courts were soon after 
stolen from Judge Stiles s office and, as he supposed at 
the time, destroyed. Both the Gentile Judges soon after 
left -the Territory, reaching the States in the spring 
of 1857. The Mormons were now in open rebellion. 
Congress was not in session, but President Buchanan 
and War Secretary Floyd determined to send an armed 
force with new officials. Accordingly, a force of nearly 
three thousand men was sent forward from Leaven- 
worth, under the command of Gen. W. S. Harney, 
who was, while on the plains, superseded by Col. 
Albert Sidney Johnston. At the same time new men 
were appointed to all the civil offices, as follows : 
Governor, Alexander Cumming ; Chief Justice, D. R. 
Eckles ; Associate Justices, John Cradlebaugh and 
Charles E. Sinclair, and Secretary, John Hartnet. 

The march of the column was delayed for various 
reasons, and it was late in September before the army, 
accompanied by the officials, crossed Green River and 
entered the Territory. Meanwhile Captain Van Vliet, 



an active and discreet officer, had been sent forward 
to purchase provisions for the army and assure the 
people of Salt Lake of the peaceful intentions of the 
Government. On his arrival there, he was amazed to 
find them preparing for war. 





Sounds of war in Utah Popular excitement Fears of the disaffected 
Attempted flight Murder of the Potter and Parrish familes Massacre 
of the Aiken party Assassination of Yates Killing of Forbes Brig- 
liarn "Turns loose the Indians" MOUNTAIN MEADOW MASSACRE 
Horrible barbarity of Indians and Mormons Evidence in the case 
Attempt of Judge Cradlebaugh Progress of the "Mormon War" 
Delay of the army Treachery or inefficiency ? Mormon Legion Lieu- 
tenant-General Wells Brigham "Commands" the National troops to 
withdraw Army trains destroyed Lot Smith, the Mormon Guerilla 
The "Army of Utah" in Winter Quarters Colonel Kane again Ne 
gotiations with Brigham Governor Gumming "passed" through the 
Mormon lines "Peace Commissioners " Mormon exodus Weakness 
of Gumming End of the War Murders of Pike, the Jones s, Bernard, 
Drown, Arnold, McNeil and others A change at last. 

WE enter now upon the black chapter in the annals 
of Utah a period replete with crime and stained with 
innocent blood. Occasional rumors of the march of the 
army had reached Salt Lake early in the season, and 
on the 24th of July, when the entire population were 
collected in Cotton wood Park to celebrate " Anniversary 
Day," " Port " Rockwell and John Kimball appeared 
among them just from the plains, and announced that 
the column was certainly destined for Utah. Brigham 
turned to those nearest him and with a savage scowl 
remarked, " I said when we reached here that if the 
devils would only give us ten years I d be ready for 
them. They ve taken me at my word, and now they 



will see that I am ready." The news spread rapidly 
throughout the settlements, producing everywhere fierce 
anger or a mixture of hope and dread, according as the 
hearer was firm in the Mormon faith or secretly dissatr 
isfied. The Tabernacle and Ward Assembly Rooms 
resounded with harangues in fierce denunciation of the 
Government, and Brigham Young and Heber C. Kim- 
ball vied with each other in vile language and inflam 
matory appeals. 

Brigham repeatedly stated that "if any proved traitor, 
or attempted to shield his own when the day came to 
burn and lay waste, he should be sheared down ; for 
judgment should be laid to the line and righteousness 
to the plummet." The effect of such teaching upon a 
fanatical people may well be imagined. A perfect 
reign of terror ensued. Of those devoted to Brigham, 
every one was a spy upon his neighbors, while the dis 
affected trembled at the storm, and made efforts to 
escape. Two men by the name of Parrish at Spring- 
ville, just south of Utah Lake, had declared their 
intention to start for California. The night before 
their intended departure their stock was run off, and 
going to search for it they were murdered but a few 
hundred yards from their dwelling, and after death 
their bodies mutilated in a shocking manner. Two of 
their neighbors, by the name of Potter, were killed at 
the same time. One Yates, a mountaineer, passing 
westward was assassinated in Echo Canon, and a party 
of six from California, under the command of a Mr. 
Aikin, were attacked west of Salt Lake, and four of 
them instantly killed. The other two were promised 


they "should be sent out of the Territory by the 
southern route," ..and, in pursuance of that promise, 
started south under guard. They were never again 
heard of, and by the testimony of an apostate woman, 
Alice Lamb, they were killed and their bodies thrown 
into a large spring near the road. She adds that one 
was only stunned by the first shot, when Porter Rock 
well stepped up, placed a pistol to his ear, and, adding, 
" This never misses," literally blew out his brains. The 
Mormons aver that this was a party of gamblers, that 
they carried with them "powders to drug Mormon wo 
men." and that they deserved death anyhow ;" and in 
all such cases they have established the principle of 
assassination. In this time of excitement, suspicion 
was proof. About the same time Brigham Young, 
preaching in the Tabernacle, stated that hitherto as 
Governor and Indian Agent he "had protected emi 
grants passing through the territory, but now he would 
turn the Indians loose upon them." This hint was as 
good as a letter of marque to the land pirates of south 
ern Utah, and was not long in being acted upon. Early 
in August, and before the excitement had reached its 
greatest height, a large train on its way to California 
reached Salt Lake City. Doctor Brewer, of the United 
States Army, who saw this train last at O Fallon s 
Bluff on the Platte, the llth of June preceding, de 
scribes it as "probably the finest train that had ever 
crossed the plains. There seemed to be forty heads 
of families, many women, some unmarried, and many 
children. They had three carriages; one very fine, 
in which ladies rode and to which he made several 


visits as he journeyed with them. There was some 
thing peculiar in the construction of the carriage, its 
ornaments, the blazoned stag s head upon the panels, 
etc. " This carriage was many years afterwards in the 
possession of the Mormons. 

In Salt Lake City several disaffected Mormons joined 
the train, and all proceeded by the southern route. The 
train was last seen entire by Jacob Hamlin, Indian sub- 
agent for the Pah-Utes, who lived at ,the upper end of 
the Mountain Meadow. He met them at Corn Creek, 
eight miles south of Fillmore, while on his way to Salt 
Lake City. Thenceforward no more was heard of the 
train; it was "lost," and a whole year had passed be 
fore any news of its fate reached the officials. 

Nor was it till many years afterwards, that all the 
damning facts in regard to its destruction were brought 
to light. But when revealed, it stands forth pre-emi 
nent in shocking barbarity above all that has occurred 
in American history, scarcely equalled by aught in the 
old world, and certainly not by anything in the history 
of our English race. The massacre of Glencoe f pales 
in comparison. 

Without going into detail of the witnesses examined, 
or the evidence of each, suffice it to give events as they 
occurred, and as they were fully proved in various ex 
aminations since made. Mountain Meadow is three 
hundred miles from Salt Lake, on the road to Los An- 
gelos, California. The meadows are about five miles in 
length and one in width, on the " divide " between the 
waters of the Great Basin and the Colorado. A very 
large spring rises near the south end, by which the em- 


[grants camped for a few days, having been told by 
Hamlin that this was the best place to rest and recruit 
their stock before entering upon the Great Desert. 
Thirty-four miles below the Meadow is a Mormon set 
tlement on the Santa Clara ; thirty miles north is Cedar 
City, and eighteen miles east of that is the town of 
Harmony. From the " divide " down to the Colorado, 
are a few Pah-Ute Indians, and north to Fillmore, a 
small tribe of Pah- Vents. The day after the emigrants 
passed Cedar City, a grand council was called there by 
Bishop Higbee and President J. C. Haight of that town, 
and Bishop John D. Lee of Harmony. They stated 
that they had received a command from Salt Lake City 
" to follow and attack those accursed Gentiles and let 
the arrows of the Almighty drink their blood." 

A force of sixty men was soon raised, and joined 
with a much larger force of Indians, encircled the 
emigrants camp before daylight. The white men had 
meanwhile painted and disguised themselves as Indians. 
A portion crept down a ravine near the camp, and fired 
upon the emigrants while at breakfast, killing ten or 

The latter were completely taken by surprise, but 
seized their arms, shoved the wagons together, sunk 
the wheels in the earth, and got in condition for 
defence. The idea that enough of the Utes of that 
district could be got together to attack a train with 
fifty armed men, is too absurd to be entertained for a 
moment, and the emigrants had rested in the ease of 
fancied security. 

But their resistance was far greater than the Mor- 


mons had expected; and there for an entire week, 
with their women and children lying in the trenches 
they had dug, they maintained the siege and kept the 
savages, as they supposed, at bay. And all of this 
time, as testified by Mrs. Hamlin, wife of the Agent, 
the shots wera constantly heard at Hamlin s ranche, 
and parties of Mormons, bishops, elders and laymen, 
were coming and going to and from the ranche, eating 
and drinking there, and "pitching quoits and amusing 
themselves in various ways" They had the emigrants 
effectually secured, and could afford to divide time and 
slaughter the Gentiles at their leisure. But at the end 
of a week they grew tired and resolved upon strategy. 
The firing ceased, and while the weary and heart-sick 
emigrants looked for relief, and hoped that their savage 
foes had given up the attack, they saw, at the upper 
end of the little hollow in which they were, a wagon 
full of men. The latter raised a white flag, and it was 
perceived they were white men. A glad shout of joy 
rang through the corral at the sight of men of their 
own color, their protectors, as they had every reason to 
believe. They held up a little girl dressed in white to 
answer the signal, and the party entered. The wagon 
contained J. C. Haight, John D. Lee and other dignita 
ries. They accused the emigrants of having poisoned 
a spring on the road used by the Indians, which was 
denied. It afterwards appeared in evidence that the 
spring ran so strong that " a barrel of arsenic would 
not have poisoned it." The Mormons said they were 
on good terms with the Indians, but the latter were 
* T ery angry, and would not let the emigrants escape. 


The Mormons would, however, intercede for the latter, 
if desired. This offer was gladly accepted, and after a 
few hours absence the Mormons returned and stated 
that the Indians gave as an ultimatum, that the 
emigrants should give up all their property, particu 
larly their guns, and go back the way they came. 
The Mormons promised in this case to guard them 
back to the settlements. These hard terms were 
acceded to, and the emigrants left their wagons and 
started northward on foot. 

The women and children were in front, the. men be 
hind them, and a Mormon guard of forty men in the 
rear. A mile or so from the spring, the road runs 
through a thicket of scrub oaks, where are also many 
large rocks, and here a force of Indians lay in ambush. 
At an agreed signal, a sudden fire was poured into the 
body of emigrants, and then Mormons and Indians 
together rushed upon them, shooting, cutting their 
throats, beating them to death with stones and clubs ; 
and in a very few minutes a hundred and twenty men, 
women and children, Americans, Christians, Gentiles, 
lay dead upon the ground, the miserable, hapless vic 
tims of Mormonism. The Mormons and Indians fell 
upon the women, bit and tore the rings from their fin 
gers and ears, and trampled in the faces of the dying. 
One young girl was dragged aside by President Haight, 
and kneeling implored him for life. He violated her 
with shameful barbarity, then beat out her brains with 
a club. Another young woman was taken out of the 
throng by John D. Lee. He afterwards stated he in 
tended to save her life and take her to his harem; but 


that she struck at him with a large knife, when he im- 
* mediately shot her through the head. Three men es 
caped. One starved to death upon the desert, another 
was murdered by the Indians ninety miles south, and 
the third was killed upon the Colorado, by whom is not 
known. Seventeen children were saved alive, who 
were supposed to be too young to remember anything 
about the circumstance. But two of them did, and af 
terwards gave important evidence. 

The children were first taken to Mrs. H^amlin s, and 
afterwards distributed among Mormon families in the 
neighborhood ; one was shot through the arm and lost 
the use of it. They were all recovered two years after 
and returned to their friends in the States. The prop 
erty was divided, the Indians getting most of the flour 
and ammunition; but they claim that the Mormons 
kept more than their share. Much of it was sold in 
Cedar City at public auction ; it was there facetiously 
styled, " Property taken at the siege of Sebastopol ; " 
and there is legal proof that the clothing stripped from 
the corpses, spotted with blood and flesh and shredded 
by bullets, was placed in the cellar of the tithing office 
and privately sold. As late as 1862, jewelry taken at 
Mountain Meadow, was worn in Salt Lake City, and 
the source it came from not denied. 

Such was the Mountain Meadow Massacre ; and to 
the eternal disgrace of American justice, not one of the 
perpetrators has ever been punished according to law. 
But the vengeance of heaven has not spared them. 
Some of the young men in the Mormon party have 
since 1 removed to California, and others apostatized. 
They earnestly insist that they were never informed 


that any killing was intended ; that they were told the 
only object was to turn back the emigrants and pre 
vent their carrying information to California ; that no 
more than a dozen white men, besides the bishops and 
President, were in the secret, and that these with the 
, Indians did all the killing. This is the present belief 
of most of the Mormons, and they add that Haight 
and Lee forged the order from Brigham Young, which 
was produced in extenuation of the crime. Two of the 
principal perpetrators are now insane. John D. Lee 
still resides in Harmony, no longer a bishop, and one 
can scarcely restrain a feeling of satisfaction at know 
ing that his life is one of misery. He is shunned and 
hated even by his Mormon neighbors, he seldom ven 
tures beyond the square upon which he lives, his mind 
is distracted by an unceasing dread of vengeance, and 
his intellect disordered. 

Though a too lenient government has failed of its duty, 
yet, in the sufferings of a fearful mind, he anticipates 
the hell his crimes deserve. Some months passed 
away before it was even whispered in the northern 
district that white men were concerned in this affair ; 
and to the credit of the Mormon people be it said, a 
great horror spread * among them at the report. A 
lady, then resident at Springville, told me that the 
people of that place first learned of the massacre the 
next spring, and the complicity of white men was put 
beyond doubt, in her mind, by the confession of her 
cousin, who was in the party but claimed he did not 
assist at the killing. " For weeks," she added : " I 
and the other women could not sleep for hearing the 
screams and groans of the poor creatures in our ears. 


We thought we saw signs in the sky. We trembled 
in dread. We wanted to run away from the land, for 
we thought it was cursed that the vengeance of God 
would destroy everybody in the southern district." 
The lady escaped to Fort Bridger, and afterwards 
married a Gentile. The superstitious fears, of which 
she speaks, still rest in many minds ; nor is it difficult 
to believe that, in the mysterious decrees of the moral 
order, the fearful stain must be washed out in blood. 
The guilty have escaped earthly justice ; but to the 
eye of faith an avenging Nemesis is poised upon the 
mountains of southern Utah, and pointing to the plains 
below demands " blood for blood." 

One question remains : Did Brigham Young know 
aught of, or give command for this massacre? The 
strong probability of course, is, that he did not. The 
majority of the Mormons, while they admit that church 
officials were concerned, yet claim that they acted with 
out Brigham s knowledge, and his own family add, that 
when news of the affair was brought him, he burst into 
tears and said, " If anything could break up and destroy 
this people, that one act would do it." Against these 
opinions there are many strong proofs : the evidence of 
the Mormons and Indians engaged in the affair; the 
failure of Brigham to give any account of it, whatever, 
in his next report as Indian Superintendent ; the com 
plete silence of his organ, the Church paper, on the 
subject ; his sermon " turning loose the Indians on emi 
grants ; " the fact that John D. Lee is his son liy Mormon 
" adoption" and has never been punished ; the testimony 
of the young Mormons who escaped from Harmony to 
California, and more than all else, the overwhelming 


certainty that no fact of great importance is ever en 
tered upon without the advice and consent of Brigham 
Young. An attempt was made by Judge Cradlebaugh, 
in the autumn of 1859, to bring the murderers to justice, 
which failed from causes to be hereafter fully explained 
Mormon courts and juries. 

I resume the regular history. On the 15th of Sep 
tember, 1857, Brigham issued a proclamation putting 
the Territory under martial law ; all the militia and 
able-bodied men were ordered " to hold themselves in 
readiness to march at a moment s notice to repel inva 
sion," and Lieutenant-General Daniel H. Wells was 
ordered with two thousand men to " occupy the passes 
of the Wasatch mountains, to defend their hearths and 
homes against the violence of the army." Echo Canon 
was fortified, and orders issued to harass the Federal 
Army in every way, by driving off stock, burning 
wagons and blocking up the roads, but to take no lives 
till further ordered. Besides several other papers, 
Brigham sent to the commander of the United States 
forces the following remarkable document : 

GREAT SALT LAKE CITY, September 29, 1857. 1 

" SIR : By reference to the Act of Congress, passed 
September 9, 1850, organizing the Territory of Utah, 
published in a copy of the Laws of Utah, herewith, p. 
146, Chap. 7, you will find the following : s 

" SEC. 2. And be it further enacted, That the ex 
ecutive power in and over said Territory of Utah shall 
be vested in a Governor, who shall hold his office for 
four years, and until his successor shall be appointed and 


qualified, unless sooner removed by the President of the 
United States. The Governor shall reside within said 
Territory, shall be Commander-in-Chief of the militia 
thereof/ etc., etc. 

" I am still the Governor and Superintendent of 
Indian Affairs for this Territory, no successor having 
been appointed and qualified, as provided by law, nor 
have I been removed by the President of the United 

" By virtue of the authority thus vested in me, I 
have issued and forwarded you a copy of my proclama 
tion, forbidding the entrance of armed forces into this 
Territory. This you have disregarded. I now further 
direct that you retire forthwith from the Territory by 
the same route you entered. Should you deem this 
impracticable, and prefer to remain until spring in the 
vicinity of your present encampment, Black s Fork, or 
Green River, you can do so in peace, and unmolested, 
on condition that you deposit your arms and ammuni 
tion with Lewis Robinson, Quartermaster-General of 
the Territory, and leave in the spring, as soon as the 
condition of the roads will permit you to march. And 
should you fall short of provisions, they can be fur 
nished you by making the proper applications therefor. 

" General D, H. Wells will forward this, and receive 
any communications you may have to make. 
"Very respectfully, 


" Governor and Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Utah 

" To the Officer commanding the Forces now in 
vading Utah Territory." 


It is difficult to believe that the Federal forces were 
handled with any skill whatever, the official report in 
dicating that troops and supplies were scattered without 
order all the way from Green River to the head of Echo 
Canon ; and the following extract from the official re 
port will show that the Mormon forces were " obeying 
orders :" 

" Forts Bridger and Supply were vacated and burned 
down. Orders were issued by Daniel H. Wells (Lieut.- 
General Nauvoo Legion) to stampede the animals of the 
United States troops on their march, to set fire to their 
trains, to burn the grass and the whole country before 
them and on their flanks, to keep them from sleeping by 
night surprises, and to block the roads by felling trees 
and destroying the fords of rivers. 

" On the 4th of October, 1857, the Mormons, under 
Captain Lot Smith, captured and burned on Green 
River, three of our supply trains, consisting of seventy- 
five wagons loaded with provisions and tents for, the 
army, and carried away several hundred animals." 

Late in the fall the army halted at Fort Bridger, and 
wintered at a place which was called Camp Scott. No 
vember 21st, the newly-appointed Governor, dimming, 
issued a proclamation, which might be summed up in a 
little advice to the Mormons " to go home and obey the 
laws, and they would not be molested." 

While matters were in statu quo, in January, 1858, 
Colonel Kane, the old friend of the Mormons, proceeded 
to California by sea, thence into Utah by the southern 
route, and reaching Salt Lake City, opened negotiations 
with Brigham Young. Soon after he was escorted by 


Porter Rockwell and Daniel Kimball through the 
Mormon army, and thence found his way to Fort 
Bridger, and had a lengthy interview with the Federal 
officials. The result was that Governor Gumming ac 
companied him on his return, and was permitted to pass 
through the Mormon forces to Salt Lake City. He was 
much flattered with his reception, particularly by an 
illumination in his honor, of Echo Canon, which they 
passed in the night. They were escorted by Kimball 
and Rockwell, and reached the city early in the spring ; 
the Mormons hastened to assure him that " the rebel 
lion in Utah was a pure invention," and the records 
which were supposed to have been destroyed, were pro 
duced entire ! They had only been concealed. 

Such flattery and attention were bestowed upon the 
Governor that he was completely captivated, and such 
earnest representations made that he was soon con 
vinced the Mormons were an innocent and much 
abused people, and was anxious to spare them all 
humiliation possible. But he could not control the 
army which had orders from the Secretary of War. 
He reported a "respectful reception" to Washington, 
and on the 12th of April, Mr. Buchanan appointed 
L. W. Powell, of Kentucky, and Ben McCulloch, of 
Texas, as " Peace Commissioners," and by them sent a 
proclamation of pardon ! But Brigham Young had 
given orders for a move, and early in April, 20,000 
people from the city and north of it started south, they 
knew not where, but many supposed it was to Mexico. 
Governor Cumming in vain implored them to remain. 
Old Mormons have often described to me how he stood 


upon the street as the long trains rolled southward, 
with the tears streaming from his eyes, and protested, 
" if he followed his feelings he would rather go with 
them than remain with the apostates." Late that 
month he issued a proclamation offering "protection 
to all illegally restrained of their liberty in Utah/ but 
few availed themselves of it. The latter part of May, 
the Peace Commissioners arrived, and had an interview 
with the leading Mormons. The latter stipulated that 
the army should not be stationed within forty miles of 
the city ; that they should protect private property ; 
should march through the city without halting, and 
must not encamp till they passed the Jordan. They 
promised on their part everything that was asked and 
"accepted the President s pardon." 

June 26th the Federal army marched through the 
deserted city, led by Lieutenant-Colonel Cooke, who, 
according to Mormon account, "rode with his head 
uncovered." Their permanent camp was at a point 
west of Utah Lake, and forty miles south of the city, 
which was named Camp Floyd. Late in the season 
the absent Mormons returned to their homes in great 
poverty and destitution, and the "Mormon war" was 
ended. The Federal officials entered again upon their 
duties ; courts were reopened and*- attempts made to 
administer justice; but no grand jury would indict 
and no petty jury convict, and criminals went "scot 
free." The following cases appear upon the record : 

" During the sitting of Judge Sinclair s Court, the 
Mormon Grand Jury promptly found a bill of indict 
ment against one Ralph Pike, a Sergeant in Company 


I, of the 10 th Infantry, United States Army, for an 
assault with intent to kill, committed upon one How 
ard Spencer, the son of a Mormon bishop, at the mili 
tary reserve in Rush Valley. Upon capias issued, Pike 
was arrested and brought to Great Salt Lake City. 
The day following, August 11, 1858, about 12 o clock, 
M., as Pike was entering the Salt Lake House, on Main 
street, Spencer stepped up to him from behind, saying, 
Are you the man that struck me in Rush Valley ? at 
the same time drawing his pistol, and shot him through 
the side, inflicting a mortal wound. Spencer ran across 
the street, mounted his horse and rode off accompanied 
by several noted Danites. Pike lingered in dreadful 
agony two days before he died. The Deseret News, 
in its next issue, lauded young Spencer for his courage 
and bravery. 

" A man by the name of Drown brought suit upon a 
promissory note for $480, against the Danite captain, 
Bill Hickman. The case being submitted to the court, 
Drown obtained a judgment. A few days afterwards 
Drown and a companion named Arnold were stopping 
at the house of a friend in Salt Lake City, when Hick- 
man with some seven or eight of his band rode up to 
the house and called for Drown to come out. Drown 
suspecting foul play refused to do so and locked the 
doors. The Danites thereupon dismounted from their 
horses, broke down the doors and shot down both Drown 
and Arnold. Drown died of his wounds next morning, 
and Arnold a few days afterwards. Hickman and his 
band rode off unmolested. 

" Thus, during a single term of the court held in a 
Mormon community, the warm life-blood of three human 


victims is shed upon the very threshhold of the court; 
and although the Grand Jury is in session no prosecu 
tion is attempted, and not one of the offenders brought 
to justice." 

Soon after, a deaf and dumb boy named Andrew 
Bernard was killed in Weber Canon, as was pretty 
clearly proved by " Ephe " Hanks, a noted " Danite ; " 
and an apostate named Forbes was found dead. The 
same year one Henry Jones and his mother living near 
Pondtown, south of Utah Lake, were accused of horse- 
stealing by their neighbors. They were attacked at 
night and the woman instantly killed ; the young man 
escaped and ran some two miles pursued by the " Dan- 
ites." He was finally captured and a pistol placed to 
his ear and discharged, blowing his head to pieces. 
Both the bodies were placed in their dwelling, a "dug 
out " half under the ground ; the roof was then thrown 
down upon them and covered with dirt, making that 
their only grave. The next winter a Mormon bishop 
of that locality killed one of his wives for alleged in 
fidelity, and one Franklin McNeil, who had sued Brig- 
ham Young for false imprisonment, was shot dead in 
his own door. 

Another abomination of that bloody period was not 
brought to light till long after. 

Early in 1858, while the army was yet at Fort 
Bridger, eighty discharged teamsters started through 
the city to California. An officer of the Nauvoo Le 
gion was informed that he would find a " trusty force," 
at a certain place, with which to guard them through, 
and received the following order : 



1 SALT LAKE CITY, April 9th, 1858. 

" The officer in command of escort is hereby ordered 
to see that every man is well prepared with ammunition 
and have it ready at the time you see those teamsters 
a hundred miles from the settlements. President 
Young advises that they should be all killed to pre 
vent them from returning to Bridger to join our ene 
mies. Every precaution should be taken, and see that 
not one escapes. Secrecy is required. 
" By order of General Daniel H. Wells. 

" Assistant Adjutant General." 

The officer refused to execute the order, for which 
his life was threatened. He took refuge at the Federal 
camp and was sent out of the Territory. The signa 
ture of Ferguson is authenticated by two Mormons, 
formerly merchants in Salt Lake City. Several years 
after, the widow of Ferguson called upon a Federal 
Judge who had the writing in his possession. She 
stated that she had heard the rumor that there was 
such a paper and desired to see it. 

It was not given to her but spread upon the desk 
for her inspection. She read it through, turned deadly 
pale, and rushed out of the room without saying a 
word. Through 1858 and 59 various difficulties oc 
curred ; Governor Gumming did not sustain the judi 
ciary in their efforts, and finally an order was received 
from Washington that the troops were not to be used 
as a posse to aid the United States Marshal in making 
arrests. This, of course, completely put an end even 


to the attempt to administer justice. But the en 
trance of the army had done good in a variety of ways ; 
stage and mail lines had been established ; means of 
intelligence had been multiplied, and a considerable 
Gentile influence established, and we gladly turn away 
from the dark period of crime and degradation, and 
enter upon the era in which outside influence began to 
produce good effects even in Utah. 




A New Element Livingston and Kinkead " Jack-Mormonism at "Wash 
ington" Judge Druinmond M. Jules Remy Gilbert and Sons 
Heavy Trade Later Gentile Merchants Walker Brothers Sales at 
Camp Floyd "Crushing the Mormons" Ransohoff & Co. Mormon 
Outrages again Murders of Brassfield and Dr. Robinson Whipping of 
Weston Evidence in case of Robinson Outrages on Lieut. Brown and 
Dr. Williamson Gentiles Driven from the Public Land Territorial 
Surveyor Success of General Connor s Administration The Govern 
ment Returns to the Old Policy Murders of Potter and Wilson Horri 
ble Death of "Negro Torn" The Last Witness "put out of the Way " 
"Danites" again Murder each Other Death of Hatch Flight of 
Hickrnan Forty -three Murders Another Change of Officials Doty 
Durkee Shameful Neglect by the Government Flight of the Gentiles 
Comparative Quiet Again A better Day The Author Arrives in 

A NEW element now enters into Utah affairs,, and de 
mands attention. There had previously been Gentiles 
resident in Salt Lake, but before 1858, they seem 
to have created no special interest. The history of 
Gentile merchants from the earliest times to the present 
exhibits a singular record of " pluck " and enterprise, 
contending against the ever-varying complications of 
political and religious fanaticism. The first Gentile 
merchants to make a permanent establishment in Salt 
Lake, were Messrs. Livingston and Kinkead, who 
began business there in 1850, and taking the tide 
of Mormon prosperity at its height, when the young 
colony had just realized on the California trade, their 


profits were immense. At the date they reached the 
city there were no Eastern goods in the Valley, and 
the first day their store was open they took in $10, 
000 in gold ! Other merchants passed through doing 
some trade, but none had done so well. The custom 
of these early merchants was to start from the Missouri 
with large stocks, which they opened at Salt Lake, 
remaining only one autumn and winter, trading for 
cattle, grain and flour, which they took on to California 
the next season. 

From 1850 till 1862, "jack-Mormonism" ruled at 
Washington to a considerable extent, and the Gentiles 
of Utah had but little help, either by protection or 
moral influence, from Federal appointees. Judge Kin- 
ney, who was appointed Chief Justice in 1854, came 
that year to the valley with his family and a large 
stock of goods. He kept a hotel, sold goods, speculated 
in various ways, and spared no pains to keep on good 
terms with his Mormon customers ; afterwards he 
joined the Mormons, was baptized in the holy Jordan 
it is reported that he paid the officiating priest $10 
to have the job done in the night and represented the 
Territory one term in Congress. 

For a short time he was the colleague of Judge Drum- 
mond, the Government thus, by immorality on one side 
and " jack-Mormonism" on the other, playing into the 
hands of the Saints most effectually. Kinney had a 
difficulty with Brigham Young early in 1855, as re 
ported by M. Jules Eemy, who visited Salt Lake that 
summer, and Brigham declined the invitation of the 
Frenchman to dine with him at Kinney s hotel, on that 



account. It is a subject of curious conjecture what sort 
of an impression this state of affairs made on the courtly 
Frenchman, accustomed to see the representative of the 
supreme power treated with the utmost deference. 
Kinney left the next year, retaining, however, the office 
and its emoluments till 1857, and in 1860 was re ap 

The entrance of Johnston s army, with the government 
contracts thereby rendered necessary, and the more 
complete establishment of the Overland Stages, mark 
the beginning of a new era in Gentile history ; here is 
a point of departure, so to speak, between the old and 
the new, separating ancient and modern history. Nearly 
all the late merchants came in with that army, or fol 
lowing soon after. 

During the interval from 1853 to 1858, the Mormons 
had fallen behind, and great destitutution often pre 
vailed, particularly in the southern settlements. One 
year the crops were short from drouth, and another they 
were entirely destroyed by grasshoppers; during two 
seasons there was no surplus except a little wheat which 
could only be sold in barter for fifty cents per bushel; 
one winter thousands of the people subsisted largely 
upon sego roots, and another, of unusual severity, a third 
of the cattle throughout Utah died from exposure. In 
the period known in Mormon chronicles as " The Re 
formation," the Ward Teachers visited every family in 
their jurisdiction, and made a thorough examination of 
their flour barrels and meat chests, taking away the 
surplus, where there was any, to divide it among those 
who had none. In the summer of 1855, M. Jules Remy, 


French traveler and savan, and Mr. A. M. Brenchley, 
his English companion and botanist, journeyed from 
Sacramento to Salt Lake City, by the Central Nevada 
route and south of the lake, and spent several weeks 
studying Mormon institutions. Their publication, a 
copy of which may be found in the State Library at 
Sacramento, describes a condition of extreme poverty in 
Utah ; provisions of all sorts were at premium prices, 
and their tour of two months, with the poorest accom 
modations, cost them more in gold than a first-class tour 
of Europe would have done. Wheat and a few other 
bare necessaries alone were tolerably cheap. The season 
of 1856-57 might be justly denominated the " Winter 
of Mormon discontent." And it is remarkable that 
during those two years were committed most of those 
crimes which form so black a chapter in the annals of 

The entrance of Johnston s army proved a real god 
send to many, and being followed by a season of 
unusual fruitfulness, the Mormons were again rendered 
prosperous. The firm of Gilbert & Sons was established 
in Salt Lake City about that time, though one of the 
firm had done business there before. This firm made 
large profits during the five succeeding years, their 
sales on one particular day amounting to $17,000 in 
gold. Coin was the only currency, all large payments 
being made in the Mormon five-dollar piece, a coin 
struck by the Church, which, however, contained but 
$4.30 in gold. Another prominent firm of that period 
was Ransohoff & Co., long the leading Jewish firm, 
who built the best stone store-house in the city. They 


had extensive dealings with Brigham Young, who was 
for a while on the best of terms with Gentile merchants, 
and when Johnston s army left and the camp property 
was sold, Brigham borrowed $30,000 of Ransohoff to 
invest hi army pork. Following the entrance of the 
army came a heavy trade with Nevada, and not long 
afterwards considerable with Colorado; and at this 
period was the rise of the firm of Walker Brothers, 
now par excellence, the Gentile merchant princes of 
Utah. The Walkers, four young and middle aged 
gentlemen, were of Mormon parentage and reared 
among the Saints; having, by great industry and 
enterprise, secured a small stock in trade before the 
entrance of the army. The stores at Camp Floyd were 
sold early in 1861, with immense profits to the Saints ; 
iron which had .retailed at a dollar per pound, became 
as plentiful as in the East, and Brigham Young, 
Walker Brothers and other firms bought immense 
quantities of pork at one cent per pound, which they 
afterwards retailed at sixty. Thus did Buchanan 
"crush the Mormons." The Overland Mail service 
grew into greatness, furnishing another source of profit, 
and the Gentile merchants shared largely in the gen 
eral prosperity. During 1859 and 60, though there 
was hostility between Camp Floyd and the Mormon 
hierarchy, money was plenty; sufficient supplies had 
been forwarded to last the army ten years, and great 
quantities of leather, gearing, cavalry equipments, 
clothing, blankets and small stores were sold for one 
tenth their value ; Brigham was on the best of terms 
with the Gentile merchants; gifts and donations on 


both sides were common ; there was for a time little or 
no social distinction between Mormon and Gentile, and 
an era of general good feeling prevailed. 

The General Government soon returned to the old 
policy, and with the return of Kinney, Judges Flenni- 
ken and Crosby were appointed to succeed Sinclair and 
Cradlebaugh, removed. In 1861 Governor Gumming 
left Utah, and was succeeded by John W. Dawson, of 
Indiana, who was soon entrapped into " a base attempt 
on the virtue of a Mormon woman," and in consequence 
of many threats precipitately fled the Territory. He 
was waylaid, however, in Weber Canyon, and received 
a terrible beating, which he richly deserved for his 
cowardice, and, if the charge above be true, for his 
detestably bad taste. Notwithstanding these differ 
ences with the officials the Mormons continued on good 
terms wth the merchants, trade was free, and .the 
people rather prosperous. The opening of the war 
signaled a sudden change ; the disloyalty of the Mor 
mons was only equalled by the disgust of the Gentiles, 
and the whole gist of Mormon sermons for a year or 
two might have been compressed into that aggravating 
after-prophecy, " Didn t we tell you so ?" With them 
it was only the realization of what Joe Smith had 
prophesied in 1832, and Sunday after Sunday the 
Tabernacle resounded with the harangues of Brigham 
Young and Heber Kimball, in fiendish exultation over 
the prospect that " the war would go on till nearly all 
the men, North and South, would be killed, the rest 
would become servants to the Saints, the women of the 
United States would come begging for the Mormon 


elders to marry them, and a general cry would go up, 
6 come and help us preserve the race of man in this 
land. " 

Such was the stuff then preached by men who are 
now prating loudly of their loyalty. It was hard for 
an American to listen to it quietly, and but little else 
was heard in Salt Lake for the first two years of the 
war. Early in 1862 Judges Flenniken and Crosby left 
Salt Lake City. If they did anything while there to 
forward the cause of truth, to add to the dignity of the 
Government, to increase the moral force of the Gentiles 
or protect the victims of Brighamism, it appears not on 
the record. President Lincoln was advised by tele 
graph of their departure, and on the 3d of February, 
1862, appointed Thomas J. Drake, of Michigan, and 
Chas. Y. Waite, of Illinois, to succeed them. On the 
31st of March following, Stephen S. Harding, an " origi 
nal abolitionist," of southern Indiana, was appointed 
Governor, and the new officials reached Salt Lake in 
July of the same year. In October following Colonel 
(now General) P. Edward Connor arrived with fifteen 
hundred men and established Camp Douglas. This 
administration may well be styled the " golden age " of 
Gentiles in Utah. For nearly four years General Con 
nor maintained the rights of American citizens, and 
protected and assisted many hundred dissenting Mor 
mons in their escape from Utah. Their prompt action 
in protecting American citizens and recusant Mormons 
from injury, together with the anti-polygamy features 
of Governor Harding s first message, and the action of 
the Judges in asking Congress for an amendment to 



the Organic Act of the Territory, excited the Brigham- 
ites to great anger for a time ; the hostility increased, 
and when an unusually large number of miners came 
to winter in Salt Lake, Brigham assumed entire control 
of Mormon trade and flour was put up at once from $3 
to $6 per* hundred in gold, then equal to twice that 
amount in currency. Great was the indignation at 
this move, but the miners could not help themselves at 
that season and submitted, though their curses were 
both loud and deep. The opening of spring relieved 
this embargo, and the Mormons soon discovered that 
though Camp Douglas was something of an eye-sore, 
yet the presence of two regiments added materially to 
their trade. The triumph of the Union arms through 
1864, the prompt payment of claims against the Gov 
ernment, and the appointment of rather more accept 
able officials, convinced the Mormons that " loyalty 
would pay " for awhile, and another era of free trade 
and tolerably good feeling followed. The years 1864-65 
were seasons of prosperity to the Gentiles ; RansohofF 
& Co. cleared large sums dealing in general supplies, 
and Walker Brothers, who had meanwhile apostatized 
from Mormonism, took rank as millionaires. 

The era of free trade and good feeling was short and 
the change sudden. In 1865 and 1866 all the California 
and Nevada volunteers and most of the other troops 
were withdrawn, and the hostility of the Church was 
manifested with tenfold more fierceness. All the Gen 
tiles, who had pre-empted land west of the city, were 
whipped, ducked in the Jordan, or tarred and feathered, 
and their improvements destroyed ; many were threat- 


ened and ordered out of the country ; Weston, of the 
Union Vedette, was seized at night, taken to Temple 
Block and cruelly beaten; Brassfield was shot; Dr. 
Kobinson assassinated, and general consternation seized 
upon the Gentile residents. Some of these events de 
mand a more particular account. 

Squire Newton Brassfield, formerly a citizen of Cali 
fornia, and more lately of Nevada, while sojourning 
temporarily in Salt Lake City, formed the acquaintance 
of a woman who had been the polygamous wife of a 
Mormon, named Hill, but had left him, repudiated this 
so-called marriage and claimed that she was entitled 
at common law to the possession of her children by this 
Hill, as the offspring of an illegal marriage, or rather 
of no marriage at all. She and Brassfield were married 
in legal form by the U. S. Judge, H. P. McCurdy, on 
the 28th of March, 1866 ; a writ of habeas corpus 
was issued from the United States Court for the pos 
session of her children, and the trial set for the night 
of April the 3d, but adjourned till the 6th. Meanwhile 
Brassfield had taken a trunk containing her clothing 
from her former residence, and was arrested by the 
Mormon authorities on a charge of grand larceny ! 
The ground assumed for this action was that the cloth- 
ing talcen was the property of her husband. It was also 
charged that he had resisted the officer attempting to 
make the arrest an offence universally considered 
worthy of death by the Mormons. In this case also an 
appeal was had to the United States Court. On the 
evening of April 6th, about 8 o clock, while Brassfield 
was passing along Second South street, in the custody 


of, or in company with United States Marshal, J. K. 
Hosmer, he was shot in the lack by a concealed assassin; 
as near as could be determined, from an alley on the 
opposite side of the street. The assassin escaped, and 
no especial effort was made to arrest him. The Gen 
tiles offered a reward of $4,500 for his apprehension ; 
the Mormon press and speakers were either non-com 
mittal on the subject, or mildly sustained the assassin, 
and dared the Gentiles to publish their names to the 
offered reward. The possession of her two children 
was afterwards confirmed to Mrs. Brassfield by the 
United States Court, and she left the Territory with 
them. The following telegram was at once forwarded 
to General Connor, still in command of the district, but 
temporarily absent in New York : 

GREAT SALT LAKE CITY, April 8, 1866. 
Brigadier- General P. E. Connor, Metropolitan Hotel, 
New York : I married S. N. Brassfield to a Mormon 
woman, on the 28th ultimo. Brassfield was assassinated 
on the night of the 6th instant. I have been denounced 
and threatened publicly. Government officials here have 
telegraphed to the Secretary of War to retain troops 
here until others are sent to relieve them. Call CVQ 
Secretary of War, learn his conclusions and answer ; 
I feel unsafe in person and property without protection. 


Associate Justice Supreme Court, U. T. 

A similar dispatch was forwarded by Colonel C. A. 
Potter, who was ordered to retain troops until the 
regulars arrived. 


Dr. Robinson was assassinated on the night of the 
22d of October. The following biography is taken 
from the Union Vedette of October 25th, 1866. 

" The late Dr. J. K. Rohinson, whose assassination 
last Monday has sent a thrill of horror to the heart of 
every law abiding citizens of this Territory, was a 
native of Calais, Maine, and was in his thirty-first 
year. He came to Utah from California in the spring 
of 1864, as an Assistant Surgeon of the United States 
volunteers, and reporting to General Connor, was sent 
to Camp Connor at Soda Springs, Idaho ; but during 
the following winter was ordered to Salt Lake, and 
took charge of the hospital at Camp Douglas, and re 
mained on duty there and in this city until last winter, 
when he was mustered out of the service, leaving a 
record in the army which stands without a blemish. 
After leaving the service of his country, Dr. Robinson 
settled down in this city and engaged in the practice 
of his profession, in which he had taken the lead 
among the practicing physicians of Salt Lake, and has 
occupied an equally prominent position in the advance 
ment of all religious and educational schemes of the 
city. He was one of the most intimate friends and 
the room-mate of the Rev. Norman McLeod, and co 
operated with him in all his measures for the advance 
ment of the social condition of the people of Utah. 
In this capacity he had, up to the time of his death, 
filled with great credit the position of superintendent 
in the Gentile Sunday School. On the afternoon of 
Mr. McLeod s departure for the East, in March last, 
he united Dr. Robinson in the bonds of matrimony 


with Miss Nellie Kay, the accomplished daughter of 
the late Dr. Kay. No citizen of Salt Lake stood 
higher, morally or socially, than Dr. Robinson ; we 
have never heard of his having a personal enemy, or 
that he ever infringed upon the legal or moral rights 
of any man living, and the only conceivable cause for 
his assassination is the fact that he saw fit to contest 
the title of a piece of land with the city in the Supreme 
Court. No other cause can be assigned, for had the 
object of the assassins been plunder, they could have 
obtained it, as the Doctor had upon his person a large 
sum of money and a valuable gold watch, which had 
~been untouched when the body was found." 

In common with many others, Dr. Robinson had held 
that the Territorial Legislature had no right to make 
grants of public land, and the city no right to pre-empt. 
He, accordingly, filed a claim upon the land surrounding 
the "Warm Springs near the city, and erected some im 
provements which were torn down at mid-day by an 
armed force of police. He appealed his case to the U. 
S. Court, bringing an action of ejectment; in the course 
of the trial, his counsel raised the question that the 
city, because of the non-performance of certain acts, 
had no legal existence ; which was argued before Chief 
Justice Titus, and by him decided in favor of the city. 
Dr. Robinson then gave notice of his intention to appeal. 
On the llth of October, a bowling alley belonging to 
the Doctor was destroyed by a party of some twenty 
men with blackened faces. For this a number of per 
sons were arrested, Chief of Police Burt and two sub 
ordinates identified and bound over by the Chief Jus- 


tice. Soon after, Dr. Eobinson called on Mayor Wells, 
in regard to the matter, was denied any answer and or 
dered to leave the house. This affair was thus chron 
icled the next morning by the Telegraph, then edited by 
the late renegade Mormon, T. B. H. Stenhouse : 

" As WELL TRAINED The admiration for Zebra, Na 
poleon and Leopard, on Friday night, was snuffed out 
by the greater admiration for Dr. Ball-alley as he cleared 
from the Mayor s house yesterday afternoon. His honor 
had only to open the door, direct his finger and the man 
of pills and bluster vamosed with a grace that fairly 
eclipsed little Leopard under the admirable direction of 

For several Sundays Brigham and other leaders had 
preached the most inflammatory harangues in the 
Tabernacle, advising the people " if any man attempted 
to pre-empt their land to send him to hell across 
lots " and the like. In more than one instance assas 
sination was openly counseled and threatened, and the 
people were ripe for any desperate outrage. The 
second night after the above publication, between the 
hours of eleven and twelve, a man called at the house 
of Dr. Robinson, stated that " his brother, John Jones, 
had had his leg broken and required the Doctor s assis 
tance ;" the Doctor started with the man, they were 
joined by others, and a few steps away, at the corner 
of Main and Third South Street, he was struck two 
blows on the head, and immediately shot through the 
brain. One witness saw one of the assassins running 
down the street westward ; two others saw three of 


them running eastward, and three were seen running 
southward, making seven persons engaged in the mur 
der. On the investigation Mayor Wells swore that he 
was not informed of the murder " till ten o clock the 
day after ;" the policemen swore there were but eight 
of them on duty that night, of whom three were at the 
circus and " all the rest at the City Hall ;" the Mor 
mons examined swore there had been no threats made, 
and Stenhouse and one or two others refused to answer 
most of the questions asked. The investigation utterly 
failed to show that Dr. Robinson had a personal enemy 
in the world and showed that he had had difficulty 
with none but the city authorities. Evidence subse 
quently developed has fixed the guilt of this murder 
unmistakably upon the Mormon authorities. 

The case of those Gentiles who were driven from 
the public land presents a flagrant violation of law. 
The Legislature of Utah has passed an Act appointing 
a Territorial Surveyor ; under its provisions any man 
can get the Surveyor to run a line around a piece of 
the public land, then stick up stakes at the four cor 
ners and he has a claim upon the land. It has been 
the custom to pay no regard whatever to the National 
laws in regard to the public land. But should a 
Gentile attempt under these laws to take up a piece of 
land thus surveyed, he would be driven off. A number 
of the discharged volunteers, among them a Surgeon 
Williamson and Lieutenant Brown, entered upon some 
unoccupied land west of the Jordan, without a sign of 
an improvement upon it. While erecting their cabins 
some Mormons came out and claimed the land. They 
14 -* 


informed the Mormons that they did not wish to intrude 
on any other man s land, and if the latter would show 
they had taken up this land or made any improvements 
upon it, they would leave it. To this reasonable re 
quest no reply was made, but that night some twenty 
men with blackened faces came to their shanties and 
captured both Brown and Williamson. They rolled 
them both up in an old tent and carried them towards 
the Jordan. Lieutenant Brown, a cool and brave man, 
simply said : " Well, gentlemen, all I have to say is, if 
you intend to take my life, kill me like a man, and don t 
drown me like a dog." Upon this one of the crowd 
stepped up and remarked : " You shan t put that man 
in there. I know his voice ; it s Lieutenant Brown, and 
once when he commanded the provost guard I had 
trouble with the soldiers, and he took my part and got 
sa&e off. I didn t know this was the man till he spoke." 

After consultation the mob tore down their shanties 
and iTeleased the men on their promise to leave the 
country. The other settlers were ducked in the Jor 
dan, and one of them shot through the leg while swim 
ming the riyer. 

The administration of General Connor had been 
almost a perfect success, and the American name was 
then respected r and Gentile safety secured in the most 
remote valleys of Utah ; outside influences of all kinds 
had rapiflly augmented, and a flourishing Gentile 
church,, school and paper had been established. But 
Brigham and his tools had never ceased to work and 
intrigue at Washington for a change, and Johnson s 
.administration proved disastrous to Utah. In a few 


months after General Connor was removed and the 
troops withdrawn, there were three atrocious murders 
and numerous outrages upon Gentiles. 

Soon after, three apostates named Potter, Wilson and 
Walker, were arrested at Coalville in Weber Valley, on 
a trumped up charge of stealing a cow. This Potter was 
a brother of those murdered at Springville in 1857, 
and had been pursued with unrelenting hatred. Several 
times he had been arrested on various charges and as 
often acquitted. His death was now determined upon, 
and one "Art" Hinckley, a " Danite " and Salt Lake 
policeman was sent for. Evidence afterwards obtained, 
shows that he was accompanied by another policeman, 
and joined by parties at different points on his way. 
They proceeded to the school-house where the three men 
were confined, and took them out. Walker suspecting 
foul play, saw two of his guards level their guns at 
him, when he dodged down and the shots only slightly 
wounded him in the neck. At the same instant the 
contents of a heavily loaded shot-gun were fired into 
Potter s body. Walker being an agile man escaped by 
jumping a near fence, receiving another slight wound 
in so doing, and made his way through canons and 
ravines to Camp Douglas. Wilson also ran a little 
way, but was shot dead. On the evidence of Walker the 
assassins were arrested, but by the connivance of Mor 
mon officers escaped from the Territorial Marshal, who 
had them in charge. The Mormon papers labored to 
explain the affair, stating that the prisoners were shot 
in attempting to escape from custody; but it is the 
testimony of all who saw the corpse of Potter, that the 


gun must have* been almost touching his body when 
fired, and that his throat was cut after death. This 
was no doubt in fulfilment of the penalty in the En 
dowment oath. Walker remained about Camp Doug 
las for some time, then suddenly disappeared, and has 
since never been heard of. Shortly after, a colored man 
generally known as " Negro Tom," who had been 
brought to the Territory by the Mormons as a slave, 
and lived many years in the family of Brigham Young 
and other dignitaries, called upon some Federal officials 
and stated that he could give important evidence in 
regard to some of these murders. A few days after, his 
body was found upon the " bench " two miles east of 
the city, horribly mangled, his throat cut from ear to 
ear, and on his breast a large placard marked : 


In all such cases of assassination the Mormons can 
command abundant evidence that the victim has " in 
sulted a Mormon woman." Thus the last witness of 
these crimes was removed, and the proof put beyond 
the reach of earthly courts. 

In the long list of murders and outrages, I have thus 
far particularly noted only those upon Gentiles, or in 
which Gentiles were specially interested. But it must 
be said of the Mormons, that they have always treated 
their own people worse than outsiders ; and while they 
only molested those Gentiles who were particularly ob 
noxious, or had property to reward their assassins, they 
have visited apostates and dissenters with extreme 
vengeance. It were a wearisome and disgusting task 
to recount all the memoirs of those who fled or attempted 


to flee from the Territory, and the bloody fate which 
has overtaken many, even of the tools of the Church, 
when suspected. One incident, however, is so notorious 
in the early annals of Utah, that, as an instance of the 
course often pursued, it deserves to be noted. Chief 
among the cut-throats of the earlier period, were three 
who merit an immortality of infamy, viz.: "Port" 
Rockwell, "Epke" Hanks, and "Bill" Hickman. 
Closely associated with the last for many years was one 
" Ike " Hatch ; but at length he grew weary of his mode 
of life, and, confiding in Hickman, announced his inten 
tion to escape from the Territory. Soon after Hickman 
and Hatch started from Salt Lake City on horseback 
for Proyo. "While crossing a small stream on the road, 
lined with a thick growth of willows, Hatch, who was 
in advance, was shot from behind, and fell from his 
horse. Hickman at once galloped back to the city and 
reported that they had been attacked by Indians, and 
Hatch killed. The latter, however, had strength to 
climb upon his horse and reach the city before he died, 
and informed his father that he had been shot by Hick 
man. The latter had the hardihood to attend the 
funeral of Hatch, and actually assisted in shoveling the 
dirt into the grave. "While in this work, the father of 
Hatch, overcome by sudden anger, aimed a blow at the 
murderer with a spade, which would certainl} have 
ended his career had not the blow been warded off by a 
friend of Hickman, who was on the watch. This 
murder, as well as several others by Hickman, is not 
even questioned among the Mormons ; and yet this man 
was for years on friendly and even intimate terms with 


Brigham Young ! Hickman also fell under suspicion 
soon after the " Morrisite war," of which an account 
will hereafter be given, and fled to Nevada. While 
there, he was taken violently ill, and sent for a 
" Josephite " Mormon preacher to administer absolution. 
It is reported that he then confessed participation in no 
less than forty-three deliberate murders ! He recovered, 
and is still seen occasionally in Utah. 

The vigilant administration of General Connor, and 
the firm position assumed by the Governor did not meet 
the approval of the authorities at Washington. In 
1863 Harding was removed and appointed Chief Justice 
of Colorado, being succeeded as Governor by Hon. 
James Duane Doty, who had for some time been Indian 
Superintendent for Utah. About the same time Judge 
Kinney went to represent the Territory in Congress 
and was succeeded as Chief Justice by Hon. John Titus, 
of Philadelphia. He was an able and impartial Judge; 
but seemed too often bound by precedents, and unwill 
ing to disturb the order of administration which had 
existed from the first in the Territorial Courts, even 
when it was clearly proved to be contrary to a just 
rendering of the Organic Act." Dr. Frank Fuller, who 
had been Secretary of the Territory, from 61 to 63, 
was succeeded in the autumn of -the latter year by Mr. 
Amos Reed. Judge Waite, after several ineffectual at 
tempts to administer the la,w, resigned in disgust in 
1864, and was succeeded by Judge McCurdy, who gave 
place in 1867 for a Mormon lawyer, named Hoge, ap 
pointed by President Johnson. Governor Doty filled 
the office with all the dignity and efficiency possible to 


a man in such circumstances, almost without command 
and entirely without the moral support of the Govern 
ment. He died in 1865 and was succeeded by Hon. 
Charles Durkee, also of Wisconsin, who retained the 
office till late in 1869, and a few weeks after his re 
moval died at Omaha, Nebraska. He was quite old, 
very feeble, without the power or energy to command, 
and was expressly instructed from Washington to pur 
sue a conciliatory policy; as he once informed the 
writer, he " was sent out to do nothing," and it need 
only be added that he succeeded admirably in doing it. 

The Secretary, Keed, was succeeded in the autumn 
of 1866 by Edward P. Higgins, of Michigan, who filled 
that office with marked ability till the spring of 1869. 
The first half of that year he acted as Governor, in the 
absence of Durkee, and won golden opinions for the 
able manner in which he performed the duties of that 
office. His message to the Territorial Legislature is 
noted as among the most able ever presented in Utah. 

Soon after being relieved of his command, General 
Connor took up his residence in Stockton, Eush Valley, 
forty miles west of the city, where he has since been 
extensively engaged in mining. 

A general stampede of Gentiles from Utah seemed 
likely to follow the withdrawal of all protection by the 
Government; and soon after Robinson s death, the 
Gentile merchants, with two or three exceptions, joined 
in a written proposal to Brigham, that they would all 
leave the Territory, if he or the Church would pay a 
nominal price for their property. To this Brigham 
complacently made reply that he " had not asked them 


to come, and did not ask them to go ; they could stay 
as long as they pleased." This excitement subsided 
like the rest, and a whole year passed away without 
any serious outrages, or unusual threats. The influ 
ence of the approaching railroad began to be felt, 
resulting in another era of good feeling. 

The amount of travel increased, and with it the 
amount of money ; trade was free, with no distinction 
between Mormon and Gentiles ; contracts on the rail 
road were taken by both, and little distinction made 
in giving employment, and in July, 1868, at a great 
railroad meeting, Mormon, Jew and Christian frater 
nized in the Tabernacle, and seemed to feel they had a 
common interest in the country s prosperity. 

And thus stood affairs in the early autumn of 1868, 
when the author first entered the Territory. 




The real "American Desert" No Myth Bitter Creek Green River- 
Lone Rock Plains of Bridger Quaking Asp Ridge Bear River A 
Mormon Autobiography " Pulling hair" "Aristocracy" on the Plains 
-"Mule-skinners" and " Bullwhackers " The "Bull whackers Epic" 
Cache Cave Echo Canon Mormon "fortifications" Braggadocio 
Storm in Weber Canon Up the Weber Parley s Park A Wife-steal 
ing Apostle Down the Canon Majestic Scenery First view of the 
valley The " City of the Saints." 

ON the morning of August 28th, 1868, from the 
heights east of Green River, then the eastern boundary 
of the Territory, I took my first view of Utah. I had 
not reached, as I did not leave it, without tribulation. 
In company with a Mormon "outfit" of sixteen men, 
ten wagons, and sixty mules, I had made the weari 
some journey from North Platte across three hundred 
miles of the American Desert at the dryest season of 
the year. The point of our departure from the rail 
road was too far south for us to reach the much sought 
Sweetwater route, and, after leaving Bridger s Pass, we 
struck directly for the head of Bitter Creek, down 
which we travelled for three days, days fixed" in 
memory, but not dear. 

A region of sand and alkali, where the white dust 
lay six inches deep in the road, and the whole surface 
of the valley looked like a mixture of dried soap and 
soda, this part of the American Desert is certainly no 


myth. On the 26th of August we left that stream at 
Point of Kocks, and traveled northward towards the 
upper crossing of Green Kiver. Thirty miles on our 
former course would have brought us to the confluence 
of Bitter Creek and Green Kiver, but it was impossible 
to travel longer on the former stream, the water of 
which resembles weak soapsuds, and has the effect 
upon the system of a mild infusion of aloes. The road, 
always bad at that season, was rendered much worse 
by the graders everywhere present, and at work upon 
the line of the railroad. The teamsters we met, 
whether Saxon, Mexican, or Negro, all looked of one 
color, a moving "pillar of cloud," and, as they shook 
the dust from their ears, seemed living examples of the 
judgment, " Dust thou art," etc. 

Special notice is due the " Twenty-mile Desert," 
where for ten hours the train struggled wearily through 
a loose bed of sand and soda, enveloped by a blinding 
white cloud through which the driver could not see his 
lead mules, and naught was heard but the cracking of 
whips, the yells and curses of the teamsters and the 
"cry" of the wheels in the soda, as they seemed to be 
groaning out the unspeakable woes of the dumb animals. 
During this experience we often turned our eyes long 
ingly toward the mountain ranges which lay so cool 
and invitingly before us. But a change came over the 
spirit of our dream, when by our new route we had 
reached that elevated region. 

On the mornings of the 27th and 28th, we found ice 
a quarter of an inch thick on the water in our buckets, 
and the winds were so cold and piercing, that a heavy 


coat and two woollen wrappers seemed inadequate pro 
tection. Our route was in an irregular semi-circle, 
north, northwest and west ; passing Lone Rock, a vast 
block of white and yellow stone, standing in the centre 
of a high, level plain, as if thrown by some convulsion 
of nature from a flat summit two miles distant. As we 
approached it up the valley from the east, at some miles 
distance, it bears an exact resemblance to a large steam 
boat coming on under full head of steam ; seen from 
the side, it resembles a vast Gothic cathedral, with 
spires at the four corners, and numerous turrets, doors 
and windows, while the mind imagines the interior, 
with its ringing halls and resounding corridors. De 
scending to the valley by a dangerous " dugway," we 
forded Green River, a clear, pure stream, here fifty 
yards wide and three feet deep, cold as ice-water, flow 
ing rapidly southward to its junction with Grand River, 
where both form the Great Colorado. 

From Green River, another day s travel, nearly all 
the way up hill, brought us upon another cold ridge, 
where the water froze again. The next day was Sun 
day, but there is no Sabbath on the plains unless a man 
dies, a mule gets sick, or unusually good grass and water 
invite to a day of rest, in which case, Sunday comes 
any day of the week. So we thawed the ice out of our 
pots and buckets, took a little hot coffee, " damper " and 
pork, limbered up our joints and traveled on, this day 
crossing Ross Fork. 

Something in the air of these plains seems to furnish 
an exemption from the usual penalties of cold and ex 
posure. I have often waded deep creeks or risen in the 


morning wet and cold, but never experienced any ill 
effects from it. The pure air of the region proves a 
perfect immunity against its exposures and hardships. 
From Ross Fork we passed on to the high plains of 
Bridger, 7000 feet above sea level and cold and barren 
in proportion. Here Johnston s army passed the winter 
of 1857-8, after they had lost their cattle and supplies 
in Echo Canon, and here Colonel Kane, a self-consti 
tuted embassador from the Mormons, found " the three 
heads of departments," Governor Cumming, Colonel 
Johnston and Judge Eckles, when he sought the army 
on his mission of peace. For the last three days we 
have traveled in sight of the Uintah Range ; far to the 
south of us its snowy peaks glistened in the morning 
sun-light with a cloud like silvery whiteness, while 
lower down the dark blue-green marked the timber 
line, which lower still faded to a dull gray, all pre 
senting as the day advanced a varying panorama of 
light and shade, showing in the distance like the 
shadowy picture scenes of fairy land. 

Our last cold night, August 31st, we spent on Quak 
ing Asp Ridge where Boreas sent down a bitter blast, 
determined to punish us for intrusion into his high 
domains. With a double thickness of gunny-bags be 
low our blankets and wagon-cover above we slept 
soundly and warmly, and while the wind whistled 
over my head I dreamed of the sunny valley of the 
Ohio, its corn ripening in the warm August night 
while the yellow-brown blades rustle in the soft breeze 
and sigh a lament for the departing summer. 

From this summit we traveled all day, constantly 


descending along a narrow " dugway," between ridges 
lined with quaking asp, or through narrow canons 
where over-hanging rocks nearly shut out the sun 
light, emerging finally into a beautiful valley with a 
genial climate and luxuriant grass. 

The next day we crossed Bear River, finding a rich 
valley with some fine farms. All this valley appears 
capable of cultivation, while the lower hills and slopes 
abound in fine pasturage, and the region is evidently able 
to sustain a considerable population. From Bear River 
we moved on to Yellow Creek where we camped one 
night, the next day reaching Cache Cave at the head 
of Echo Canon where we made a mid-day camp of four 
hours. Cache Cave is simply a hole in the rock, some 
fifty feet up the hillside and running back forty feet 
into the cliff, the inside covered with names cut, 
scratched and painted. Here we found the grass and 
water fine but no wood, not even the sage brush which 
had thus far served our needs ; so we took to the plains 
and gathered the fuel known to plainsmen as " bull 
cfyips," which made a very hot fire when used in suffi 
cient quantities and, " barrin the idee," served to cook a 
first-rate dinner. 

As I am writing of a mode of travel now rendered 
entirely obsolete by the completed line of railroad, and 
of characters and methods of life no longer met with by 
the ordinary traveler, some special account of daily 
fare of those whose occupation has now fallen into dis 
use may be interesting to the general reader. In a few 
years more, our aggressive commercial enterprise and 
comprehensive civilization will have obliterated those 


routes along which the mule and ox trains bore the 
trade and immigrants to our great territories. The 
kinds as well as routes of trade will be rapidly modified, 
with new agencies and a vaster scope. With the pres 
ent generation will almost entirely disappear whole 
classes of men who were met with everywhere in the 
Territories. Their occupation will be gone, and there 
will be neither demand nor school for the training of 
others. A hardy, brave and rough race generally, they 
were essential to their time, pioneers of a better day, 
yielding their places slowly to new routes of com 
merce for the world, their wagons disappearing before 
railroads, which are vaster than plains or mountains. 
With representatives of these men I was associated for 
the time. Thus far we had lived rather poorly on 
bacon, bread, coffee without milk or sugar, and such 
molasses as is used in the States as a medium for fly- 
poison. But west of Green River we entered a region 
abounding in jack-rabbits and sage hens, with which our 
passengers kept us pretty well supplied. I had thought 
from its appearance that the sage hen could not be 
eaten, but found it rather palatable, tasting like the 
flesh of our domestic hen strongly flavored with sage. 
The jack-rabbit is about four times as large as the com 
mon " cotton-tail," and two of them made an ample 
meal for our crowd of sixteen. For biscuits the self- 
rising flour is used on the plains ; but our cooks were 
not even respectable amateurs and half the time our 
bread was " Missouri-bake," i. e., burnt on top and at 
the bottom, and raw in the middle. 

The water supply was so irregular, too, that most of 


the way we made but one "route" per day, which 
implies no dinner. To aggravate the case further, we 
often had not enough at breakfast, and supper was our 
only full meal. At night all were at leisure; the 
mules were fed, turned out and given in charge of the 
night herder ; the boys gathered around the fire, while 
the cooks took their time and prepared a bushel or 
more of biscuits, and we ate as long as we pleased. 
But in the morning all was hurry ; the mules were 
done eating before the men began ; the " wagon-boss " 
hurried the cooks, so they did not prepare enough ; at 
the shout of "grub-pile," every man "went for" his 
share in haste, and the fastest eater got the most. 
When we got far enough to meet Salt Lake teams 
with freshly dried peaches of this year s crop, we in 
vested largely therein, and our cooks made a number 
of peach pies. 

The materials were flour, bacon grease, peaches and 
the molasses above mentioned, the pies being cooked 
in a tin plate inside of a baking kettle. Half a dozen 
of them as curiosities would be a prize to a Ladies 
Fair, or a rare addition to a Medical Museum. Our 
favorite dinner, when we could get the meat, was of 
fried ham and " sinkers," the latter peculiar to the 
plains. Here is the recipe : Flour, ad libitum; water, 
quant, suff.; soda, a spoonful, if you have it, if not a 
pinch of ashes. Make in thin cakes, and fry rapidly 
in hot grease, with long handled frying pans. " Death- 
balls" and "Stone-blinders" are made in the same 
way, with the addition to the first of the molasses, 
and to the second plenty of saleratus. 


Lady readers will give due credit for the above 
recipes, as I believe they are not found in " Leslie." 
My fellow passengers are worthy of notice. I had 
originally intended on leaving the States to proceed 
directly by railroad and stage to Salt Lake City ; but 
charges on the Union Pacific being then at the rate of 
ten cents per mile, on reaching the then terminus at 
North Platte, I found myself laboring temporarily 
under a serious attack of what Tom Hood calls "im- 
pecuniosity," and under the necessity of finding some 
cheaper, if less expeditious mode of conveyance. 
Freight had accumulated, and teamsters were in de 
mand. So I took to the plains with the train of 
Naisbit and Hindley, Mormon merchants of Salt Lake 
City, in the capacity of a " mule-skinner" for the trip, 
seated on the back of my " near wheeler," and wielding 
a whip nearly half as large as myself over the backs of 
three spans of mules, viz. : " Brigham" and " Sally 
Ann," "Ponce" and Jule," "Kit" and "Mexico." 
Whether the name of my "off-leader" had any refer 
ence to one of the real Brigham s numerous wives, I 
cannot say; but such a reckless system of asinine 
nomenclature would hardly indicate a delicate respect 
for the Prophet on the part of these young " Saints." 
Of our little party of sixteen, two drivers, the night 
herder and three passengers were Gentiles; the rest 
Mormons, or at least "hickory Mormons," sons of 
Mormon parents; most of them tall, awkward and 
lank lads of eighteen or twenty, with premonitory 
symptoms of manhood breaking out on their chins, 
giving them, as they never shaved, a very verdant and 
backwoods appearance. 


For the night we joined blankets by two s, sleeping 
on gunny bags, under the wagons. My partner was a tall, 
lank Mormon, a native of Mississippi, "a tough cuss 
from Provo," his companions called him, who, after a 
few days travel grew quite confidential and told me his 
whole history. He joined the Confederate army at the 
first call, fought till he was tired, and allowed himself 
to be captured in Hood s retreat from Nashville ; took 
the amnesty oath for which his " girl, in Massassipp, 
wouldn t have nothin more to say to him," when he took 
a huge disgust at the States, and came out and joined the 
Mormons in 1865. He has "a house an lot an two 
good lookin wives in the Twentieth Ward, and con 
siders himself settled." I should think he would. As an 
outsider, I had kept quiet on the subject of polygamy; 
but one evening when reading an account of some 
Chicago social abomination, a young Mormon remarked, 
" That is the benefit of polygamy ; they have nothing 
of that sort." "Polygamy would be all right, Bill," 
said another, "if they only wouldn t pull hair. But 
the women will pull hair anyway you fix it." As the 
first home testimony I had received on the "peculiar 
institution" of Utah, this could hardly be considered 
favorable. In our party were two grandsons of the late 
Heber C. Kimball, not much of a distinction when it 
is remembered that worthy left some fifty children to 
keep his name in remembrance. I have generally 
found all the younger generation of Mormons to be 
infidels, and suspect it must be so with the youth of 
any religion which has in it so little of the element of 
spirituality ; certainly with the more intelligent of 



them. From a gross, sensuous religion, the thinking 
mind glides naturally into a cold and cheerless skep 

Our group of sixteen stood as follows : seven infidels, 
mostly of Mormon parents ; five " good Mormons ; " 
two Lutherans ; one Catholic, and one Methodist. Re 
ligiously, all are pretty much alike on the plains, but 
socially there is even there an " aristocracy," and con 
siderable " class and caste " jealousy. The " mule- 
skinner " considers the " bull-whacker " quite beneath 
him, and will hardly associate with him upon equal 
terms, while the latter doubtless looks upon the former 
as " stuck up " and proud. The " bull-whackers " have 
to drive very late, for which reason they never seem so 
social and lively as the drivers in mule trains. All our 
work was done by dark, and gathered around the camp- 
fire we would spend the evening hours, in lively songs 
and merriment, varied by some with an occasional dose 
of " Red Jacket," which is used on the plains as an al 
terative, sanative, sedative and preventive. On the 
wild mountain side or in the deep glen, by a sage brush 
fire, one may imagine the roaring chorus from a dozen 
pairs of strong lungs, over such a choice bit of poetry 
as this : 

" Oh, how happy is the man who has heard instruction s voice, 
And turned a mule-skinner for his first and early choice," etc. 

Or such a bit of history as this : 

" Obadier, he dreampt a dream, 
Dreampt he was drivin a ten mule team, 
But when he woke he heaved a sigh, 
The lead mule kicked e-o-wt the swing mule s eye." 


Compared with these bold and joyous utterances, there 
is quite a touch of the pathetic in 


" Oh ! I m a jolly driver on the Salt Lake City line, 
And I can lick the rascal that yokes an ox of mine ; 
He d better turn him out, or you bet your life I ll try 
To sprawl him with an ox-bow Boot hog, or die. 

" Oh 1 I ll tell you how it is when you first get on the road : 
You ve got an awkward team and a very heavy load ; 
You ve got to whip and hollow, (if you swear it s on the sly,) 
Punch your teams along boys Root hog, or die. 

"Oh ! it s every day at noon there is something to do. 
If there s nothing else, there will be an ox to shoe ; 
First with ropes you throw him, and there you make him lie 
"While you tack on the shoes, boys Root hog, or die. 

u Perhaps you d like to know what it is we have to eat, 
A little bit of bread, and a dirty piece of meat ; 
A little old molasses, and sugar on the sly, 
Potatoes if you ve got em Root hog, or die. 

" Oh ! there s many strange sights to be seen along the road, 
The antelopes and deer and the great big sandy toad, 
The buffalo and elk, the rabbits jump so high, 
And with all the bloody Injuns Root hog, or die. 

" The prairie dogs in Dog-town, and the prickly pears, 
And the buffalo bones that are scattered everywheres ; 
Now and then dead oxen from vile Alkali, 
Are very thick in places, where it s Root hog, or die. 

" Oh ! you ve got to take things on the plains as you can, 
They ll never try to please you, or any other man ; 
You go it late and early, and also wet or dry, 
And eat when you can get it Root hog, or die. 

" Oh, times on Bitter Creek, they never can be beat, 
4 Root hog, or die is on every wagon sheet ; 
The. sand within your throat, the dust within your eye, 
Bend your back and stand it, to Root hog, or die. 


"When we arrived in Salt Lake, the 25th of June, 
The people were surprised to see us come so soon ; 
But we are bold bull-whackers on whom you can rely, 
We re tough, and we can stand it, to Boot hog, or die. " 

It will be seen that the " sacred nine " flourish even 
on the American Desert. 

We were two days in passing the thirty miles down 
Echo Canon, our progress being slow because the roads 
were so badly cut up by the workmen on the railroad 
track. Hundreds of English, Welsh, Swedes and Danes, 
were there at work on Brigham Young s contract, which 
extended sixty miles through Echo and Weber Canons, 
Among them were many who had just come over and 
were working out their passage money, which the Church 
had advanced from the Perpetual Emigration Fund. In 
the wildest part of the canon we halted for four hours 
of a beautiful autumn day, every moment of which was 
full of delight, in gazing upon the wall-like cliffs, the 
straw colored rocks, the deep rifts and caverns in the 
mountain sides, and all the sublime scenery which has 
made this place so noted. 

The road here lay directly under a perpendicular 
cliff of nearly a thousand feet in height, where great 
rocks, of many tons weight, hung over the way ; others 
which had fallen ages ago and rolled to the lower plain, 
stood like vast table rocks in the valley s bed. Where 
I stood, I could view the southern slope of the hills for 
twenty miles, and beyond them the white peaks of the 
Wintah Range, bathed in clouds of clear and dazzling 
whiteness, through which the sun was just breaking in 
glorious majesty. It was the hour of morning service, 
and nature here seemed yielding silent worship : 



" But the sound of the church -going bell 
These valleys and rocks never heard ; 
Ne er sighed at the sound of a knell, 
Or smiled when a Sabbath appeared." 

A soft, sighing wind swept down the canon, and 
mournful murmurs issued from the rocky side-crevices, 
which doubtless spoke often to the Indian as the spirits 
of his fathers, calling from the happy hunting grounds. 
The Greek poet would have heard in them the moan- 
ings of imprisoned souls seeking release from their 
rocky dungeons ; but to the Christian the whole scene 
brings to solemn remembrance the time when " He 
stood and measured the earth; the everlasting moun 
tains were scattered ; the perpetual hills did bow." 

Below this point we passed the remains of the fortifi 
cations, or rather stone-piles, which the Mormons 
erected in 1857 to stay the march of Johnston s army, 
and a little farther down the young Mormons pointed 
out a rock, rising apparently seven or eight hundred 
feet above the road, on the top of which a Mormon boy 
was shot dead by his companion below, "just on a 
dare, and to see if his gun would carry up that high." 
This was the only life lost by the Mormon forces during 
that memorable " war." The sight of these relics, which 
would have aided in checking a well-handled force 
about as much as the canvass forts at Pekin, caused a 
warm discussion to spring up among us. The 
" wretched awkwardness " of the Federal cavalry was 
contrasted very unfavorably with the " fiery valor " of 
the Mormon youth, who " offered to lassoo the guns, 
rode full tilt down a point where a blue-coat wouldn t 
venture, took a man prisoner, drank with him and let 


him go," etc., etc. " If the army had been volunteers," 
was the general expression, "they would have been 
wiped out ; but we only felt pity for the low Dutch and 
Irish, sent out here just to keep them moving." 

Something might have been deducted from this on 
the score of prejudice, but from other and less interested 
testimony, I am compelled to conclude that the Army 
of Utah must have been "poor sticks," unless, as is 
probable, there was a secret understanding that they 
were not to force their way into the valley the first year. 
Of all the evils with which the " masterly inactivity " 
of Buchanan s Administration afflicted us, the Utah ex 
pedition of 1857 and its results were certainly not the 
least. To-day three-fourths of the Mormons firmly be 
lieve that Johnston s Army was compelled to retreat by 
the Mormon guerilla chief, Lot Smith, and that they 
were only allowed to come into the valley after a treaty 
had been made with Brigham. When asked why the 
people vacated their homes and went South when the 
army came in the next year, if they had gained the 
victory, the prompt answer -is : " It was the will of the 
Lord." This is the explanation of all difficult points 
in Utah, and a very convenient one it is. 

On the 5th of September, we emerged from Echo into 
Weber Canon, finding a pretty little settlement, in a 
spot of great natural beauty, where we halted for rest 
and feed. Scarcely had we formed corral and loosed 
our mules, when a sudden change came over the western 
sky, the afternoon sun was obscured by a murky haze, 
the Wasatch peaks were lost in sudden accumulations 
of dense cloud, and in a very few minutes the whole 


scene was shut out from our view by the rapidly gath 
ering storm. For a few minutes longer, the air where 
we stood was in a dead calm, then a strong wind swept 
up the green valley of the Weber, sharp, jagged light 
ning ran along the mountain peaks and seemed to re 
bound from cliff to cliff evenly with the echoing thun 
der, and we had barely time to secure the fastenings of 
our wagon covers and take shelter within, when the 
storm was upon us in all its fury. Blinding clouds of 
dust, driven by fierce gusts of wind, were succeeded in 
an instant by torrents of rain, alternating again with 
heavy winds which threatened to hurl our wagons into 
the Weber. I learned with surprise that this usually 
dry, mild climate, was subject during the summer and 
autumn to sudden and violent wind and thunder-storms. 
The^ rain continued for an hour, sending great sluices 
down the mountain gulches and lashing the placid 
waters of Echo Creek into a foaming, muddy torrent ; 
then ceased as suddenly as it had risen ; and issuing 
from our retreats, we saw the dark clouds rolling away 
to the southeast over the Uintahs, and in another hour 
the sun was again shining brilliantly. By evening the 
roads were pleasantly dry, and the stormy afternoon was 
followed by a glorious sunset and a night of unusual 
clearness. We now changed our course to the south 
ward, following up Weber Canon, or rather valley, for 
in this part of its course it is too wide to merit the for 
mer name. The track of the Union Pacific Railroad, 
which has run continuously with the old stage-road 
from the head of Bitter Creek and followed down Echo 
Caiioii for twenty miles, at the mouth of Echo turns in 


a direct W. N. W. course down Weber Canon, and by 
that pass enters Salt Lake Valley thirty-five miles north 
of the city. The stage road turns south from Echo, 
follows up Weber to Spring Creek, up that W. S. W. to 
Parley s Park, across the Park and down Parley s Canon 
W. N. W. into the city. 

In Weber Valley we find ourselves, for the first time 
in many hundred miles, in a cultivated and settled 
country, and the contrast is most pleasing to the eye 
wearied by miles of desert and mountain, with scant 
growth of sage-brush, grease-wood, and desert cactus. 
Another Sunday s drive, the 6th of September, took us 
through Coalville, point of coal supply for Salt Lake 
City, through forty miles distant with a high range of 
mountains between ; a rather neat but homely looking 
town, with a few houses nicely built of beautiful \yhite 
stone, shingled or slated, but for the most part dwell 
ings of rough hewn logs, and pole roofs covered with 
dirt, and often grass and flowers growing on the top. 
None but Mormons live in this valley, and I soon 
learned that the few houses, the finish of which I ad 
mired, were the residences of the Bishops and promi 
nent Elders. The settlements extend along the little 
valley of two or three miles in width with high pas 
tures beyond the cultivated lands, rolling back to the 
mountains. Vegetation showed that growth was slow, 
and the season late, as this valley is among the highest 
in the Utah. Fields of oats near the road had just 
been harvested, and hay-making was still in progress. 

We next passed through Wanship, county-seat of 
Summit County, and soon after left the valley, turning 


to the right and following up Spring Creek Canon, 
towards the summit. Nearly all day we traveled up 
hill, passing towards evening over a sort of summit 
level and then down a gentle slope into Parley s Park, 
a valley or mountain plateau of some ten thousand 
acres, 7000 feet above sea-level and entirely surrounded 
by rugged mountain ranges, except narrow outlets to 
the north and west. This tract produces fine grass 
both for pasturage and hay, but no grain. It was first 
owned by Heber C. Kirnball, who had wheat sown there 
for seven years in succession. It grew well and headed 
out, but was invariably "cut off in the flower" by the 
frosts of early September, whereupon Kimball stated 
that " it was not the will of the Lord grain should grow 
there," and gave up the experiment. The Park received 
its name in honor of Parley P. Pratt, noted among the 
early apostles of Mormonism, and brother of Orson 
Pratt, scholar, historian, and astronomer, the Usman 
of the new faith. Parley seems to have been a radical 
believer in polygamy, as he was certainly thorough in 
its practice, having six wives some time before his death. 
But, not satisfied with these, he converted a Mrs. Elinor 
McLean, wife of Hector McLean, of Arkansas, and took 
her to Salt Lake City, and married her. The enraged 
husband sought Pratt, when on a mission in Kansas, in 
1856, and literally cut him to pieces with a bowie knife. 
In Mormonism as in El Islam, the wives of the infidels 
are lawful prey to any believer who can win them ; 
while, at the same time, it is one of the deadliest sins 
in their code for any other man to entice away one of 
their "women," an unpardonable crime for which they 




openly threaten and claim the right to inflict death. 
To convert a Gentile s wife to Mormonism is the highest 
achievement; the reverse worthy of death. There is 
a great deal in the way one states things ; it makes all 
the difference between "Danite" and Damnite. Pratt 
was canonized among the "glorious martyrs" of the 
Latter-day faith, and his murder takes high rank in the 
long list of "persecutions" they have laid up against 
the Gentiles. 


There is a small Mormon settlement on the south 
side of the Park, near where an old fort stood, but all 
the central portion is the property of Mr. "Wm. Kim- 
ball, eldest son of Heber, formerly an ardent Mormon, 
but now weak in the faith, and sincerely trusting for 
inspiration in a more ardent spirit, or at least a more 
exhilarating one, if the testimony of his friends and 
nose be accepted. He has, however, " kept the faith " 
by taking three wives; the youngest and handsomest 
lives with him in a large stone hotel near the center of 
the Park, on the stage road; the second wife, appa 
rently quite old, lives in a low log house two hundred 
yards from the hotel, and his legal wife lives in the 
city, and, it is said, takes in spinning and weaving for 
a living. The first and second wives had each a son 
in our "outfit," Burton and Willie Kimball, rather 
bright, intelligent boys, and for the night we encamped 
near their father s "ranche," procuring a plentiful 
supply of milk, butter and eggs. I afterwards found 
it to be quite common for hotel-keepers on the various 
roads to have two or three wives; sometimes an 
English wife as housekeeper, a Danish wife as gardener, 
and if there was a third, she did the spinning and 
weaving for the family. 

Thus all the requirements of a first-class establish 
ment are kept up, and servants dispensed with ; the 
" woman question," " servant-gal-ism " and " division of 
labor" settled by one master stroke, and profits deduced 
from polygamy with more certainty than polygamy 
from the Prophets. 

From the Park we follow the stage road over a low 


"divide" to the head of Parley s Canon, but made such 
slow progress that we were compelled to encamp for a 
night in the wildest part of the gorge, with barely 
room, and in but one place to range the wagons in 
corral between the road and bed of the stream. 

The view was one of indescribable beauty. On either 
hand rose the dark green sides of the canon, apparently 
almost perpendicular, yet covered with masses of tim 
ber to the very summit ; while down the rocky flume, 
in the lowest part of the canon, dashed the clear waters 
of the creek, formed by melting snows but a few miles 
above. From where we stand the gray crest of the 
summit seems within pistol shot, and I am surprised to 
learn that it is at least one mile in a direct line from 
my eye, and those apparent steeps near the top are 
really gentle slopes covered with grass and bushes. 
The masses of timber which stand out so boldly to 
wards the lower part of the canon appear to follow up 
the side gulches in rapidly lessening lines, sinking to 
rows of little saplings, and terminating in a mere fringe 
at the top like ornamental shrubbery. Yet those 
trifling looking poles are many of them from one to two 
feet thick. To one whose early life has been passed in 
a leveler prairie country $ these mountain scgnes are an 
ever-varying source of surprise and delight, and he 
only wonders why those whose home has been in the 
mountains should ever leave them. Nor do they often. 
There is a charm in the wild freedom of these heights 
which all must acknowledge, nor is it much less so on 
the plains, and though the mountaineer and plainsman 
may return to eastern friends and the abodes of civil- 


ization, they as often feel the irresistible longing to be 
back amid the untrained wildness of nature. 

From this camp we made another day s travel down 
hill, all day by the side of the rushing stream, under 
numerous hanging rocks which seem to threaten de 
struction to all who venture beneath ; now through 
frightful " dugways " far up the hillside, where a vari 
ance of three feet would send team and driver to frag 
mentary destruction, and now far down in the deeps, 
where the enclosing walls above almost shut out the 

Soon after noon we passed the last stage station in a 
sort of open valley where a side canon connects Emigra 
tion and Parley s, but after a few more turns we enter 
a deeper pass, of more wild and startling beauty. 
Finally we reached the Canon Gates, a narrow pass, just 
wide enough to afford road room, with perpendicular 
walls several hundred feet in height, where we emerged 
from the mountains and came out into a hollow with 
sloping sides and a freer outlook. About 4 p. M. I 
caught sight for the first time of the open valley and 
blue hills far beyond, but for an hour more we con 
tinued to wind along a "dugway," and at length 
emerged upon an open " bench," where I could see the 
distant glimmer of Jordan and the " marshes," and the 
mountains west of Great Salt Lake, a faint, blue, cloudy 
line, that in the silvery light of the declining sun ap 
peared fading away in infinite perspective. 

Slowly descending from the " bench" to the valley, I 
caught sight of the hill north of the city and the canon 
from which issues City Creek ; then of Camp Douglass, 


far to the right and three miles east of the city ; then of 
the Arsenal, Tabernacle, Brigham s house, and the 
Theatre, and at last the city appeared in full view, 
scattered for miles over the slope, and looking in the 
distance and haze of evening, like a collection of vil 
lages with groves and orchards scattered among them. 
Night overtook us four miles out, where we formed 
corral in an open space by the " uphill canal,"so called, 
from which place on the next morning, September 10th ; 
we entered the city. 




Views of the City Temple Block Brigham s Block Theatre Immi 
grants Mormon Arguments Reasons for Polygamy "Book of Mor 
mon" First Mormon Sermon " Old" Joe Young His Beauty (?) 
His Sermon Mormon Style of Preaching Order of Services First 
impressions rather favorable Much to learn yet. 

ON first impressions Utah seems to me to have the 
perfection of climates, and Salt Lake City the finest na 
tural site in the West. Nor is this feeling much les 
sened by longer stay. From a point on the hill just 
North of the city and near the Arsenal one can take in 
at a view the lake, the city, the mountains and the 
valley for thirty miles south and southeast. From this 
point Jordan valley appears nearly in the shape of a 
horse shoe, with the city just under the point of the 
northern termination of the east side, and the lake 
lying across the open end. But the southern point of 
the valley which seems to the spectator here to close, 
only narrows at the canon of the Jordan, and opens be- 
yond that to contain the Utah Lake district. Beginning 
northeast of the city, and extending south in the order 
named, are City Creek, Red Butte, Emigration, Parley s, 
Big Cottonwood and Little Cottonwood canons, all break 
ing through the Wasatch from the east. From this 
point, too, every house in the city can be seen ; the plat 
resembles the even squares of a checker-board, the rows 


of trees lining all the streets, and the crystal streams of 
water which seem in the distance like threads of silver, 
combining to give a strange and fanciful beauty to the 

Salt Lake City is situated in latitude 40 46 North, 
and longitude 111 53 west of Greenwich, nearly 
4,300 feet above sea level, and was laid out in 1847. 
The streets are at exact right angles, running with the 
cardinal points and numbered every way from Temple 
Block, which is in Utah the starting point of all 
measurements, calculations and principles, whether of 
ecclesiastical, civil, political or engineering. Its exact 
place is ascertained to be as above given for the city. 

The street bounding it on the east is called East 
Temple street, the next one First East Temple, or 
merely First East, the next Second East and thus on ; 
the same nomenclature is maintained in all the 
streets, North, South and West. Each street is forty- 
four yards in width, with sixteen feet pavements, 
leaving one hundred feet clear, and each block exactly 
a furlong square, containing ten acres, divided into 
eight lots of an acre and a quarter each. Nine squares 
are included in each ward, and there are twenty-one 
wards, beginning with the First on the southeast cor 
ner and reckoned westward to the Fifth, then back 
ward and forward, boustrophedon, terminating with the 
Twentieth on the northeast. The outer wards, how 
ever, contain large additional tracts extending the 
jurisdiction of the city over wide limits. The greatest 
length of the city proper is thus, from southeast to 
northwest about four miles, and its greatest width, from 


northeast to southwest a little over two miles. But a 
small portion, however, of this large area is thickly 
settled ; in two-thirds of the city the scattered dwellings 
are mingled with orchards, gardens, small pastures or 
grass-plats, and even small wheat and cornfields, like a 
thickly settled farming country or nursery ground, 
rather than a city ; and to this fact the place is indebted 
for no small share of its beauty. Nine-tenths of the 
buildings are of adobes, or sun dried brick, throughout 
the West spelled and pronounced dobies, which material 
corresponds nearly with brick in the East, and where 
plastered and^ stupcoed makes an elegant and durable 

The western part of the city extends to the Jordan, 
and the ground in that vicinity is rather low and in 
winter and spring marshy ; hence the finest residences 
are north and east,, and all the public buildings above 
Third South Street. Let us note a few of them, be 
ginning, by invariable custom, at Temple Block, which 
includes the usual ten acres, containing the old and 
new Tabernacles, the Endowment (locally known as 
Ofidooment) House, and the foundation for the great 
Temple which is to be. The old Tabernacle is a sort 
of nondescript building, oblong in shape, with a third 
of the room underground, in the southwest corner of 
the block, capable of holding some 2,500 persons. The 
new Tabernacle is, in its way, a curiosity ; there is 
certainly no idolatry in the reverence paid to it, for it 
is like nothing else in the heavens above, or the earth 
beneath, or probably the waters under the earth. At 
firut sight the prevailing feeling is one of astonishment, 



which soDn yields to curiosity as to who could have 
designed it. It is built in the form of a complete oval, 
the major axis of which is 250 feet in length and the 
minor axis 150 feet. The lower part, or foundation 
for the dome, consists of a succession of forty-six pillars 
of red cut sand-stone, each about six feet square and 
ten feet high, all around the building ; along the sides 
there are double doors between the pillars, and at the 
ends a heavy partition ; on this structure the dome or 
roof rests like the half of an egg-shell. The latter is a 
vast frame-work, plastered within and shingled without, 
raised along the centre sixty-five feet above the floor. 
There is not a trace of the beautiful or impressive 
about it; it is simply a vast pile awkwardly put to 
gether, and with twice the outlay of stone and mortar 
that would have sufficed to provide the same room and 
accommodations in some other shape. As the grand 
worshipping hall of the Saints it is a curiosity ; as a 
work of art a monstrosity. The Endowment House, 
where the secret rites of Mormonism are performed, 
is an unpretentious adobe building in the northwest 
corner of the lot. I cannot describe its interior, for 
the profane Gentile may not enter therein. But if the 
testimony of numerous witnesses may be believed, it is 
fitted up with various rooms, curtains, stages and 
scenery, for the performance of a grand drama, repre 
senting the creation, fall of man, coming of a redeemer, 
.great apostasy and final restoration of the true priest- 
iiood through Joseph Smith. 

The eastern half of Temple Block, fenced off from 
he western, contains only the foundation for the 


Temple, which is to be finished in great splendor just 
before the Saints return to Jackson County, Missouri. 
Ground was first broken for the work in February, 
1853, with imposing ceremonies; in the seventeen 
years that have since elapsed, the edifice has reached a 
level with the ground, from which those familiar with 
the " Rule of Three " may calculate how long it will 
require for it to complete the proposed height of ninety- 
nine feet. The foundation is unsurpassed in strength 
and finish ; of the finest mountain granite of a bright 
gray or white, slightly flecked with blue ; a building 
of such material would indeed outlast the anticipated 
thousand years of Millennial reign. But work on it is 
slow, or rather it is suspended ; the stone is very hard, 
and must be brought some twenty miles from the 
mountains, and only at rare intervals a workman or 
two is seen picking away at one of the huge masses 
which are scattered around by the ton. The entire 
square is surrounded by a wall, the base of stone and 
the upper part of adobes, and plastered, twelve feet 
high, with square turrets about every ten feet, and a 
massive gateway under stone arches at the center of 
each of the four sides. Crossing East Temple Street 
we reach the " Prophet s Block," two squares of ten 
acres each, the western containing the Deseret Store, 
the office of the Deseret News, official organ of the 
Church, the Tithing House and yard, the Lion House, 
Bee Hive House, offices and other buildings pertaining 
to the Prophet, Priest, Seer, Revelator, in all the world, 
Grand Archee, First President and Trustee-in-trust 
of the Church rf Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, all 


of which titles center in and are borne by Brigham 

The Lion House is an oblong building of three stories, 
plain in style, but quite substantially built and well 
finished. Its cost is reported everywhere from thirty 
to seventy thousand dollars. In the States it could 
have been built for less than the former sum. Over the 
pillared portico in front is a stone lion, a sad misappli 
cation of the emblem, by the way, as that royal brute is 
ever content with one mate. The bull would have been 
more appropriate, but that is a matter of taste. The 
Bee Hive House, a large square building just east of the 
former, is surmounted by a stone carving in imitation 
of a bee-hive. The entire area is surrounded by a wall 
eleven feet high of boulders and cobble stones laid in 
mortar, with semi-circular buttresses at equal distances. 
The eastern half of the enclosure contains various build 
ings of no special interest. Between the two lots is the 
main entrance to City Creek Canon, which was 
" granted " to Brigham Young by the first Territorial 
Legislature ; the entrance is by a massive stone gate 
way under an arch, upon which is perched an immense 
eagle, carved by a Mormon artist out of native wood 
another perversion of a sacred emblem, the royal bird 
being, like his brute compeer, a strict monogamist. 

Just north of Brigham s grounds, on the first " bench," 
is the block owned by the late Heber C. Kimball, con 
taining one superior mansion and a number of smaller 
dwellings, in which eleven of the Widows Kimball still 
reside. The other seven live in various parts of the 
city, with the families to which they belong. Some 


fourteen or sixteen of Brigham s wives reside in the 
Lion House and Bee Hive House ; the others live in dif 
ferent parts of the city, or on his farms in the country. 

From the canon back of Brigham s grounds issues 
City Creek, which is there, by dams, diverted from its 
channel and carried along the upper part of the city in 
a main canal, from which side ditches convey the streams 
down both sides of every street, furnishing irrigation to 
the gardens, and pure water, in the upper part of the 
city, for all other purposes. Lower down, the loose black 
soil and the wash of the streets render the water rather 
impure, though it is used, and during the season when 
irrigation is not in progress, is still tolerably clear. 
Next to Temple Block and Brigham s, the Theatre is 
the institution of Salt Lake City. It stands one square 
south of Brigham s grounds, at the corner of First South 
and First East streets ; is built of brick and rough stone, 
covered with stucco in front, and its cost is variously 
estimated from seventy to two hundred thousand dollars. 
It was built while railroads were yet a thousand miles 
distant, probably doubling its cost. It will comfortably 
seat two thousand persons, and can be packed with a 
few hundred more ; the proscenium is sixty feet deep, 
and the building the largest of the kind west of Chicago. 

Formerly the playing was done entirely by amateurs, 
under the training of old London professionals turned 
Mormons ; then they played only on alternate nights, 
rehearsing one night and playing the next, pursuing 
their ordinary calling by day. But at present there are 
professional players among the Mormons, receiving a 
regular salary and assisted by "stars" from abroad. 


Just before I reached Salt Lake, one of the "leading 
ladies " of the home troupe, Miss Sarah Alexander, took 
a sudden departure for California, where she is now en 
gaged in her profession ; and quite lately another home 
" star," Miss Asenath Adams, born and reared among 
the Saints, has left to become the wife of a Gentile. 
Her father, a bigoted Mormon, has fully realized the 
text, "Train up a child, and away she goes." 

The Parquet is usually occupied only by Mormons 
and their families ; for a Gentile to be seen there is apt 
to create a suspicion of "jack-Mormon" tendencies. 
The resident Gentiles and visitors occupy the first or 
Dress Circle, while the second and third circles are given 
up to miners, transients and boys, and even Indians 
often find a standing " at the top of the house." 

Next in interest to the theatre among public build 
ings, are Social Hall, the Seventies Hall and the Court 
House. The last named is built entirely of adobes, but 
stuccoed with exquisite finish and in perfect imitation 
of variegated granite, making a building of fine and im 
posing appearance. On Main East Temple Street, 
the business houses are all included within two blocks ; 
among them, the stone storehouse of Ransohoff & Co., 
the drug store of Godbe & Co., the large building of 
Walker Brothers, and Masonic Hall building would 
take respectable rank in eastern cities of the same size. 
The finest business house in the city is that of Win. 
Jennings & Co., now devoted to the uses of " Zion s Co 
operative Association." There are two well built hotels, 
the Revere House and Townsend, and a number of pri 
vate residences of considerable taste and beauty. But 


it is easy to see after all, that the beauty of Salt Lake 
is largely by comparison. For twenty years it was the 
only town between the Missouri and Sacramento ; to 
reach it, men had to plod eleven hundred weary miles, 
with mules or oxen, across alkali deserts, rugged moun 
tains, and barren flats ; to them it was the half-way 
place for rest and recruiting, and no wonder its broad, 
well watered streets, its green, cool gardens and or 
chards, and its neat white adobes, seemed a very terres 
trial Eden. No wonder the Mormon emigrants who 
had made the weary passage from Europe, broke forth 
into songs and shouts of glad surprise, at sight of their 
" Zion." But now that one can run out in three days 
from the well built cities of the East, the contrast is 
lacking, the illusion is destroyed, and early visitors are 
flatly accused of having " blown the Salt Lake trumpet 
altogether too loud." 

Twenty-three years ago, this region was a desert of 
sage-brush, grease-wood and cactus, when on the 24th of 
July, 1847, the "pioneers" first entered the valley. 
Their material progress since shows that no human in 
stitution can be an unmixed evil. 

From a ramble through the city, I went to the noted 
Warm Springs, just outside the city to the northwest ; 
and without the faith of the Mormons, lean safely agree 
with them that this pool is "for the healing of the na 
tions." This is the season for " the emigration " to ar 
rive, and returning to the city I found the people ex 
cited over the arrival of a train of fifty teams, bringing 
a large number of new and some old converts from Eng- 
land ; Denmark and Switzerland. The train had unloaded 


in the church corral, or tithing yard, a large walled en 
closure in the Prophet s Block; I entered under an 
arched stone gateway and viewed the new arrivals. Old, 
withered-looking women, fat, clumpy-looking girls and 
middle-aged " vrows " composed the female portion, and 
all evidently of the poorest class. 

Their friends, and the sisters, generally, had met them 
with hearty hospitality, carrying in buckets of milk and 
baskets of fruit and provisions, to make a welcoming 
feast, and the corral was a scene of feasting and merri 
ment. But there were a few sad exceptions to the uni 
versal joy. Many who started with this outfit had died 
by the way, and a few of the old people were so worn 
out by the long journey that it seemed they could not 
recover. I was particularly struck with the appearance 
of one group. An old English woman, whose features bore 
the impress of exhausting travel, while her hands indi 
cated a lifetime of unremitting toil, was lying on a pile 
of bedding, evidently sinking with the weakness of fever. 
The young women had gathered around her with every 
delicacy to tempt the appetite, while a fair young Mor 
mon girl supported the sinking head on her bosom, and 
presented a spoonful of ripe peach to the fevered lips. 
The dame smiled, while tears of weakness and joy ran 
from her eyes, and tried again and again to eat the prof 
fered delicacy, but in vain. Nature was exhausted by 
the long voyage. The eyes that had so long and eagerly 
looked for " Zion," were soon to be dimmed, and the 
weary feet were hastening to an eternal rest. 

In the universal hilarity that prevailed, the Mormon 
girls were selecting companions from the arrivals, and 


taking them to their homes for a few days rest, the 
travel- worn and dusty, foreign-made garments contrast 
ing strangely with the dress of the young Saints. Fe 
male beauty is scarce in Utah. One occasionally meets 
a fine looking woman, but there is four-fold the beauty 
in many a Gentile town of 1,000 inhabitants that 
I can see in all this city. Fine forms are not uncom 
mon, and some of the younger women are quite graceful 
in carriage, but beauty of expression is rare, and the 
reason is obvious. Facial beauty is aesthetic, the result 
of taste, sensibility and cultivation, and at least a 
tolerable elevation of the moral faculties. It w r ill not 
result from a rude and coarse existence. Beauty of 
the form is more purely .physical, and will naturally 
spring up anywhere, where woman is not abused or 
overworked. Given .a certain amount of fresh air, 
moderate exercise and healthy food, and the correct 
womanly form is the result. But beauty of the features 
has more of the ideal ; it is the product of a higher tone 
of the mental and moral nature, and other things being 
equal, the greatest number of fine faces will be found 
in a virtuous and intelligent community. 

The men were of the same brawny and red-faced 
foreign type, white haired boys, and simple looking old 
men, which every western man has so often seen ; a 
low-browed, stiff-haired, ignorant and stolid race. In 
their faces could be seen much of the earnest, sincere 
and quiet ; but not of the intellectual, bright or quick 
of comprehension. Every traveler through the rural 
districts of Utah, must have observed that, though 
individual Saints differ somewhat, as other people do, 


yet there are certain peculiar traits common to all. 
One of these is their almost total lack of the humorous 
faculty or principle; phrenologically speaking, they 
have no organ of wit and humor, or if they have it is 
so uncultivated that it is practically dormant. 

They w^li laugh heartily enough at a broad joke or 
coarse jest, but seem quite unable to appreciate keen 
satire, irony or delicate wit, or to perceive the ludicrous 
in odd associations of ideas. The Mormon is often 
terribly in earnest, but he is seldom funny. This de 
fect is partly one of race, partly in lack -of cultivation, 
but still more in the fact that few people who can 
understand and appreciate an absurdity would ever 
become Mormons. Hence we rarely see among them 
the genial, humorous Irishman, the keen-witted Israel 
ite, the intellectual Swiss, or the lively and versatile 
Frenchman ; but in their stead stolid Saxons and plod 
ding Scandinavians. Men are, to a great extent, born 
to certain forms of religious belief; Boodhism is essen 
tially Mongolian, Spiritism is of the Indian, Moham 
medanism has its peculiar subjects, and though universal 
in its final application, the present spirit and structure 
of Christianity is Gothic and European. And the most 
gloomy forms of error, which have sprung from a 
corrupt Christianity, find their devotees among the 
most solemnly impressive and stolid of the European 
races. Old residents tell me that Artemus Ward s 
lecture in Salt Lake was, professionally speaking, a 
perfect failure, simply because it was " cut too fine " 
for the latitude. A few laughed at his broadest jokes, 
then for a solid hour, while he was doing his funniest, 


the audience sat " like a bump on a log," not giving a 
smile. It s a wonder it did not kill the sensitive 
author. Mormonism might originate with keen witted 
Yankees, but it could not long continue without a 
broad basis of the North-European races. 

These new-comers look homely enough, but it is 
gratifying to observe the vast improvement even in the 
first generation of the native-born. Whether it is the 
climate, or better food, or exemption from the severe 
toil of the poor in Europe, most of the young girls now 
" coming on " in Utah exhibit a vast personal improve 
ment over their parents, and among the very youngest, 
whose families have been here for twenty years, the 
little misses exhibit promise of the trim, graceful form, 
the arched instep and the light tripping step of the 
American girl. There are many drawbacks in the 
social and domestic habits of "this people," still nature 
is asserting her rights to some extent. She demands 
beauty in the female form, and even Mormonism can 
not altogether prevent it. Of course, the younger 
generation is more quick-witted and liberal, hence the 
majority of young Mormons are free thinkers and anti- 
polygamists. It is the old story of the hen hatching 
swans, the vulture doves, or the caterpillar giving life 
to the brilliant butterfly. And this rapid improvement 
is notable in view of the perils of young life in Utah, 
of which, more anon. 

In my first rambles about the city I found the Mormons 
rather communicative, and quite ready to enlighten me 
as to the peculiar features of their faith ; indeed, rather 
anxious to prove the superiority of their institutions 


over those of the Gentile world. Of course, like all 
new comers, I looked upon polygamy as the one great 
evil, if not the only evil of Utah, and our discussions 
most often turned upon that point. The first intelligent 
Mormon, who gave me his views at length, was Mr. 
Victor Cram, educated as a physician, in Boston, but 
now a builder in Salt Lake City. As an "inside view," 
his ideas are worthy of presentation on the venerable 
principle, Audi alteram partem. "We have," said he, 
"a population of 200,000, three times the population 
for a new State, and have had for years ; but they 
won t admit us. The fact is, we are a little rebellious. 
This law of 1862 against polygamy, we don t abide by 
and the people won t do so ! " 

"And what do you think will be the result?" I 

"The result? Why, it will be good when people get 
enlightened on this point. Then polygamy will become 
popular throughout the world." 

"But how do you justify it, or explain this?" 

" I take the ground, sir, that polygamy was absolutely 
necessary to purify and regenerate mankind; that such 
was the tendency that in no long time the world would 
have been depopulated, the human race become extinct, 
without the gracious assistance of polygamy, which in 
evitable destiny God foresaw, and revealed to Joseph 
Smith the mode of prevention." 

He then proceeded in a lengthy detail of the causes 
which were operating to weaken the reproductive force 
of nature, and destroy the young before they reached a 
marriageable age. His views were unique and interest- 


ing, but suffice it to say that he proved, to his own 
satisfaction at least, that the human race was slowly 
and surely tending to inevitable decay and complete 
extinction, through the violation of a certain inter-sexual 
law which violation was causing a decline amon^ 

O O 

women and their offspring; that God revealed to Jo 
seph Smith the means of cure, which necessitated the 
employment of polygamy, which would in time regen 
erate the human race, and restore it to primal strength 
and beauty. 

" But how comes it," I asked, " that the Caucasian 
races have gone on and increased for three thousand 
years in single marriage ? " 

" Because they never run to that excess, and then 
this new way of killing infants before they saw the 
light was not known. But the present mode of living 
leads to excess, and America, the youngest nation, is 
going to lead all the rest in that excess ; and when the 
old nations of Europe learn these new tricks and get 
started on this road, they will go like a flock of sheep, 
and melt from the face of the earth ; and without a 
radical corrective the race would soon be extinct. 

" Mind, I say," he continued, " these are not the rea 
sons why we practice polygamy. We do it solely be 
cause God commanded it, The mouth of the Lord hath 
.spoken it, is our sole and only warrant, which we dare 
not disobey (!!) ; but these are merely a few of the rea 
sons why God commanded it, as we think. Or to throw 
aside God s ordinance, and take nature for it, these rea 
sons are sufficient to show why polygamy is according 
to the law and light of nature ; why it is the natural 


order of things, and why God s chosen people were the 
offspring of polygamous mothers. Now, I took my 
second wife only last year ; my circumstances did not 
enable me to do so before, and the good effects of the 
arrangement are already observable in my house, par 
ticularly in the son of my second wife, which is a 
brighter, healthier and stronger child than either of my 
other eight children. And I challenge you to go to any 
of our schools, and pick out at random a dozen children 
of polygamous mothers, and then say on your honor if 
they are not superior to the average children of single 

This seemed like a bold offer, but one finds in time 
that the Saints are very much given to the " bluff" 
game ; nor will it be thought strange that they are not 
tJie only people who excuse their own sins by pointing 
out those of others. 

Without attempting to controvert his views, I ac 
cepted the loan of copies of the " Book of Mormon," 
" Millennial Star," and " Doctrine and Covenants," 
which I promised to read at my earliest leisure. 

My first Sabbath in Salt Lake was bright and clear, 
and I determined on a visit to the Tabernacle. The 
early morning I devoted to the "Book of Mormon;" but 
two hours more than satisfied me. Of all the dull, 
wearisome and inconsequential books I ever dosed over, 
I am qualified to say that work takes the lead. It is 
verbose, diffuse and full of repetitions; about the size of 
the Old Testament, every material fact in it could be 
compressed within the limits of a Tribune Almanac. 
The Saints aver that it was composed by the angel Mo- 


roni and delivered to Joseph Smith. If so, 1 am sorry 
for Moroni, sorry that there were no grammars or "aids 
to composition" in his "sphere," that he might have 
given us a work somewhat worthy of criticism. The 
anti-Mormons, and a certain widow Davidson, now resi 
dent in New York, aver that it was written by her first 
husband, Solomon Spaulding, an invalid clergyman, 
merely for his own amusement. If so, he was easily 
amused. I sincerely hope, for the honor of her husband, 
that the good woman is mistaken, for if any scholar as 
sisted in the production of that work, he must have been 
very invalid, in mind as well as body. I can understand 
how some people admire M. F. T upper; I can even, in 
a dim, far-off way, appreciate those who appreciate John 
Tyler Junior; but that men of even average intelligence 
should discover literary excellence, divine philosophy or 
spiritual comfort in the "Book of Mormon," is beyond 
my powers. 

That a quarter of a million of the human race should 
be led to stake their hopes for eternity on the divine au 
thenticity of such a work, is one of the most melancholy 
evidences of the inherent weakness of the human intel 

Service was held in the New Tabernacle which will 
seat eight or ten thousand people, but is quite a failure 
as far as hearing is concerned. The interior being a 
perfect oval, those in that portion nearest the stand and 
in the end farthest from it can hear quite well, while all 
is confused and indistinct in the central area, which in 
cludes nearly half the room. A canopy, or flat, some 
twenty feet square had been erected over the speaker s 


stand to serve as a sounding board, but helped the matter 
very little. 

Brigham does not preach oftener than once or twice 
a month, and did not favor us with his presence this 
morning; his brother, Joseph Young, preached the 
opening sermon, and I have no hesitation in pronounc 
ing him the most inferior-looking man I ever saw in the 
pulpit, and I have seen some hard specimens. He is 
very old, very thin, very weak-eyed, and rather sallow ; 
his general appearance suggested that he had just slept 
a month, been awakened by a thunder-storm and come 
away without changing his clothes, washed in a mud- 
puddle, and combed his hair by crawling through the 
sage brush. And yet, lie has four wives. Let the 
homely take courage. The distinctive feature in Mor 
mon sermons is their exceedingly rambling and discur 
sive nature ; touching here, there and everywhere, dn 
everything which concerns man s moral, spiritual and 
material interests. The peculiar baldness of their style 
is made ten-fold more apparent by the homely words 
and phrases in which it is couched. Hints on stock 
raising, digging ditches, building fences and making 
" dobies," slip into the midst of moral disquisitions on 
" the whole duty of man." 

I could not discover what w r as the special subject of 
Joseph Young s remarks; he took no text, as they 
usually do not, and fired away at all the sins of the con 
gregation very much on the " Donnybrook Fair " prin 
ciple. Before beginning his sermon proper, he called 
for general news from any of the settlements, gave a 
list of foreign letters which had arrived, and called for 


all returned missionaries to come into the stand and 
" give in their experience." No one responding, he 
commenced by stating that " man was a moral being ;" 
enlarged on the troubles of the Saints ; confessed his 
ignorance of the reason why these things were so, and 
began to " score " the young men for laziness and bad 
habits generally. From this he branched off to the neces 
sity of giving liberally to aid the poor Saints in Europe 
to reach Utah : " They ought to come, the Saints ought 
all to be here, for the devil is watching where they are 
to take the spirit out of their minds, and they ought to 
come here, and be treated with brotherly love. But 
there is too much stubbornness here ; the brethren are 
all stubborn. The sisters are not quite so stubborn." 

This last was news to me ; but he went on to prove 
it by a philosophical disquisition on the peculiar differ 
ence between the masculine and feminine minds, which 
seemed about an equal mixture of the ideas of Plato, 
Tennyson and Professor Fowler, and to have about as 
much relation to the subject in hand, as it had to the 
next Presidential election. He went on : 

" Now some of you old men that come here early, feel 
very much broke down. You re all stiff and crippled 
up, and here s a lot of young sprouts, as I call em, 
who ll hardly work at all. I tell you young fellows, it 
won t do. You ve got to stir around and labor more. 
And these young fellows are so strong. Why, they are 
as elastic as the rabbits on yon mountain ! While lots 
of these old men can t stoop down to pick up a hoe. I 
tell you, as I told my folks this morning, just after 
family prayer, you want knowledge of how to live in 



this world. Take care of your bodies ! Don t eat so 
much of this green stuff! ! Keep your stomachs clean ! ! ! 
And some of you men are so very inconsistent in fact, 
I m inconsistent myself sometimes. To ask God for 
health, and not take care of it. Why do you ask God 
for such a thing? Why, that s your own business. 
God says, go ahead, and take care of your stomachs 
and body, and I ll guarantee the rest. One thing I ve 
noticed here so much ; nearly everybody dies so sudden, 
and the old people who have died lately, almost seem 
as if they had just dropped dead. We have no linger 
ing diseases among us. Come to meeting in the right 
spirit, and act in brotherly love and sisterly kindness. 
And finally, may God bless you all, brethren and sis 
ters, is my prayer, for Jesus sake. Amen/ 7 

He was followed by Elder Wilford Woodruff, who 
gave a rather able and connected address on the dan 
gers of internal dissensions in states, nations, churches 
and families ; after which the choir sang, " Come let us 
anew our journey pursue," with great force and beauty, 
and the meeting adjourned. 

In their mode of conducting prayer, singing and 
other services, the Saints follow the Methodist order ; 
they however, stand at prayer, but forbid written 
sermons ; they have " experience meetings " and take 
the sacrament every Sunday, excluding, of course, all 
but their own people ; and finally, they immerse, re 
peating it after every "backsliding," interpret the 
Scriptures literally, preach long and loud of "one 
Lord, one faith, one baptism," stigmatize all others as 
" sectarians," and in their initial principles follow the 



Campbellites. My second Sunday in Sat Lake, I 
heard Orson Pratt deliver a rather learned discourse on 
the various temples erected by " the Lord s peculiar 
people," embodying .the idea that the last and most 
glorious one was to be that of the Latter-day Saints, to 
be set up in Jackson County, Missouri, "when the 
fulness of time had come." 

At the end of two weeks in Salt Lake City my impres 
sions are. on the whole, rather favorable. I find the 
city quiet, apparently in good order, neat and pleasant 
to dwell in ; though the people are mostly ignorant and 
bigoted, they did not -appear contentious ; I had been 
treated with considerable courtesy, and began to con 
clude the Mormons had been maligned, and often held 
long arguments in favor of those whom I suspected to 
be a much misrepresented and persecuted people. I 
had yet much to learn. 





Northward afoot Hot Springs " Sessions Settlement n Polygamy 
again " Ephe Roberts young wife" Farmington Kaysville Three 
wives, j-.nd stone walls between "Let us have Peace" Red Sand 
Ridge Ogden Brigham City Into the Poor District Scandinavian 
Porridge English cookery Rural life in Utah Bear River, North 
Cache Valley and the Canon" Professor" Barker, the "Mad Philoso 
pher " A New Cosmogony Mormon Science "Celestial Masonry" 
"Adam" redivivus A Modern "Eve" Folly and Fanaticism 
Mineral Springs The country vs. the city Mormon. 

FINE weather was running to waste, and I had seen 
nothing of Utah outside the city ; so on the afternoon of 
September the 25th, I threw a few pounds of crackers, 
dried beef, sugar and tea into my valise, to serve in case 
I should get beyond the settlements, and took my way 
northward on foot, determined to see Mormondom in its 
rural aspects. The nearest point on the Great Salt 
Lake is about twelve miles from the city, and this road 
nowhere approaches it nearer than two miles, but runs 
due north; with the Wasatch mountains to the east and 
the lake to the, west, leaving a valley with an average 
width of five miles. My route led me by the Warm 
Springs, already mentioned ; three miles farther there is 
another known as the Hot Springs, from being twenty- 
six degrees higher in temperature than the former. A 
stream of scalding water as large as a man s body boils 


out of a rock at the foot of the mountain, foi ns a hot 
pool two or three rods in circuit, whence the branch 
runs across the road, and westward into Hot Spring 
Lake. These springs will be more fully described in 
another .place. 

The sun was near the horizon when I reached the 
highest point on the road, the sky which had been hazy 
all day became clear, and glancing back towards the 
city I saw her light colored dwellings and green gardens 
glistening in the evening sunlight, reminding one 
strangely of pictures of Oriental Scenes, while the gray 
peaks to the east, the blue mountains to the southwest 
and the Lake Island hills combined to form a grand 
circle of beauty surrounding the modern " Zion." Seated 
on a projecting rock above the road, as the sun sank 
slowly behind the islands, I tried again and again to 
convey some description of the scene to paper, and as 
often dropped book and pencil with a mixture of delight 
and despair. 

Ten miles out brought me to Sessions Settlement, 
sometimes called Bountiful, where I spent the night at 
the house of Mr. Perry Green Sessions, a Mormon elder 
and returned missionary, who entertained me with some 
account of his experience in England and the Eastern 
States " while laboring to build up Zion among those 
that are in darkness." 

From there, I continued my journey along the stage 
road, now along the base of the mountains where cold 
springs break in jets out of the rocks, and again far out 
in ^the valley among corn and cane fields, or amid dwel 
lings surrounded by peach orchards, where the trees 


were breaking under the load of ripening fruit, a sight 
I had not seen for many years. A larger and finer or 
chard than ordinary attracted my attention, and, as the 
gate stood invitingly open, I walked forward to where 
two women sat beneath a tree preparing fruit for drying, 
and proposed to purchase a dozen or two of peaches. 
Fruit in plenty was offered and all pay refused, and 
while I took a proffered seat, the younger lady, a bright, 
lively, voluble woman, entered at once into conversa 
tion by asking what State I had come from. 

" How do you know I am not a Utah man ? " I asked. 
"Oh, I knowed you was a Gentile the minute you 
stepped in at the gate, and you bet everybody knows it 
the minute they see you," was the reply. 

Further conversation showed that the lady had quite 
a history. She told me her father came to Salt Lake 
City twenty-one years ago, and she was the third white 
child born in the place. 

66 But I could n t see it in my way to marry a Saint, 
not much ; though I was raised to believe in it, and do 
believe in the religion all but that." 

" Is your father a Mormon ? " I ventured to ask. 

66 Oh, yes, and got four women ; only one wife, mind 
you, that s my mother ; but four women who call them 
selves his wives. I never was raised to know anything 
else, but when I was nineteen father married me to a 
Gentile, cause he could n t help himself, I reckon. My 
husband w^as raised next door to me, and went to Cali 
fornia and stayed five years, and soon as he come back 
we was married. I d a stayed an old maid a thousand 
years befo re I d take a pluralist. Plurality s all well 


enough for the men, but common sense shows that it 
don t suit women." 

" Why, then, do some of them hold up for it ? " 

" Well, they think they must to get salvation ; it s a 
part of their religion, and sometimes they get along 
pretty well. We never had any trouble in father s 
family. The children all growed up just like brothers 
and sisters, and treated each other so. Father always 
taught me to respect his other women, and I always 
did so. 

"But, law, I ve seen such sights in other families. 
Why, I ve seen our neighbor s women just pull the hair 
right out of each other s heads. There s so many men 
when they get a young wife, will let her abuse the old 
one, and encourage her to do it. 

" I ve seen the man stand by, and say, Go in, 
kill her, if you can/ Now, there is Ephe. Roberts, 
right over there, * pointing to a stone house near the 
mountain, "he brought a real young delicate wife from 
New York, now goin on sixteen years ago, and she 
worked awful hard, I tell you ; why, I ve known her 
to do all her own work when Ephe. had three hands 
and the threshin machine at his house, and sometimes 
she worked out in the field, bound wheat and raked 
hay, which, you know, is awful hard on a delicate New 
York woman taint as if she been raised to it, like we 
folks, and after all, just last year, Ephe. went and mar 
ried another woman, a real young one, not over twenty, 
and, don t you think, this spring she knocked Maria 
that s his first wife down with the churn-dasher, and 
scalded her. Ephe. stood by, and just said, go in Luce 


kill her, if you can ! It all started about a churn, too. 
Both wanted to use it at once. Maria had it, and her 
butter was a little slow a comin , and they got mad, 
and Luce struck her, and then snatched the kettle right 
off the stove, and then poured hot water on her feet, 
so she fell down when she tried to run out. And what 
was the result, finally ? Well, Maria left him ; of 
course, she had to, or be killed. It s very nice, though, 
for the men. I had a dozen chances to marry old 
Mormons, but law ! I wouldn t give that for all of em. 
Why, just turn things round, and let a woman have 
two or three men, and see how they d like that! There 
wouldn t be no murderin done in these parts, oh, no ! 
And, I reckon, a woman has as fine feelin s as a man. 
I tell you, if my husband ever joins em, or tries to get 
another wife, that day I ll limit another Gentile ; you 
bet!" The testimony of "this witness," professionally 
speaking, was certainly plain ; nor did she trouble me 
to cross-examine, but gave her views freely. I note 
one singular fact in all similar cases : During a long 
residence in Utah I have never in a single instance 
talked ten minutes with a young lady of polygamous 
family, that did not nianage in some way to tell me, 
slie was the daughter of the first, or legal wife, if such 
was the case. If silent on that point, it may safely 
be presumed they are of polygamous mothers. And 
in more than one instance, I have known them to 
falsely claim legitimate birth. 

From this "apostate s" I journeyed on to Farming- 
ton, eighteen miles north of the city, a beautiful town 
and settlement of some two thousand inhabitants ; the 


residence of the Mormon hero, Lot Smith, who com 
manded their guerilla force at the time it confronted 
Johnston s army in Echo Canon, burned his wagons 
and drove off his cattle. 

I spent the night with a well-to-do Mormon who oc 
cupied a long, one-story, stone house, divided into three 
large rooms, with a kitchen in the rear of each ; each 
room was occupied by one of his three wives and her 
children. He seemed to be living at the time with the 
middle one, where we took supper. The partition walls 
must have been two feet thick, without any communi 
cation, each wife with her progeny keeping strictly to 
her own department. He was doubtless a " Grant 
man ;" his motto seemed to be " Let us fc*;ve peace." 
A " constitutional " the next morning brought me to 
the next settlement, Kaysville by name, where I took 
breakfast with a Gentile who had a Mormon wife. He 
was a Missourian some fifty years old, and belonged to 
the Church, he told me, ten or fifteen years ago, but 
was " dis-fellowshiped for not payin tithes." 

. He talked quite earnestly when he found I was from 
the States, and gave his views on the entire subject 
without troubling me to ask a question. " I never 
heard in my life," said he, " that Christ and his Apos 
tles rode around the country in a fine carriage with two 
span o gray hosses, and made the people turn out pro 
vision enough to keep him up, as we ve had to do for 
the bishop here. Brigham Young pretends to be His 
successor, and at the same time makes his brags that 
he never touches anything he don t make money outen. 
Now, just look at that Deseret Telegraph line. He had 




all the people pay tithes and make donations for it, 
savin it would be such a nice thing for the people, and 
every settlement had to furnish a certain number o 
poles; and now they ll charge you five dollars for sendin 
ten words, be you Saint or Gentile. And here after 


all, he s round makin every Saint, the poorest ov em, 
give so much to help pay these operators that come 
down to teach the girls along through the Territory, 
how to work the wires. Now, what comes o that 
money ? it goes into Brigham s pockets. But, pshaw r , 
these people won t listen to you. Can t make my wife 
believe a word o that." 

The good woman retorted with a wordy defence of 
the Church and the Prophet, averring her firm belief in 
everything Mormon, to which the husband listened 
with a dry quizzical smile, and finally remarked : 
" Well, p raps I had better go back. Guess I will, and 
git me another wife. Like dernation well to have a 
nice, trim, young creatur about twenty-five." 

The wife, whose waist was after the pattern of a rum 
barrel, and her feet models for a patent brick machine, 
reddened a little and was silent. I think he will con 
vert her yet. 

The Deseret Telegraph line to which he referred, 
follows this road to the northern boundary of the 
Territory, and south of the city extends nearly to 
Arizona, with side branches connecting all the detached 
settlements; the wires center in Brigham Young s 
office, and thus at a moment s notice he can send a 
warning of danger to five-sixths of his people, and in 
twenty-four hours time the most isolated settlers could 
be ready to move. Whether for good or bad purposes, 
it is a remarkable monument of Mormon enterprise. I 
had intended to keep the Sabbath at this point, but 
falling in with a farmer returning to Cache Valley 
from the city, I rode some twelve miles with him, 


passing over the Red Sand Desert. This is a ridge 1 
piece of land jutting out from near the mouth of 
Weber Canon, towards the lake, about ten miles long 
and eight wide, and too high for ordinary irrigation. 
Most of the land north of the city has one general 
character, a mixture of gravel and loam, or of fine red 
sand and " dobie earth," a peculiar whitish clay ; in its 
natural state it is as barren as any part of the plains. 

A piece of land is worthless unless water can be 
brought upon it ; but with irrigation it produces equally 
with any soil in the world. Leaving the ridge we 
descend into Weber Valley, and in five miles reach the 
city of Ogden, the most important in northern Utah ; 
containing with its vicinity a population of three or 
four thousand, and now the point of junction of the 
Union Pacific, Central Pacific and Utah Central (Brig- 
ham s) Railroads. Thence two day s sauntering, twenty- 
two miles, brings me through Willard settlement to 
Brigham City, some sixty miles north of Salt Lake 
City. This is the county seat of Box Elder Co., which 
contains at present a Gentile population of at least a 

It has a beautiful location at the foot of the Wasatch, 
at the mouth of a canon, which sends out a large 
stream of pure, clear water, and a little northeast of 
the head of Bear River Bay, the northeastern projec 
tion of Great Salt Lake. From Brigham City, north 
ward, the valley of Salt Lake shows much less sign of 
cultivation and settlement than below that point. 
Peach orchards entirely disappear, apple-trees and 
grape vines are quite rare, stone-houses and stucco- 


finished " dobies " are seen no more, and their place is 
filled by rude log-cabins, with a very uninviting ex 
terior and interior not over clean, inhabited mostly by 
Welsh, Danes and Swedes. 

The English inhabitants of the valley live quite well, 
nearly as well as the corresponding class in our Western 
States, though I have visited no part of America where 
I found them so entirely English in dialect and manner 
as here. Taking my meals wherever the hour over 
took me, I have found rich brown coffee, golden butter 
and light white bread in company with the broad Eng 
lish accent, and have learned to associate the " hex- 
asperated haitch," with igh opes for a ungry man. 

But if I stepped into a cabin and heard the Welsh 
or Danish guttural, I asked some trivial favor and passed 
on to the Britons, whom I consider the best part of the 
Mormon people. A traveler should not be an epicure, 
but I acknowledge a weakness in that respect, and 
while I had that glorious appetite, I hated to waste it 
on the suspicious looking porridge, which is a standing 
dish among the Scandinavian Saints. 

A few of the American Mormons come up to the 
English standard, but in the country the majority fall 
below it ; they constitute, however, so small a part of 
these people, that I do not stop with them one time in 
five. They are nearly all from New York and Penn 
sylvania, and belong to the original sect, all the late 
converts being foreigners. I see no Western people 
among them to speak of. I met one middle aged lady 
from Greene County, Indiana, and when she learned I 
was from Pirke County, adjoining, she was quite over- 


come, got me up the best breakfast the cabin afforded, 
and talked and cried alternately while I was eating it. 
Her parents joined the Mormons -while she was a young 
woman, and she has heard from her old home but three 
or four times since. 

That region was attracting considerable interest, as 
the probable site of the " great central city of the fu 
ture," the town on the railroad which was to be, the 
most convenient spot for staging and freighting to Mon 
tana, Idaho, Oregon and Washington, which would 
doubtless be a city of great and permanent importance. 
But the railroad was yet four hundred miles distant, 
and the location of the future city in great doubt. 
Many thought it would be at the last crossing on Weber 
River, while others were equally sanguine it would be 
in Curlew Valley, a hundred miles west of Bear River. 
Meanwhile, work was pushed forward rapidly ; the 
Union Pacific Company had just let contracts for a 
hundred miles of grading north of the lake, teams were 
passing that way in considerable numbers, and graders 
camps were thick along the route. 

At the north crossing of Bear River I found a " home 
station" of Wells, Fargo & Co. s stages, where their 
branch line to Boise City and into Oregon takes its 
start ; also a fine hotel, bridge, store, and quite a little 
village. A few miles above, Bear Riyer, which has run 
around a long U of three hundred miles from its source 
in eastern Utah, " canyons " downward a thousand feet 
in three miles, out of Cache into Bear River Valley. 

Seventy miles up the river, in Idaho, are the noted 
Soda Springs; near them Camp Connor and a small 


settlement of " Morrisites," a sect of recusant Mormons, 
a little more crazy than the rest, but not quite so mean, 
who sought the shelter of the military in their escape 
from Brighamism. 

My return trip from Bear River was varied by two 
incidents worthy of special mention a visit to the 
Mineral Springs and an interview with the " mad 
philosopher" of Utah. This eccentric genius merits 
more than a passing notice. His name is J. W. Barker, 
generally called " Professor," an Englishman by birth, 
who came to this country fourteen years ago with a 
Mormon party. He claimed to have discovered the 
primitive laws, which govern the whole material uni 
verse, and that, in time, he would refute all the theories 
of such philosophers as Newton, La Place, and Descartes, 
from whom he dissented in toto. True to his convic 
tions, as soon as he had his family comfortably settled, 
he fell to work investigating, collecting facts, analyzing 
and arranging specimens, and writing the principia of 
his great work, the " Magna Charta of Universal 
Science," which was to annihilate all our present ideas 
of gravity, light, and momentum, and usher in the 
scientific millennium, at the same time with the moral 
regeneration of mankind. 

For ten long, weary years, he has devoted every hour, 
beyond those requisite for obtaining the bare necessaries 
of life, to this research. He has traveled hundreds of- 
miles among the mines and canons, digging into drift, 
wash dirt, gravel, quartz, and gold gulch and bar, till 
he is known to the miners from Montana to Salt Lake. 
Night after night he has watched the moon and stars, 


and calculated the slightest changes of the atmosphere 
and mist, and every observation has been faithfully re 
corded, and assigned to its proper cause, in his new 
classification of principles. Being an unlettered man, 
whose only knowledge of geology was gained as an 
English miner, he has worked his way against diffi 
culties which would have daunted any but a half-mad 
enthusiast; has surrounded himself with dictionaries and 
lexicons of science, and hammered his way into the 
first principles of more than one language, by the most 
exhaustive labor. I found the " Professor " in a moun 
tain nook which might well excuse a man for going 
mad over the works of nature. 

Directly fronting his house, three majestic gray peaks 
of the Wasatch range rise a mile above the level plain, 
while a short distance in the rear of his farm spread the 
azure waters of the Salt Lake, beyond which is the blue 
line of the mountains on the promontory. 

His painfully thin and gaunt appearance showed that 
he had hung over his books and burned the midnight 
oil till the vital frame had shrunk ; but his manner was 
earnest and his voice firm, while the corded muscles 
stood out on a body without an ounce of fat, and seemed 
to run over the bones like the wire pulleys of a metal 
clock. He conversed pleasantly and quite intelligently 
on various topics, till glancing at the mountain peaks I 
remarked that they must have been thrown up by some 
great convulsion of nature; then his eyes lighted with a 
strange fire as he hastily replied : " They certainly were 
not thrown up ; they were thrown down." Then hold 
ing forth an hour on the origin of mountains, he invited 


me to his study. A low room half underground in the 
rear of his house, built of logs, had been rudely fitted up 
with board, chest and table, block candle-holders attached 
to the wall by wires, so as to bend out and in, and a few 
chairs. The walls were completely covered with rude 
maps and charts, and with long lists of words, which he 
stated he had to use often and did not know how to 
spell, all copied from the dictionary in large capitals. 

Producing a seat for me and a large bowl of water for 
himself, he entered on a three hours exposition of his 
views. He holds that all the fluid elements of nature 
are resolvable into four gases ; that all the grosser ele 
ments are in like manner reducible to four simple solids; 
and from varying proportions of these few primitives are 
derived all possible materials throughout the universe 
He contends also that the entire Newtonian theorv of 


gravity is erroneous and false to true science ; that there 
is, in strictness of language, no such principle as gravity 
anywhere operating in creation ; that the terms refrac 
tion and reflection are based on a total misconception of 
the nature of light ; that all space outside of the atmos 
phere contains a material medium, and that the atmos 
phere is shown by actual demonstration to be eight thou 
sand miles thick instead of forty-five. 

He thinks that all nature is operated upon by four 
simple, constant and regular laws, and that all we ob 
serve are but combinations and inter-relations of these 
four, which depend for their action simply on the will 
and moving power of God. They operate in one course 
through countless cycles of time, tending always to a 
common center, and. having run that course, are directed 


in a returning course for other terms. The mental, 
moral and spiritual world is but a microcosmical copy 
of the material, consisting, too, of four subtle elements 
mingled with four grosser elements, and moved upon by 
infinite combinations of four simple laws, directly refer- 
rable to the will of God. 

The mountains are remains of precipitated satellites, 
of which the earth has had many, the moon only re 
maining ; but like all the others it is a hollow globe, 
destined to fall upon and give final shape to the surface 
of the earth. The planets inside of our orbit have now 
no satellites, but are hurrying on to their destiny on the 
face of the sun ; while those outside of us have many, and 
are coming in more slowly. We on the earth are ap 
proaching the latter part of our career, and have barely 
iime to complete the moral regeneration of the race. 

It is consoling to know that the grand smash-up will 
not take place till after the millennium. The old gen 
tleman has just finished his great work, and required 
>all the information I could give him as to the cost and 
facilities of getting it printed in the East. It consisted 
of forty-six chapters,, bound up in as many separate 
manuscript volumes. Take him all in all he is a curi 
ous case of scientific insanity, well worthy the attention 
of Mr. Beck, the learned writer on the subject. The 
" Professor " lectures in Salt Lake City occasionally, and 
Orson Pratt professor and elder, and the learned man 
of the city has thought it worth while to reply to him 
through the press. Wild and strange as this man s 
ideas may appear, he is but a type of hundreds in Utah. 
In science as in theology, Mormonism is at war with 


all existing systems; one-third of the whole people 
seem a little crazy on some subject or other, and the 
wildest, most baseless theory, the one farthest removed 
from natural causes, is ever the one most likely to 

Having cut loose from all recognized standards in 
spiritual matters, they seem equally determined on the 
supernatural, and extra human in medicine, science, 
astronomy and natural history. I was once called 
upon by a Mormon, a little more crazy than ordinary, 
with an immense chart of what he called " Celestial 
Masonry." For the medical museum of a mad-house, 
it would have been a priceless treasure. A canvass 
three feet square was covered by the pictured folds of 
an enormous serpent, along which were drawings of the 
various scenes, symbols and implements of the new Ma 
sonry, divided for the various degrees, of which there 
twenty-seven! All the work had been done with 
colored crayons; by "inspirational writing," as the 
Mormon averred, the spirits guiding his hand without 
his volition ; and as a work of art it showed remarkable 
style and finish. 

Some three years ago a " Josephite," or recusant 
Mormon, who had adopted the new Mormon doctrine 
of " transmission of spirits," conceived that he was 
Adam sent back to the flesh ; his wife, a little worse 
crazed, was Eve ; but during the six thousand years of 
their separation she had fallen away and become a 
prostitute. To "purify her" he cut off all her hair, 
pulled out her teeth, and for the better convenience of 
locomotion dressed her in man s clothes, when both 


started on. foot for the States. A year afterwards they 
made their appearance at a ranche in Colorado, nearly 
dead with hunger and fatigue ; nor did it ever appear 
how they had reached there. From there they came 
with a returning train to the Missouri, where the au 
thorities properly consigned them to the lunatic asylum. 

There is no refuge for the insane in Utah; fortu 
nately, perhaps, for it might require a small war to 
settle who should occupy it. Few are violent, but 
many are deranged ; and the whole Territory would 
present a fine field for the student in the jurisprudence 
of insanity. 

The Mineral Springs are ten miles south of Bear 
River Bridge, and seventy north of the city; but I 
defer a full description, which will be found under the 
proper heading. 

In my trip to Bear Eiver, and return, I journeyed 
nearly two hundred miles among the rural Saints, and 
observed their ways with all earnestness and curiosity. 
The country Mormon is more religious than his city 
brother, but less intelligent. He is a greater stickler 
for the small matters of his faith, but much less able to 
give a reason why. He is more hospitable, generous 
and social, but much more offensive in thrusting the un 
pleasant features of his faith upon you. But the 
greatest difference is among the women. The polyga 
mous wife in the city is in paradise compared with her 
sister in the country, where farm labors and cares must 
be shared in common. There the condition of woman 
is already fast tending to what it is in Other polyga 
mous countries, and there the degeneracy is soonest 


manifest. While the men are enthusiastically devoted 
to their faith, I did not see a single woman in the 
country who defended polygamy, though strongly 
Mormon in everything else. 

At least one-third the entire population of the valley 
is from Great Britain, one-third or more from Sweden, 
Norway and Denmark, while possibly one-sixth is 
American. As far as I know all the posts of honor, 
indeed all the easy and lucrative positions, are filled by 
Americans, simply because the others are generally in 
capable. The missionaries are largely of foreign birth, 
each being sent back to his native country, after a few 
years residence in Utah. 

Little more than a year afterwards, in visiting the 
same section, I met with an experience in Brigham 
City, which, though equally novel, was nothing like so 
pleasant. The Saints, who had seemed indifferent on 
my first visit, were altogether too pointed in their atten 
tions the last tune. 

But I anticipate. I reached Salt Lake City the 
morning of October the sixth, in time for the "fall Con 
ference " of 1868. 




A Mormon mass-meeting Faces and features Great enthusiasm A 
living "martyr" A Mormon hymn The -Poetess A "president" 
chosen He recites the Church history First view of Brigham He 
curses the Gentiles A "nasty sermon" Coarseness and profanity 
Bitterness of other speakers Swearing in the pulpit Exciting the 
people Their frenzy and fanatacisrn Hatred against the United States- 
Foolish bravado The author gains new light on Mormonism A sub 
ject to be studied English and European Sects of like character 
Division of the subject. 

THE semi-annual conference of the Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter-day Saints convened on Tuesday 
morning, October 6th, in the new Tabernacle, and was 
to me an occasion of great interest. Long before the 
hour of meeting, indeed, from early dawn, all the roads 
leading into the city were thronged by crowds from dis 
tant settlements, going up to their half-yearly worship 
in " Zion." As I returned from Bear River on the 
Sunday and Monday preceding, I was passed every 
hour by long trains of Saints from the northern and 
northeastern parts of the Territory, and, on reaching 
the city, found still larger delegations from Utah Lake 
District, Provo, Fillmore, San Pete, and St. George. 

This occasion among the Saints is every way equal to 
the yearly passover among the Jews, and every one who 
can possibly leave home makes a visit to " Zion," and 
esteems it an honor and privilege to do so. 


I reached the building too late on Tuesday morning, 
and, with many thousand others, was turned away for 
want of room. The Saints seemed to consider it suffi 
cient happiness to stand around and gaze at the buil 
ding, and think of what was going on inside ; but I was 
sustained by no such enthusiasm, and consoled myself 
by getting an early dinner preparatory to securing a 
seat as soon as the doors were opened in the afternoon. 
The sight was well worth the trouble. From my seat 
near the pulpit, and just at one side, I could overlook 
the whole vast sea of faces. The curtain in the rear 
had been removed and the entire oval, as well as the 
space beside the organ, was completely filled by at least 
ten thousand eager auditors. The rows of high seats 
on either side of the pulpit were occupied by bishops 
and elders from distant settlements, some three hundred 
in all, while the four long seats constituting the pulpit, 
were occupied by the First Presidency, consisting of 
Brigham Young, Daniel H. Wells, and a vacant space 
for the late Heber C. Kimball; also by the Twelve 
Apostles, the Heads of the Quorum of Seventies, the 
Church Secretary, Historian and City Elders. It was 
the largest collection of the Saints I had yet seen, and 
I studied it with much interest. 

Occasionally I would see a fine cast of American 
features, but nearly all the faces had that indescribable 
foreign look, which all can recognize and none portray. 
In companies of fifties and hundreds they had left their 
distant homes at the call of the missionary, had given 
up friends, property, country and religion, as they 
thought, to follow Christ ; had tossed upon the waves 


in noisome emigrant ships, had turned their backs upon 
the great and fertile States, and traversed eleven hun 
dred miles of prairie, mountain and burning sand, " to 
build up the kingdom of God in Deseret." And to 
these people, all before them to-day was a glorious real 
ity. Feeling as I did, that all this was but part of a 
great delusion, I could not but reverence the intense 
faith of these devotees. 

The meeting was called to order, after which the 
Twentieth Ward choir sang, 

" My soul is full of peace and love, 
I soon shall see Christ from above," etc. 

Prayer was offered by Elder Erastus Snow, followed 
by a quartette by the Brigham City choir, 

" Pray for the peace of Deseret," 

after which Elder John Taylor addressed the meeting. 
Taylor is one of the early converts to Mormonism, and 
enjoys a high reputation among them, having been with 
Joseph Smith in many trying scenes. With another 
brother, he was with Joseph and Hyrum at the time 
they were killed in Carthage jail, Hancock Co., Illinois. 
According to the popular Mormon account, as the 
mob commenced firing, Joseph said to Taylor, "I shall 
pass away, but you shall live to tell the tale to children s 
children." At that moment Hyrum fell dead. Joseph 
cried, " Oh, my dear brother Hyrum !" and sprang into 
the window. A second volley was fired, when Joseph 
exclaimed, "Oh, Lord, my God!" and fell into the 
street. Of the same volley, four shots wounded Taylor 
in as many places, and a fifth an ounce ball from a 


yager musket struck him squarely in the breast, and 
buried in an English lever watch which had run with 
out interruption for ten years, stopping the hands exactly 
at 5 o clock, 16 minutes, and 22 seconds, P. M., which 
is marked among the Saints as the solemn hour of the 
Prophet s death. On the fall of Joseph, the mob rushed 
around the building, and the fourth brother, who was 
unhurt, carried Taylor down stairs and to a place of 
safety. A Mormon tradition adds, that at the same 
time a gigantic Missourian, with his face blackened, ran 
forward to cut off Joseph s head, for which a reward 
had been offered ; but as he knelt, knife in hand, on 
the body of the Prophet, a flash of lightning darted 
from the clear sky between him and his victim, and 
shook the knife from his grasp. This incident, which 
is the subject of a sensational engraving often seen in 
the Mormon dwellings, rests upon the statement of one 
Daniels, the only witness of the assassination not con 
nected either with the Mormons or the mob. He joined 
the Mormons soon after, and, at the request of the 
Apostles, published his account. He was afterward 
" cut off" from the church, but they still cling to his 
testimony. The watch which marked the hour so pre 
cisely, is kept as a sacred relic in the city. Taylor, 
though shot nearly all to pieces, recovered entirely and 
is a healthy, venerable -looking old man of sixty years. 
He gave a rather able address, reciting some of the early 
trials, and urging the Saints to be industrious and self- 

The choir then sang the following hymn, composed 
by Miss Eliza B. Snow, the Mormon poetess : 



" O God of life and glory ! 

Hear Thou a people s prayer, 
Bless, bless our Prophet Brigham ; 
Let him thy fullness share. 
He is Thy chosen servant 
To lead Thine Israel forth, 
Till Zion, crowned with joy, shall be 
A praise in all the earth. 

" He draws from Christ, the fountain 

Of everlasting truth, 
The wise and prudent counsels 
Which he gives to age and youth. 
Thyself in him reflected 

Through mortal agency, 
He is Thy representative 
To set Thy people free. 

" Thou richly hast endowed him 
With wisdom s bounteous store, 
And Thou hast made him mighty 
By Thy own Almighty power. 
Oh, let his life be precious 

Bless Thou his brethren, too, 
Who firmly join him side by side, 
Who re true as he is true. 

" Help him to found Thy kindom 

In majesty and power, 
With peace in every palace 

And with strength in every tower ; 

And when thy chosen Israel f 

Their noblest strains have sung, 

The swelling chorus there shall be 

Our Prophet, Brigham Young." 

This authoress is one of the " spiritual wives " of 
Brigham, which class of ladies usually retain their 


maidenly appellation, sometimes merely adding that of 
the spiritual husband. She is a very fine, intellectual- 
looking woman of forty or fifty years, and from her 
appearance seems made to be loved. 

On Wednesday morning Elder George A. Smith, 
cousin of Joseph, was chosen as First Counselor to Brig- 
ham Young, in place of Heber C. Kimball, deceased. 
Daniel H. Wells is Second Counselor, and these three 
constitute the First Presidency, at the head of all affairs 
of the Church. 

President Smith then gave a lengthy account of the 
early history of the Church from the time Joseph was 
called to take the golden plates out of the Hill of Cu- 
morah, in western New York, to the expulsion from 
Nauvoo. He enlarged on their troubles in Kirtland and 
journey to Missouri. " There two priests organized a 
mob, and the Lieutenant-Governor called out the militia. 
The Saints were driven from Jackson County to Clay, 
and from Clay to Caldwell, which they found occupied 
by seven persons, all hunters. Far West was built as if 
by magic. By August 1, 1838, they owned all of Cald 
well and parts of neighboring counties, when the mobs 
came upon them again. The Governor called out fifteen 
thousand men, but there was no law but mob law, 
whipping men and ravishing women. Women and 
children wandered for fifteen days on the burnt prairie, 
and could be tracked by the blood from their feet. Then 
the Saints went to Illinois and built the beautiful city 
of Nauvoo, and while there Joseph Smith went to see 
the President, Martin Yan Buren, who heard his peti 
tion through, and then said : Your cause is just, but I 


can do nothing for you/ Soon after this Joseph and 
Hyrum were arrested and murdered. Then a combina 
tion was formed in nine counties to expel us. 

" We appealed to the Governors of the States anu 
were told the law was on our side, but public opinior 
was against us and we would have to leave. We finished 
our temple with the trowel in one hand and rifle in the 
other. Then our city was bombarded for three days 
and we retreated again. We commenced to cross the 
Mississippi in the month of February on the ice. While 
lying on the bank of the river the Lord sent quails into 
the camp that they could take them with the hand, 
which kept the people from dying of hunger. In that 
condition they remained till those who had gone west 
could return with wagons and take them away ; but be 
fore this was done many perished." 

This history was continued at various times by all 
the speakers, and in the most exaggerated and inflam 
matory style. On Thursday morning I heard Brigham 
Young for the first time. He is above medium height, 
well proportioned, fine and portly-looking; with gray or 
light blue eyes, light brown or golden hair, now sprinkled 
with gray, clear, rosy skin and sanguine temperament. 
His voice is quite clear and his enunciation distinct, with 
considerable of what is termed "presence," and electric 
effect upon his congregation. But his style was coarse, 
in this instance even vulgar beyond the bounds of des 
cription. He was evidently either in an ill humor or 
determined to make the people so, indulging in remin 
iscences both personal and public, which led him into 
violent denunciation of all outsiders. When he first 


arose I was somewhat impressed, and thought I saw one 
reason for his supremacy, that he was indebted for his 
power over an ignorant people almost as much to his 
physical as to his mental superiority. But when he had 
closed I was utterly amazed, and it seemed incredible 
that one hundred people could be found, much less a 
thousand times that number, who should regard him as 
a " prophet of the Lord." Afterwards, however, I had 
the pleasure of hearing him when he was in a calmer 
mood, when he appeared, to some extent at least, the 
prophet, priest and king. 

For the rest of the Conference, which was mainly 
devoted to the discussion of a general movement to 
prevent trade with the Gentile merchants, the speakers 
seemed to vie with each other in bitterness, intemper 
ance of language, and hostility to Gentiles ; and all the 
good opinions of the Mormons I had hitherto formed 
were utterly dissipated. For the first time in my life I 
heard the Government and people of the United States 
denounced, ridiculed and cursed, and the very name of 
American made a hissing and a byword ; for the first 
time I heard professed preachers swearing in the pulpit, 
and such expressions as "d d apostate" flung reck 
lessly about by so-called apostles and priests. The 
Conference closed, and its bad effect was soon apparent. 
When I first arrived, there had been an era of good 
feeling; old bitterness appeared to be passing away, 
and I was quite convinced that much I had heard of the 
feud between Gentiles and Mormons was exaggerated. 

In this temper of the public mind the Conference 
met, passed a decree of non-intercourse with the re- 


sident Gentiles, and spared no pains to inflame the 
public mind. The entire history of the Church was 
rehearsed, and in the most intemperate style ; every 
act of "persecution," every slight and neglect was dwelt 
upon to the most minute particulars, and matters of 
comparative indifference exaggerated clear out of truth 
ful proportion. There was not the slightest hint 
that the Mormons were anywhere in the wrong, that 
there was the least palliation for their enemies; not 
even the charitable assumption that some few of the 
latter believed themselves in the right. On the con 
trary, every scrap of history began and continued with 
the broad assumption, "We are the chosen people of 
God, to whom He has spoken by the mouth of His 
Prophet in these latter days, and, being such, of course, 
the world hated us. There is and must be eternal 
enmity between God and the devil, so there was and 
must be between Zion and the children of the devil, to 
wit, the Missourians and the Illinoisans." And these 
simple folks, who had come up to the Tabernacle with 
quiet minds, at peace with each other and all the world, 
left it with a burning bitterness against all Gentiles ; 
and, as successive speakers recounted their troubles in 
Missouri and Illinois, they seemed wrought up to a per 
fect frenzy. In Brigham s " sermon" he threatened dire 
mischiefs upon the "d d apostates," and expressed 
himself as "only sorry for one thing, that God didn t 
tell us to fight the d d mobocrats," to which the 
Tabernacle resounded with shouts of "Amen, Amen!" 
Another speaker, George Q. Cannon, went much 
farther, and seemed to exhaust all the resources of 


lingual ingenuity to provoke the people to mob violence, 
without directly advising it. The great objects of his 
animosity were the Reporter Gentile paper and the 
grammar school of St. Mark s Associate Mission, the 
Gentile school of the City. Cannon stigmatized the 
school as one of the institutions of the devil set up in 
Zion, and then asked : " Shall such an institution be 
allowed to go on and innoculate the minds of our 
children with its damnable and pernicious doctrines ?" 
Which was answered with a universal shout of " No !" 
" No." He hardly dared to directly advise the people 
to attack or destroy the Reporter office, but related a 
bit of history, with comments, which, if not intended to 
indicate violence, had no force that I can perceive. He 
said when he was a boy in Nauvoo, there was a paper 
published there by some " apostates " called the " Ex 
positor." It vilified the Saints, and. scandalized their 
wives and daughters till the City Council declared it a 
nuisance. About that time the speaker was in the 
office of the Mormon paper there, and heard Joseph 
and Hyrum Smith talking about it. Hyrum said, 
" Rather than allow it to go on, he would lay his body 
in the walls of the building where it was issued." The 
speaker then gave a glowing account of the martyrdom 
of Joseph and Hyrum, and the many Saints who 
suffered on account of the " Expositor " till the people 
were wrought into a perfect frenzy. He then stated 
that "right here in the midst of Zion a paper was 
issued, so much like that, he could hardly tell them 
apart, and the times were so similar he almost imagined 
himself a boy again." Then reading some extracts 


from the Reporter, and commenting in an inflammatory 
style, he said : " In any other community such a paper 
as this would be gutted inside of five days, and its 
Editor strung up to a telegraph pole. To which the 
excited congregation responded, " Hear, hear," " Here 
we are," etc. 

I now began to understand what had at first seemed 
a mystery to me; that in every State where the Mor 
mons had lived, the people who had at first welcomed 
them gladly, ended by hating and opposing them. 
Granting that all the charges against them of petty 
thieving, counterfeiting and trespass were untrue, such 
mad fanaticism could not but destroy good neighbor 
hood, and arouse all other violent elements in opposi 
tion to their own. Mormonism, which had hitherto 
been to me a mere amusement or matter of passing 
interest, now appeared a subject worthy of serious and 
earnest investigation. 

That a vast multitude of people should embrace a 
wild scheme of religion is no new thing, perhaps no 
great wonder; the foremost nations of Europe have 
witnessed greater displays of fanaticism ; England had 
her Irvingites, Muggletonians and devotees of Joanna 
Southcott ; Germany was compelled to slaughter fifty 
thousand of the fierce Anabaptists of Munster, followers 
of St. John of Leyden ; while the convulsionists of 
France, and the self-mutilating sects of Kussia, have 
shown more unnatural bigotry than the Mormons. But 
that a theocratic despotism should spring np in a free 
republic; that the cool and practical Yankee should 
turn Prophet, and that after two thousand yeape of 


Christain progress, men and women should voluntarily 
turn back to polygamy, semi-paganism and the " dead 
works " of a ceremonial law this is cause for inquiry. 
Let us then take a brief view of the most characteristic 
features of Morrnonism, arranging them for conveni 
ence in the following order : 

I. Mormon society and general views. 
II. Analysis of Mormon theology. 

III. Theoretical polygamy its history. 

IV. Practical polygamy. 

V. The Mormon theocracy. 





Difficulty at the outset Extremes among witnesses Prejudice on both 
sides First impressions favorable u Whited Sepulchres" Classes of 
Mormons Brigham Young ; impostor or fanatic ? The dishonest class 
The "earnest Mormons" Disloyalty Church and State Killing 
men to save their souls Slavery of woman Brigham the government 
Prophecy against the United States "War" "Seven women to 
take hold of one man " Another war expected Blood and thunder in 
store for the Gentiles " The great tribulation " about due Popular er 
rors Witchcraft "Faith-doctoring" Zion in Jackson County, Mis 
souri Comfortable prospect. 

BEFORE entering upon a subject so complex as Mor 
mon society and theology, it is necessary to warn the 
reader that on many of its features it is difficult to 
write without some warmth of feeling ; and as to polyg 
amy, quite impossible to treat thereon without coarse 
ness. In this part of my work too, a special preface is 
appropriate, as our American-Saxon is particularly defi 
cient in those delicate euphemisms which enable an au 
thor to describe that which is vile, in language which 
is comparatively chaste, or at any rate, not shocking or 
offensive. In treating of the gross materialism and 
perverted sexualism of the Mormons, it has been 
thought best to speak plainly, that the full effects of this 
new Mohammedanism may be seen and read of all men. 

A serious difficulty meets us at the very outset of an 
examination into the affairs of Utah. The fair-minded 


Gentile, who really desires to know the truth, must in 
effect, resolve himself into a perambulating jury of one, 
to try every fact presented by the strictest rules of legal 
acumen. He will find three different accounts of, three 
separate reasons for, and three opposite deductions from 
every possible occurrence, viz. : the Mormon account 
wholly presumed and one-sided; the bitter anti-Mor 
mon account which would condemn all of an opposite 
creed without distinction, and the account of the moder 
ate Gentiles, who are in the best position to give a fair 
judgment, but being necessarily distrusted by both the 
other parties, are in a poor way to get at facts. 

Two classes of writers have dealt with the Mormon 
question ; the one has described in glowing terms the 
simple earnestness of the people, their devotion to an 
idea, their faithfulness to their leaders, their industry, 
frugality, temperance, and love of home; the other 
has painted, in dark colors, their horrible crimes, their 
lustful and debasing doctrines, their depravity, treach 
ery, disloyalty, petty tyranny and social meanness. 
Paradoxical as it may appear, there is a measure of 
truth on both sides ; thousands of the Mormon laity, 
ignorant, zealous and sincere, have many of the virtues 
claimed for them, while the gang of licentious villains 
who mould this pliable mass, are guilty of tenfold more 
crimes than the world will ever know. In all descrip 
tions of life and manners in Utah, this distinction is to 
be carefully kept in mind. It is a noteworthy fact, too, 
that visitors who reach Salt Lake City with no decided 
feelings either way, nearly always form a more favor 
able opinion at first, than they have after a few months 


residence. I was slow in arriving at the reasons for 
this, but there are good ones. 

Men of quiet tastes arrive there from some border 
towns, where the offscourings of Christendom are gath 
ered, and the apparent change strikes them with great 
force. They are charmed with the quiet and order and 
beauty that seem to prevail on every hand, and in all 
conversations it is carefully impressed upon their minds, 
that all this is the result of Brighamism and the insti 
tutions set up under it. Much more is claimed than is 
true, and the visitor finding things better than he ex 
pected, is led to believe them better than they really 
are. But as he progresses in knowledge, his views of 
this vaunted " quiet, and order, and beauty," begin to 
change. He finds that this quiet is the quiet of des 
potism this order is of the kind that " reigned in 
Warsaw " on a certain historic occasion, when the heel 
of the tyrant was on fifty thousand necks, and to mur 
mur was to be crushed. 

He finds that the beauty is mostly of nature s mak 
ing, and as to the boasted virtue and honesty, it is 
about like that of other similar communities good, 
bad and indifferent. There ought to be virtue in a 
community where no man is introduced to a woman, 
until he has been thoroughly tested, and where the 
"dagger to the heart "is the openly avowed penalty for 
the slightest infraction; and yet such are the defects of 
their social system that, despite these dread penalties, 
virtue is not secured. Public prostitution is, of course, 
comparatively unknown, but that private immorality, 
and that of the most loathsome character, prevails ex- 


tensively, is well known to all who care to inquire; and 
is often flatly acknowledged by their own speakers, one 
of whom said, in a public sermon, that he could not 
preserve his own honor, "couldn t trust his women out 
of his sight, and w r as bound to have em all in one house, 
under his own eye." The resident finally learns these 
facts, and learns, too, that things he considers gross 
crimes are practiced under the name of religion. 

Then a reaction begins in his mind, and anger is 
excited more fiercely against crimes concealed in the 
name of religion, than those which appear in true 
colors. And this is the crime of Brighamism, that a 
class of swindling fanatics can so put on the appearance 
of virtue as to deceive both those within and without, 
their followers and their visitors. At first, I thought 
I was alone in thus changing my views ; but I find it 
to be the case, nine times out of ten, with the fair- 
minded Gentile. Look at the long list of visitors who 
have spoken or written, and it will generally be found, 
the shorter their stay, the more favorable their testi 
mony. There is ,one point on which I long refused 
belief, the existence of "Danites" or "Destroying 
Angels." I looked upon them, as rather a bug-a-boo of 
the Gentile mind. But the testimony is now unim 
peachable. I find their existence avowed in Brigham s 
old sermons. I have met more than one man who had 
narrowly escaped from them with life. I have it from 
the statements of apostates, and more than all else, my 
personal friends among the Mormons themselves, have 
avowed and defended the order. To a young Mormon 
woman, who was laboring for my conversion, I said, in 


jest : " Do you believe in these Danites ? Do you sus 
tain such a man as Bill Hickman in his murders?" 
and, to my surprise, the reply was : " That is his office, 
to cut off those who violate a sacred obligation, for 
which there is no forgiveness. That is the law of God." 
When a man finds growing within him a sentiment 
of hostility to a sect claiming to be religious, he does 
well to consider carefully the grounds of such feeling, 
lest early prejudice or sectarian bias be misleading him. 
Charges against religious bodies are to be received with 
caution, and examined with more than legal distrust. 
We do well to remember that the crimes of religious 
communities have been exaggerated in every age of the 
world, and hence extra caution is due to them in ex 
amining their history. In this spirit I can truly say I 
approached Mormonism ; and when compelled to radi 
cally change my views of .them, while I felt a natural 
chagrin at having been at first deceived, it was more 
in sorrow than in anger that I found myself disen 
chanted. And this has been, the experience of the 
great majority who have made a lengthy residence in 
Utah. For a few weeks all seems right ; but if any 
man flatters himself that at the end of six weeks he 
has seen more than the superficies of Mormon society, 
he is wofully deceived. When the first flush of curi 
osity had subsided I ceased hunting for information of 
those so falsely called " representative men ;" I began 
to look among the people. I talked with the young, 
and extended my acquaintance among that class most 
generally women who have been wrecked in mind, 
body and estate by the maelstrom of lust and fanatical 


fury, which is ever raging in the Mormon capital. It 
is not easy to get at these facts. The witnesses will not 
speak: while there is the slightest doubt. They know not 
whom to trust, and one must take a decided stand, and 
become himself an object of hatred and distrust to the 
hierarchy, before he can safely be considered a friend to 
its victims. But when a man has fairly cut loose from 
the misrepresentations of the few, and begun to get the 
facts from the mass, every day the odious features of 
Mormonism rise into clearer view, till he stands aghast 
to think he ever had a good opinion of the system. 
The Mormon Church, or rather community, may be 
divided into four classes. 

I. First are the leaders of all ranks, from the First 
Presidency down through all the grades of apostles, 
seventies, bishops, elders, priests, evangelists, mission 
aries and teachers. 

They are all bound to the Church by the strongest 
ties of self-interest, as by it they live many of them 
in splendor and affluence. In such a state of facts, we 
may well question their sincerity, especially as some of 
them are men of keen analytical talents, and far-reach 
ing sagacity. But whether they think it true or false, 
they must stand or fall with the system. Some of them 
evidently believe in it with all earnestness ; others, as 
evidently do not. Their history and unguarded ex 
pressions show that. Still a third class seem doubtful, 
and to this it must be confessed Brigham Young belongs. 
Outsiders are strangely divided in opinion regarding 
him. His worst enemies, while they charge him with 
every crime in the code, yet often admit that he is sin- 


cere in his religious belief; " but/ say they, " his relig 
ion admits of the most atrocious crimes, if done to fur 
ther good interests ! " Others look upon him as a Ijeart- 
less impostor, a sensual, deceitful tyrant, and this I find 
to be the common view among apostates, or recusarft 
Mormons, who have suffered from his acts. I am in 
clined to regard him as that strange compound of im 
postor and fanatic, which history has shown to be pos 
sible, as in the cases of the Florentine, Savonarola and 
the Jesuit, Loyola. Incredible as it may appear to a 
mind and conscience yet undebauched, men may and 
actually do persuade themselves that they are doing 
God s service while committing the most heinous crimes, 


1 Christians have burnt each other, quite persuaded 
That all the Apostles would have done as they did." 

II. The second class comprises those who have em 
braced Mormonism from unworthy motives, and consists 
generally of men with no fixed sentiments on any sub 
ject except their own self-interest. They are men who 
have been unfortunate or criminal in other communities, 
and fled to Mormonism for a refuge. Broken down 
merchants, professional men, without character, and the 
" bilks " and " dead beats " of other communities 
generally, who have been deceived by the representa 
tions of progress there, and expected to better them 
selves by casting in their fortunes with a rising sect. 
And from this class have originated many of the Mor 
mon troubles, in times past. They often become 
dissatisfied and turbulent, and often apostatize, but 
have too little fixedness of sentiment, and too much 


dullness of moral perception to be of any value to 
either side. Some of them seek easy positions under 
the hierarchy ; others, more desperate, sink lower, and 
become the mere tools of the leaders to do all their 
dirty and infamous work. Mutual guilt then makes 
them mutual spies, and conscious that their lives are in 
the power of their masters, they live as guilty and 
miserable slaves, with the assured knowledge that, at 
the slightest disloyal move, their lives will pay the for 
feit. More than one of this class has met with a bloody 
death, from the simple fact that he knew too much, as 
I now know from undoubted testimony. 

III. The third class consists of those who became 
Mormons sincerely, but from slight or insufficient mo 
tives. They united with the sect, with as much 
sincerity as they were capable of, but with no clear 
understanding of what was before them. Before em 
bracing Mormonism, they were generally afloat on 
religious subjects, or dissatisfied with what they saw in 
their own churches, and had fallen into the dangerous 
habit of suspecting all men of hypocrisy who showed 
much zeal for morality. I have met dozens of this 
class who had been " lobby members " of the Methodist, 
Baptist, Presbyterian, and Campbellite Churches; that 
weak, feeble class of Christians who expect the church 
to pick them up and carry them to heaven, carefully 
lifting them over the rough places in the road, and re 
moving every annoying doubt which will rise in an 
idle or rapid brain. I have heard them speak of their 
churches as " stationary," or " sleepy," never dreaming 
that the fault was in themselves. They were the weak, 


discontented disciples, without the fierce vigor and 
aggressive spirit of the true Church ; not having learned 
the first principle of Christianity to be zealous, unselfish 
laborers. In this state of mind their attention is caught 
and fancy captivated by the claim of a new revelation, 
of holding direct communion with heaven, of walking 
every day in new light received from without ; and also 
at thought of a distinctively American religion, with 
saints, apostles, prophets and martyrs, all of our own 
race and time. This class are very enthusiastic on 
first reaching the new " Zion," but often grow dis 
contented, and fall again into their doubting and 
querulous habits. But as they did not think their way 
into Mormonism, they cannot think themselves out, 
and so they simply float. Sometimes they apostatize, 
but are no loss to the Church and no gain to the Gen 
tiles, from pure lack of intellectual vigor. 

IV. The fourth class consists of those who really be 
lieve in Mormonism with all its absurdities and Con 
tradictions. They never doubt for a moment, that 
Joseph Smith was sent direct from God, and that Brig- 
ham Young is his successor. This class comprises about 
half of the whole community, and they are the really 
dangerous element. No miraculous story is too great for 
their belief, if it have the stamp of " authority," and no op 
pression or priestly tyranny seems to shake their faith for 
a moment ; and, paradoxical as it may seem, in this class 
are found all the virtues of the Mormon community. 
They are industrious, frugal (often from necessity), and 
reasonably temperate. Their honesty, I think, has 
been overrated, and Brigham and other leaders often say 


the same. Yet, one may travel among them for weeks, 
as I have done, and meet with nothing but kindness 
and hospitality. 

But in their very virtues lies the greatest danger. 
Their constancy to their leaders is wonderful, and their 
gullibility and capacity to swallow the marvelous, be 
yond belief; so they constitute a mass of dangerous 
power in the hands of corrupt and treasonable men. 
These are the men we ought to reach and try to save, 
and yet they are the very ones who are hardest to 
influence. They will not read our books or papers, 
(very many of them cannot), nor listen for a moment 
to our arguments. They denounce everything which 
is not approved by the bishop, and pronounce the 
plainest facts of history false, if they clash with the 
statements of " authority." Conversing once with one 
such, a merchant of the city, I read the following pas 
sage from the " Book of Mormon :" " We found upon 
the land of promise (Central America), that there were 
beasts in the forest of every kind, both the cow and the 
ox, and the ass and the horse, and all manner of wild 
animals, which were for the use of men." 

" Now," said I, " your Prophet says the Nephites 
landed in America six hundred years before Christ, and 
the last of them perished about A. D. 500, and all this 
time they had used the horse and the ass. Now, any 
history of America w^ill show that the horse was com 
pletely unknown to the Indians till brought here by the 

" 0, pshaw !" was the reply, " I don t believe a word 
of it; it s a d d lie, got up by some enemy 6f the 


" But/ I urged, " go further back than Mormonism. 
Take the letters of George Washington, and you will 
find that he was the first man who ever imported the 
ass to America ! Could the Nephites have had these 
animals, and no trace of them be found ?" 

" I don t believe George Washington, or any other 
man, knows anything about it," said he; "you examine 
and you will find many of the so-called facts of history 
are not facts. You may read every history written, and 
pick out every fact against that book, (Mormon) and 
when you look into it you "will find them all false." 

This was the mode of reasoning adopted by a man 
of extra intelligence for a Mormon. I have talked 
with dozens of this sort, and no matter how clear on 
everything else, they seem to go wild in their logic 
when Mormonism was touched upon. " Do you ac 
tually believe," I asked an old lady, " that the earthly 
paradise will be in Jackson County, Missouri ?" " Oh, 
yes," she said, "for the Lord pointed out the exact 
place to Joseph, and said that Zion should never be 
moved, and all the people of America who do not re 
pent will be destroyed now in a few years, so there will 
be but one man for seven women. Those are the very 
words, and everything Joseph and Isaiah (!) said has 
turned out just exactly as they said it would." 

Such are the ideas impressed upon the minds of 
these people. Numbers of them testify in the most 
positive manner to miraculous cures performed upon 
themselves or their friends, simply by the " laying on 
of hands " by an elder or bishop. They devoutly be 
lieve that Stephen A. Douglas failed politically, because 


he urged vigorous measures against the Mormons, and 
that "Frank P. Blair is sinking for the same reason. 
The late war never would have occurred, they think, 
if Johnston s army had not been sent ; and as to thrash 
ing the United States, they consider it will be a mere 
" breakfast spell," when things get in the right fix, and 
Brigham gives the word. At his command they would 
fight the world in arms, or quietly give up their all 
and migrate to any part of the world he might desig 
nate. The most of this class will stick to Mormonism 
as long as it has an existence, but the other classes 
will fall away whenever it is to their interest to do so. 
But with mere moral distinctions the Government 
and people of the United States have little to do. The 
patriot and statesman will ask a more important ques 
tion : What is the state of public feeling among the 
Mormons; how do they stand affected towards the 
General Government? In a full answer many in 
fluences are* to be considered. It must be remembered 
in starting, that at least seven-eighths of all these people 
are foreigners, and that of the Id west and most ignorant 
class ; that they came direct from Europe to Utah, and 
know absolutely nothing of the States and their people ; 
that they merely have Mormonism grafted on to 
Europeanism, and cannot be expected to become 
nationalized like their countrymen who settle in the 
East. Whatever distinctively American feeling they 
have must, then, be looked for in the influences there 
and the teachings of the Church. Those influences 
and teachings are all anti- American. Mormonism 
teaches three doctrines directly opposed to the spirit of 
the Constitution and our institutions. 


1. The union of Church and State; or rather the 
complete absorption of the state in the church ; that the 
former is a mere appendage of the latter for convenience 
sake, and may be dropped whenever convenience no 
longer calls for a stote organization. 

2. The shedding of a man s blood, for the remission 
of his sins, even his sins against the Church. This is 
sometimes denied and sometimes advocated, but that it 
is a doctrine of the Mormon Church is now beyond doubt. 
Brigham openly says that the only reason why it is not 
more generally advocated is, that it is " too strong a 
doctrine for the weak in faith ; the people are not fully 
prepared for it," etc. Unwilling to leave this matter 
doubtful in any mind, I clip the following extracts 
from published sermons, the first from those of Jedediah 
M. Grant, delivered in the Tabernacle : 

" Brethren and sisters, we want you to repent and 
forsake your sins. And you that have committed sins 
that cannot be forgiven through baptism, let your blood 
be shed, and let the smoke ascend, that the incense thereof 
may come up before Gtod, as atonement for your sins, 
and that the sinners in Zion may be afraid." (Deseret 
News, October 1, 1856.) 

" "We have been trying long enough with these people, 
and I go in for letting the sword of the Almighty be 
unsheathed, not only in word, but in deed." (Ibid.) 

" I say that there are men and women here, that I 
would advise to go to the President immediately, and 
ask him to appoint a committee to attend to their case, 
and then let a place be selected, and let that committee 
shed their blood." (Deseret News, September, 1856.) 


Which was endorsed by Brigham, as follows : 

" There are sins men commit for which they cannot 
receive forgiveness in this world, or in that which is 
to come, and if they had their eyes open to see their 
condition, they would be perfectly willing to have their 
blood spilt upon the ground, that the smoke thereof 
might ascend to heaven as an offering for their sins ; 
whereas, if such is not the case, they will stick to them 
and remain upon them in the spirit world. I know 
when you hear my brethren talk about cutting people 
off from the earth, you consider it strong doctrine. It 
is to save them, not to destroy them. It is true that 
the blood of the Son of God was shed for our sins, but 
men can commit sins which it can never remit. 

" As it was in ancient days, so is it in our day ; the 
law is precisely the same. There are sins that the 
blood of a lamb or a calf cannot remit, but they must 
be atoned for by the blood of man. That is the reason 
why men talk to you as they do from this stand. They 
understand the doctrine and throw out a few WQrds 
about it." (Deseret News, October 1, 1856.) 

This is " sound Mormon doctrine," and that many 
have been sacrificed under it, is well known in Utah. 
This is one of the features of Mormonism I was slow to 
believe, nor did I credit it without overwhelming proof; 
but to put the matter beyond doubt, more than one 
prominent Mormon has avowed the doctrine to me, and 
defended it as an ordinance of God. 

Under this law Potter, and the Parish family of 
Springville, were murdered when attempting to leave 
the Territory, and Potter and Wilson of Weber Valley, 


were assassinated in jail; under the same law the Mor 
mons claim the right to slay all who commit adultery, 
" or violate a sanctified oath," and for this cause Elder 
John Hyde was compelled to flee from the Territory, 
while his friends Margetts and Cowdy, were followed 
several hundred miles and barbarously murdered. 

3. The third an ti- American feature of Mormonism is 
the complete subserviency and mental slavery of woman, 
not as to polygamy alone, though that is an outgrowth, 
but in everything. 

Their theology teaches that, " as Eve led Adam out 
of Paradise, he must lead her back," and though they 
hesitatingly admit that she may secure "a salvation" 
without man s help, she cannot secure "an exaltation." 
She must have a husband "to lead her into the presence 
of God, and introduce her to that husband s glory." 
"She will not necessarily go to hell, because she is 
single, but she never can rise to the first glory." Such 
an atrocious and un-Christian idea can have but one 
tendency, to make woman merely a creature for man s 
convenience and pleasure. Hence, all our American 
ideas of dower, partition, equal descent, and woman 
holding land in fee apart from her husband, are un 
known to the laws of Utah. Everything a woman 
possesses at marriage becomes absolutely the property 
of her husband. The feminine interest is nowhere pro 
vided for, and, in looking over their laws, if they have 
any Common Law at all, it seems to be a transcript of 
that which prevailed in the time of James I. The 
further we pursue the investigation the more this ten 
dency appears, till it is plain to be seen there is none 


of what we call Americanism there. The spirit exists 
neither in their birth, training nor religion. To them 
Brigham is the Government, and Utah is America. 
They know no other, and consider it the height of 
presumption for the United States authorities to claim 
the right to rule over them. True, they claim to be 
true Americans, just as the Abyssinians claim to be true 
Christians., while it is evident neither understand their 
own words. 

But there is another curious fact bearing on their 
views. On the 25th of December, 1832, Joseph Smith 
delivered a remarkable prophecy, detailing what was to 
happen to America for her "persecution of the Saints." 
It was published in The Seer, a Mormon periodical in 
Washington City, of April, 1854, from which I copy : 


" Verily thus saith the Lord concerning the wars 
that will shortly come to pass, beginning at the rebel 
lion of South Carolina, which will eventually terminate 
in the death and misery of many souls. The days will 
come that wars will be poured out upon all nations, 
beginning at that place ; for, behold, the Southern States 
shall be divided against the Northern States; and the 
Southern States will call upon other nations, even the 
nation of Great Britain, as it is called, and they shall 
also call upon other nations, in order to defend them 
selves against other nations ; and thus war shall be 
poured out upon all nations. And it shall come to 
pass, after many days, slaves shall rise up against their 
masters, who shall be marshaled and disciplined for 


war. And it will come to pass, also, that the remnant 
wliicli are left of the land* shall marshal themselves 
and shall become exceedingly angry, and shall vex the 
Gentiles with a sore vexation. And thus, with the 
sword and by bloodshed, the inhabitants of the earth 
shall mourn, and with famine and plague and earth 
quakes, and the thunder of heaven, and the fierce and 
vivid lightning, also, shall the inhabitants of the earth 
be made to feel the wrath and indignation and chasten 
ing hand of an Almighty God, until the consumption 
decreed hath made an end of all nations ; that the cry 
of the Saints and of the blood of the Saints shall cease 
to come up into the ears of the Lord of Sabaoth, from 
the earth, to be avenged of their enemies. Wherefore 
stand ye in holy places, and be not moved until the 
day of the Lord come ; for, behold, it cometh quickly, 
saith the Lord ! Amen." 

It will be perceived that of the thousand predictions 
in relation to our civil war, Joseph s was among the 
most shrewd, and certainly hit on two or three very 
curious things. But he met with the difficulty common 
to all prophets in these days, when he ran into particu 
lars he missed it seriously. With the benevolent de 
sign of saving the country, Joseph offered himself for 
President, but as he was rejected, of course the evil is 
bound to come. With the Mormons this is the grand 
prophecy. War is to go on, they say, till nearly all 
the men in the Union are killed, and then the Saints 
are to return and set up " Zion " in Jackson County, 
Missouri ; and the faithful who have meanwhile gath- 

* The Indians. 


ered, are to possess the whole land, and be husbands to 
all the widows and fathers to all the orphans. Then is 
to come the time mentioned by Isaiah, when "seven wo 
men shall take hold of one man," and agree to earn their 
own support, if they only may " be called by his name 
to take away their reproach," which reproach, of course, 
is childlessness ; or, commercially speaking, women will 
be at a heavy discount, and men at 600 per cent, pre 

As near as I can determine there have been about 
ten thousand commentaries written and preached on 
this prophecy ; for the varying circumstances of every 
year, and almost every week, require new elucidations 
of the way it is all to come about. The war, of course, 
settled it all for awhile ; but that stopped so suddenly, 
they maintain it must soon break out again, and several 
of their commentators concluded the last Presidential 
election would signal its re-opening. What folly for 
any people to pretend fealty to an institution which they 
claim is going to eternal smash in ten years at the most. 

It is a law of mind that what we prophecy often we 
soon come to wish for ; and if there were no other cause, 
the tendency of all their preaching and prophesying is 
to make them look eagerly for the downfall of our 
Government. It is a prime their creed that 
all mankind but themselves are on the swift road to 
ruin, and they are never so well pleased as in listening 
to statements in regard to " the great increase of crime 
and immorality in the States." I could not make one 
of them angry quicker than by persistently arguing that 
the highest degree of prosperity prevails in the East to- 


day, and my best friends were ready to knock me down 
at the statement that there were still more men than 
women in the United States. 

I showed them from the census that the men were 
in a majority of 730,000 in 1860 ; that by immigration 
we gained several hundred thousand more men than 
women, and did not lose, at the outside, more than 
700,000 in the war. They maintained that by au 
thentic (?) Southern histories, we lost in battle one 
million rebels and ,two million Yankees ! How easy to 
make men believe what they wish. All the " persecu 
tions " these people talk so much of, were caused by 
Southerners and Democrats, and yet they are all rebel 
sympathizers and pro-slavery politicians. They talk 
loud and long of their loyalty, when there is anything 
to be gained by it; but send there a Federal judge or 
officer, who refuses to be Brigham s tool, and you soon 
hear their real feelings toward the Union. Just now 
they are only waiting, watching a few weeks or months 
till all shall go to destruction in the States, when they 
will return and occupy their terrestrial heaven Jackson 
County, Missouri. Thus this vast mass of ignorance 
has been wrought upon and moulded by a few leaders, 
till the people are ready for any desperate enterprise 
those men may direct. The common people, two-thirds 
of them at least, are naturally peaceable, too ; but they 
are so terribly priest-ridden, that their best qualities are 
as dangerous as other men s worst. 

Like the poor of all lands, they are constant in their 
attachments ; but with the favorites they have chosen, 
their constancy is a vice rather than a virtue. No 


doubt a very large number would apostatize rather than 
suffer ; but half of them are so rooted and grounded in 
their faith, they will blindly follow their leaders, what 
ever course they take. 

There are no free schools in Utah, and no organized 
systems of instruction ; nevertheless the social and in 
tellectual condition of the people is far superior to \vhat 
it was ten or even five years ago. There is a general 
prejudice against the learned professions, particularly 
medicine; and a general feeling that the Saints are 
above the necessity of such knowledge which idea is 
summed up by Brigham Young in these words : " Study 
twenty years in the world s knowledge, and God Al 
mighty will give the poorest Saint more knowledge in 
five minutes than you get in all that time." In this 
social view, it were an endless task to mention all the 
thousand forms of popular error, the belief in witch 
craft, dreams, evestra, ghostly fancies and "faith-doc 
toring " which prevail among them ; but it is worthy of 
remark that there is certainly no other place in America 
where retrograde ideas, as they might be called, pre 
vail so extensively as in Utah. Nine-tenths of the 
Saints seem to have taken up one common wail about 
everything outside of Utah. Whether it is to persuade 
themselves that they are really better than other men, 
or to console themselves at the thought of others mis 
ery, it seems to be their meat and drink to denigrate 
the character of the rest of mankind. They take up 
the wailing jeremiad that there is so much more crime 
in the country than formerly ; that people generally are 
so much more dishonest ; that there are so few virtuous 


women ; that the country is rapidly going to decay ; 
that religion has lost its power ; that all political action 
* is wrong, slavery ought never to have been abolished, 
and nothing should have been done as it has been for 
the last twenty-five years. To quote history or statis 
tics to the contrary would be no proof at all to them j 
they regard all such as " Gentile lies." And thus, in 
the supreme belief that they alone are " in the ark of 
safety," they confidently wait for the " great tribulation" 
which is now about due ; while thousands of them fully 
expect to live to see the time when the American na 
tion shall be a thing of the past, and Macaulay s New 
Zealander shall "sit on London Bridge and muse on 
the decline and fall of the British Empire." 





Its origin A theologic conglomerate Mythology, Paganism, Moham 
medanism, corrupt Christianity and Philosophy run mad "First prin 
ciples of the Gospel" The five points of variance Materialism No 
spirit A god with "body, parts and passions" Matter eternal No 
"creation" Intelligent atoms Pre-existent souls High Times in the 
Spirit Worlds Birth of Spirits They hunt for "Earthly Tabernacles" 
The "Second Estate "Apotheosis The " Third Estate " " Fourth 
Estate" Men become gods "Divine generation" Earthly Families 
and Heavenly Kingdoms Did Man come from the Sun? "Building 
up the Kingdom " One day as a thousand years The time of the Gen 
tiles about out Great events at hand " Gog and Magog," et. aL 
Gentiles, prepare to make tracks Keturn to "Zion," in Missouri 
Christ s earthly empire Great destiny for Missouri Tenets from Chris 
tianity Baptism a " Saving Ordinance " Baptized twelve times Office 
of the Holy Ghost Strange fanaticism Eclectic Theology A personal 
god The Jiomoousian and the Tiomoiousian The Logos and the Aeon 
Grossness and Vulgarity. 

IN their origin, the Mormons may be said to have 
been an offshoot from the Campbellites ; Sidney Rigdon, 
the author of their early doctrines, having originally 
left the Baptists to join the former sect, from which he 
again seceded and founded a sect in Ohio, locally known 
as " Disciples." Of this band a portion went crazy as 
Millenarians, another part became Perfectionists, *and 
the remainder followed Rigdort when he joined his 
fortunes with those of Joe Smith, and assisted in found 
ing Kirtland. Ohio. Under the early teachings of Brig- 
ham Young they adopted the Methodist order of services. 


Their missionaries when abroad, at present, first preach 
principles very similar to those of the Campbellites ; 
and what the Mormons call " the first principles of the 
gospel " are mainly those of that sect. But it is the 
smallest part of Mormon theology which has its origin 
in any recognized Christian system ; and by the succes 
sive additions of Bigdon, Joe Smith, and Brigham 
Young, the laborious philosophical speculations of 
Orson Pratt, and the wild poetical dreams of his 
brother Parley P. Pratt, it may well be said there is 
scarcely a known system of religion, ancient or modern, 
but has contributed some shred of doctrine to Mor monism. 
It is now beyond the power of man to invent a new 
religion. At this late day combination is all that is 
left for the innovator, and the doctrinal points of Mor- 
monism are culled from three different sources, viz. : 

I. Christianity, by a literal interpretation of the 
Bible, particularly the prophecies. 

II. Ancient mythology and various modem forms of 
pagan philosophy. 

III. The philosophical speculations of various schools; 
the whole modified and practicalized by revelation ap 
plied to events of daily occurrence. 

Thus has grown up a vast and cumbrous system 
which is the standard Mormon theology, but of which 
each individual Mormon believes so much or so little 
as he can comprehend. It were an endless task to 
pursue these doctrines through all the variations, neces 
sary to force some sort of agreement, and the lifeless 
application of perverted texts of Scripture. But the 
distinctive points in which they differ from all Christian 
sects may be grouped under five heads : 


I. Pure materialism ; but slightly different from the 
atomic materialism of the Greek school. 

II. The eternity of matter. 

III. Pre-existence of the soul, and transmission of 

IV. A plurality of gods. 

V. A plurality of wives, or " celestial marriage." 
All these are blended in various ways, and depend 

upon each other in a score of combinations and con 
fused inter-relations; but as far as possible they are 
treated of separately. 

I. The Mormons hold that there is no such thing as 
spirit distinct from matter ; that spirit is only matter 
refined, and that spirits themselves are composed of 
purely material atoms, only finer than the tangible 
things of earth, as air is finer and more subtle than 
water, while both are equally material. " The purest, 
most refined and subtle of all is that substance called 
the Holy Spirit. This substance, like all others, is one 
of the elements of material or physical existence, and 
therefore, subject to the necessary laws which govern 
all other matter. Like the other elements its whole 
is composed of individual particles. Each particle 
occupies space, possesses the power of motion, requires 
time to move from one part of space to another, and 
can in nowise occupy two places at once, in this re 
spect differing nothing from all other matter. It is 
widely diffused among all the elements of space; under 
the control of the Great Eloheim it is the moving 
cause of all the intelligences, by which they act. It is 
omnipresent by reason of the infinitude of its particles, 


is the controling element of all others and comprehends 
all things. By the mandate of the Almighty it per 
forms all the wonders ever manifested in the name of 
the Lord. Its inherent properties embrace all the at 
tributes of intelligence and affection. In short it is the 
attributes of the eternal power and Godhead."* 

Gods, angels, spirits and men, the four orders of 
intelligent beings, are all of one species, composed of 
similar materials, differing not in kind but in degree. 
God is a perfected man ; man is an embryotic or unde 
veloped god. Orson Pratt has pursued this doctrine to 
its wildest ultimate, and proves to his own satisfaction 
that every original atom was endowed with a self-act 
ing, independent intelligence, and they merely "got 
together" of their own volition. Thus in the attempt 
to avoid the supposed mystery of an instantaneous crea 
tion by the one God, he has raised an infinity of un 
solved problems by making every atom a god. 

II. The eternity of matter is a logical outgrowth of 
materialism. In this view every atom now in being 
has existed from all eternity past and will exist for all 
eternity to come. There never could have been a 
"creation," except to appropriate "matter unformed and 
void," and change its form, impressing new conditions 
upon it. 

New worlds are constantly being formed of the un 
appropriated material of the universe, and stocked with 
spirits, after which faithful Saints rule over them and 
become gods. 

* The quotations in this chapter are from Parley P. Pratt s "Key 
to Theology," a standard work among the Mormons, and by them 
considered as inspired. 


III. Closely allied with the last principle is that of 
the pre-existence of souls ; and here we first meet with 
the sexual principle which underlies all the remaining 
portion of Mormonism. All the sexual passions exist 
in full force in the different worlds, and animate the 
immortal gods as fully as their human offspring. Count 
less millions of spirits are thus born in the eternal worlds, 
and are awaiting by myriads the physical processes by 
which they may enter earthly tabernacles and begin 
their second, or probationary state. " Wisdom inspires 
the gods to multiply their species," and as these spiritual 
bodies increase, fresh worlds are necessary upon which 
to transplant them. These spiritual bodies have all the 
organs of thought, speech and hearing, in exact simili 
tude to earthly senses. But in this state they could 
not advance ; it was necessary for them to be subject 
to the moral law of earth that regeneration might go on. 
Hence they "seek earnestly for earthly tabernacles, 
haunting even the abodes of the vilest of mankind to 
obtain them." To bestow these tabernacles is the high 
est glory of woman, and her exaltation in eternity will 
be in exact proportion to the number she has furnished. 
Man may preach the gospel, may reach the highest 
glories of the priesthood, may in time even be a creator; 
but woman s only road to glory is by the physical pro 
cess of introducing spirits to earth. Hence the larger 
her family the greater her glory ; any means to prevent 
natural increase are in the highest degree sinful, and 
violent means an unpardonable sin. 

Of these spirits it is intimated some " did not keep 
their first estate," and are to be thrust down and never 


permitted to have earthly tabernacles or propagate their 
species. Those who reach this earth are in their 
" second estate," and if faithful Saints will pass to their 
" third estate," celestialized men, after which they be 
come gods. 

IV. There is a vast multitude of gods, dispersed 
throughout all the worlds as kingdoms, families and 
nations. There is, however, but one god regnant on 
each world, who is to the inhabitants of that world the 
" only true and living God." But each god having a first 
born son, there is "One God and One Christ" to each 
world. Thus " there are lords many and gods many," but 
to us there" is but one God, the Creator of the world and 
the Father of our spirits, literally begotten. He was once 
a man of some world and attained. His high position by 
successive degrees. " He is the Father of Jesus Christ 
in the only way known in nature, just as John Smith, 
Senior, is the father of John Smith, Junior." 

All the gods have many wives and become the 
fathers of the souls of men by divine generation. The 
gods are in the exact form of men, of material substance, 
but highly refined and spiritualized. A grand council 
of the gods, with a president directing, constitute the 
designing and creating power ; but man, if faithful, will 
advance by degrees till endowed with the same creative 
power, or strictly, formative will. All faithful Saints 
will become gods and finally have worlds given them 
to people and govern. All their earthly wives and 
children will belong to and constitute the beginning of 
their heavenly kingdom, and they will rule over their 
increasing posterity forever. 


" When the earth was prepared, there came from an 
upper world a Son of God, with His beloved spouse, 
and thus a colony from Heaven, it may be from the 
sun, was transplanted on our soil." Joseph Smith is 
one of the gods of this generation and now occupies a 
high position next to Christ, who in turn stands next 
to Adam. Above Adam is Jehovah and above Jehovah 
is Eloheim, who is the greatest god of whom we have 
any knowledge. His residence is in the planet Kolob, 
near the center of our system, which revolves upon its 
axis once in a thousand years, which are "with the 
Lord as one day." There were six of our days in the 
first "creation" of this world, and six of the Lord s days in 
the great preparation or course of the world, each day 
lasting a thousand years. There were two of these 
days to each dispensation. The Patriarchal had two 
of these days ; the Mosaic in like manner a day of rise 
and a day of decline ; the Christian dispensation also 
had its two days of trial, but, after St. John s death, a great 
apostasy began, and for eighteen hundred years the so- 
called Christain world has been in darkness and there 
has been no true priesthood upon the earth. There 
have been no visions, revelations or miraculous gifts 
from the Lord enjoyed among men. The various sects 
knew something of the truth but not its fullness ; they 
had the form of godliness but denied the power- 

But this time of darkness is nearly completed; the 
dawn of the Lord s day is here, and the great Sabbath 
will soon be ushered in. But a few more years are 
given to the Gentiles, then the great contest of Gog and 
Magog will set in, and nearly all the Gentile world be 


destroyed. Those who remain will become servants to 
the Saints, who will return and possess the whole land ; 
the. widows will come begging the Mormon elders to 
marry them, and seven women will lay hold of one 
man. At the same time the remnant left of the In 
dians, who are descendants of the ancient Jews, will 
be converted, have the curse removed and become " a 
fair and delightsome people." The way will be opened 
to the remainder of the " ten lost tribes," who are shut 
up somewhere near the North Pole ; old Jerusalem will 
be rebuilt by all the Jews gathering to the Holy Land, 
and about the year 1890, the new Jerusalem will be let 
down from God out of Heaven and located in Jackson 
County, Missouri, with the corner-stone of the Great 
Temple "three hundred yards west of the old court 
house in Independence," where is to be the capital of 
Christ s earthly kingdom. The Saints will own all the 
property of the country, and marry all the women they 
desire ; the streets of their city will be paved with the 
gold dug by Gentiles from the Rocky Mountains ; noxious 
insects will be banished, contagious diseases cease, the 
land produce abundantly of grain, flower and fruit, and 
everything will be lovely in the new Jerusalem ! 

Leaving the reader to smile or regret, as personal 
temperament may incline, I hasten to a consideration 
of the Mormon tenets nominally derived from the 
Christian Bible. The Mohammedan portion of their 
faith and practice is reserved for the two succeeding 

The Mormons steadily claim the Bible as the first 
foundation of their belief; that they " believe all that 





any Christians do, and a great deal more." Their tenets 
most nearly resembling those of Christian sects, and 
which they call the " First principles of the Gospel," 
are four in number, ranked in order of time, as follows : 
1. Faith, 2. Repentance, 3. Baptism by immersion, 
and 4. Laying on of hands for the remission of sins, and 
the gift of the Holy Ghost. They are explained at 
great length in the " Doctrines and Covenants," the 
New Testament of Mormonism. This book is made up 
of revelations, " selected (!) from those of Joseph Smith," 
and the doctrinal lectures of various elders, particularly 
Sidney Rigdon, with an addition containing the rules 
and discipline of the Church. The " Lectures on faith 
and repentance " contain nothing more than is familiar 
to every attendant on the worship of Arminian sects. 
Baptism the Mormons regard as " a saving ordinance," 
of actual and material value ; and to such an extent do 
they carry this doctrine, that they baptize again and 
again, after every backsliding, and sometimes when 
there has been a period of " general coldness " in the 
Church. At the time known in Mormon annals as the 
" Reformation," when it was supposed the Lord had sent 
drouth and grasshoppers to punish their backsliding, 
every adult member of the Church was re-baptized. 
Nearly all the old members have been baptized two or 
three times each, and Brighr n Young, in one of his 
sermons, mentions an old rep >bate who had been bap 
tized no less than twelve tin: s, and " cut off thirteen 
times for lying," Brigham imself, who was then 
much addicted to liquor, seems to have, fallen under the 
power of his enemy soon after uniting with the Church, 


thus rendering re-baptism necessary ; and a .quiet joke 
is current among the less reverent Saints, to the effect 
that a noted Jew, named Seixas, then connected with 
the Mormons, jocosely proposed to " leave him in over 

But the fourth tenet opens to view the whole of their 
divergence from Christian sects. The prime principle 
in their faith which marks this departure is, that the 
office of the Holy Ghost had been unknown on earth 
from the death of the last Apostle to the calling of 
Joseph Smith ; that the " mystic power " mentioned by 
St. John, had warred with the Saints and overcome 
them ; that the true priesthood was then taken from 
the earth, and men, blindly seeking the truth, divided 
into six hundred and sixty-six sects, " the number of 
the beast," each having a little truth, but none holding 
it in purity. 

Joseph Smith, earnestly calling upon the Lord to 
know which of the sects was in the right, was told that 
all were alike gone astray, and was himself ordained by 
heavenly messengers, first to the Aaronic and after 
wards to the Melchisedec priesthood. Thenceforth the 
Holy Ghost was to be given to all true believers ; the 
" witness of the spirit " was to be an absolute certainty, 
and all who had truly embraced the new gospel were 
"to know for themselves, and without a shadow of 
doubt" that it was true. How strange and yet how 
natural, this constant seeking by man for certainty as 
to the affairs of the unseen world ! Hundreds of times 
I have listened to the testimony of individual Mormons : 
"You believe you are right I know this religion is 
true. We have a witness no other people can have 


the gift of the Holy Ghost. In the old churches we 
always had our doubts ; now we know the correctness 
of this doctrine." Thus for a season. But man was 
not made for such absolutism ; it is folly to seek a per 
fect certainty in that which is from its very nature in 
tangible and uncertain, and it will often be found that 
the wildest and most unreasoning faith has the most 
obstinate devotees. It is sufficient comment upon the 
above " testimony/ to state the facts that no church ever 
organized has developed so many factions in so short a 
time as Mormonism ; that the original organization has, 
from time to time, given rise to twenty-five sects, of 
which half-a-dozen are still in existence ; that of all who 
have ever embraced Mormonism, over seventy per cent, 
have apostatized, and that at the present writing, two 
powerful schisms are raging in the very bosom of the 

At the same time with the Holy Ghost, all the " gifts " 
of the first Church were to be restored ; prophecy, heal 
ing, miracles, speaking in tongues and the interpretation 
of tongues were to accompany the new gospel and be 
its powerful witnesses among men. Hence, all the 
miracles which have followed the Latter-day work. 
The Mormons are fond of quoting that text where all 
power is given to the Church, and the enumeration of 
gifts with the statement, " These signs shall follow 
them that believe." They then triumphantly exclaim, 
" Where is the professed Christian Church which has, 
or even claims these gifts ? We have them in their 
fullness, and this is our testimony that we are truly of 
the Lord." As far as human testimony can prove any- 


thing on such a subject, they prove numerous " miracles " 
in the way of healing various ailments; but I have 
heard of none that cannot be readily accounted for from 
the effects of a " fervent and fooling faith." The most 
common " miracle " is the cure of rheumatism and neu 
ralgia by " laying on of hands," and anointing with 
holy oil. The general rule of the Church is to send 
for the nearest elders and bishops as soon as a Saint is 
taken sick ; they " lay on hands," and anoint the pa 
tient with " consecrated oil," rubbing it briskly on the 
parts most affected. If the patient grows worse, other 
dignitaries are sent for, more vigorous prayers are offered 
up, and strenuous efforts made to arouse the " healing 
virtue ; " but generally a physician is the last resort, a 
religious prejudice prevailing to some extent against 
the profession. A resident physician of Salt Lake City 
informed me that he was once called to see a woman in 
labor, who had been suffering for twenty-four hours, 
and was literally " greased from head to foot with the 
consecrated oil." It proved to be a very simple and by 
no means unusual case, which he relieved in a few 
minutes, at the very time the attendant women were 
emptying a large horn of " consecrated oil " upon the 
patient s head ; the relief was followed by loud praises 
of the efficacy of the " holy oil," and the woman is now 
a firm witness of the " miracle." 

" Speaking in tongues " is not, as one would naturally 
suppose, the gift of speech in the vernacular of various 
nations, such as attended the pentecostal season. That 
would be altogether too linguistic and practical for these 
latter days It consists merely of uttering a rapid sue- 


cession of articulate and connected sounds, not under 
stood by the speaker himself, but which are explained 
by some one having the " interpretation of tongues." 
The mode is for the person who thinks himself en 
dowed with this gift to " stand up, call upon the Lord 
in silent prayer for a few moments, then open the mouth 
and utter whatever words come to hand and the Lord 
will make them a language." An interpreter will then 
be provided and the hidden meaning made plain ; but 
no person ever has both gifts. 

This gift prevailed to a surprising extent among cer 
tain fanatical sects in England, and was there charitably 
attributed to an abnormal condition of the organs of 
language ; but here is more naturally accounted for 
either by imposture or the effects of a wild fanaticism. 
I heard it but once, and then merely repeated by a de 
voted Mormon as he had heard the "gifted" deliver it, 
and, in a philological inquiry, I should pronounce it a 
cognate branch of that " dog-latin " which belongs to 
the erudition of school-boy days. This exercise is a 
little too ridiculous, even for the Mormons at present, 
and is rarely heard of; but in the early years of their 
Church it was a frequent occurrence, whole days of 
" speaking meetings" being devoted to it. An old 
apostate, who was in the Church at Nauvoo, tells me 
of having been present at one of those meetings where 
the first doubts began to arise in his mind in regard to 
his new faith. Having formerly been a trader among 
the Choctaws, he suddenly arose and delivered a 
lengthy speech on hunting in the language of that 
tribe, which the interpreter rendered into a glowing and 


florid account of the glories to result from the comple 
tion of the Great Temple, then in progress. Lieutenant 
Gunnison, in his admirable work, gives an account of 
one lad who had become so noted in the " interpretation 
of tongues" that he was generally called upon by the 
elders in the most difficult cases, and seems to have 
felt under obligation to give some sort of rendering and 
meaning to any speech, however crude or whimsical. 
On one occasion, a woman, with the "gifts of tongues," 
suddenly rose in the meeting, and shouted, " mela, 
meti, melee!" The boy was at once pressed for an in 
terpretation, and promptly gave the rendition, " my 
leg, my thigh, my knee!" He was cited before the 
Council for his profanity, but stoutly maintained that 
his interpretation was "according to the spirit/ and 
was released with an admonition. 

Miss Eliza Snow, the Mormon poetess, was particu 
larly "gifted" in tongues; and, according to the account 
of young Mormons, now apostatized, she was accus 
tomed often during their early journeyings, to rush 
into the dwelling of some other woman, exclaiming : 
" Sister, I want to bless you ! " lay her hands upon the 
other s head, and pour forth a strain of confused jargon, 
which was supposed to be a blessing in the "unknown 
tongue." Such are the various "gifts," and to a people 
less blinded by fanaticism, their practical effects among 
the Mormons would be sufficient to disprove the claim 
for their divine origin. To mention but one : it is evi 
dent to any intelligent observer that numerous deaths 
occur annually in Salt Lake City simply from a disre 
gard of hygienic laws and a lack of proper medical 


treatment, with a blind reliance upon treatment by 
"faith;" and, notwithstanding their splendid climate, 
the death-rate of the Mormons is unusually large 
from those very classes of disease for which any intel 
ligent physician can afford immediate relief. It is a 
remarkable fact that more women die in child-birth in 
Salt Lake City than in any other of the same size in 
America, and that for many years the death-rate of 
infants was only exceeded by one Southern State, 

So much for their theology as it relates to earth ; I 
have not been able to discover the exact source of their 
ideas of heaven. They hold that there are three hea 
vens : the celestial, terrestrial and telestial, typified by 
the sun, moon and stars. The last two are for those 
who have neither obeyed nor disobeyed the gospel; 
some because they did not hear it, others from " invin 
cible ignorance," and still others because they were 
morally hindered in various ways. To one or the other 
of these heavens all sincere people of whatever race or 
creed, who have never heard the Gospel, but followed 
the light they had, will be admitted, and there enjoy 
as much happiness as they are capable of. But if they 
have once heard the true Gospel and refused to obey it? 
have persecuted the Saints or apostatized and lost the 
spirit of God, " this testimony will go with them through 
all eternity, and they can never enter a rest." Their 
final destiny, however, is not revealed to mortals. Wo 
man, in and of herself, could never progress to the 
highest place, " As Eve led Adam out of the garden he 
must lead her back." If she wilfully remain single and 


slights the great duty imposed upon her, she is useless in 
the economy of creation, and therefore is condemned. 
But many special provisions are made for the really 
worthy of both sexes, by which the living may vica 
riously atone for the dead who never heard the Gospel. 
Baptism for the dead, and marriage for the dead, are 
chief among these means. The former they found 
upon St. Paul s writings, and under its provisions the 
Saint is often baptized for some relative who died many 
years before in Europe, or for some eminent personage. 
George Washington, Benjamin Franklin and Thomas 
Jefferson are thus vicariously Members of the Mormon 

The celestial heaven is theirs only who have both 
heard and obeyed the Gospel. In that happy state they 
enjoy all that made this life desirable ; they eat, drink 
and are merry ; they are solaced by the embraces of 
their earthly wives, and many more will be given them ; 
all material enjoyments will be free from the defects 
of earth, and pleasures will never pall. In time the 
most faithful will become gods. 

66 They will ever look upon the elements as their 
home; hence the elements will ever keep pace with 
them in all the degrees of progressive refinement, 
while room is found in infinite space : 

" While there are particles of unorganized element in 
nature s store- house : 

"While the trees of paradise yield their fruits, or the 
fountain of life its river : 

" While the bosoms of the gods glow with affection. 
While eternal charity endures, or eternity itself rolls 


its successive ages, the heavens will multiply, and new 
worlds and more people be added to the kingdom of the 

But there is still another class of persons who do not _ 
quite live up to their privileges, and yet deserve a 
salvation. Unmarried men and women, and those 
guilty of various derelictions make up this class. 
They will never progress, but be angels merely ; mes 
sengers and servants to those worthy of greater glory ; 
and " bachelor angels" only, with no families, and com 
pelled to go through eternity without a mate. 

Amusement and disgust possess us by turns as we 
pursue these blasphemous speculations in regard to the 
employment of the gods, or the vain attempt to supply 
those points of knoweldge which Infinite Wisdom has 
left unrevealed. In this attempt the Mormons might 
well be styled eclectic theologians. They are Chris 
tians in their belief in the New Testament, and the 
mission of Christ; Jews in their temporal theocracy, 
tithing and belief in prophecy ; Mohammedans in re 
gard to the relations of the sexes, and Voudoos or 
Fetichists, in their witchcraft, good and evil spirits, 
faith doctoring and superstition. From the Boodhists 
they have stolen their doctrines of apotheosis and 
development of gods ; from the Greek mythology their 
loves of the immortals and spirits ; they have blended 
the ideas of many nations of poly theists, and made the 
whole consistent by outdoing the materialists. In the 
labor of harmonizing all this with Christianity, there is 
scarcely a schism that has ever rent the Christian 
world, but has furnished some scraps of doctrine. 


They are Arians in making Christ a secondary being in 
the Godhead " the greatest of created things and yet 
a creature ;" they are Manicheans in their division of 
the universe between good and evil spirits, and Gnostics 
in their gross ascription of all human indulgences and 
enjoyments, even polygamy, to the Saviour. Of the 
modern sects, they have the order of service, "ex 
perience meetings " and " witness of the spirit " of the 
Methodists ; the " first principles " of the Campbellites, 
and the "universal suffrage" of the Presbyterians; 
while their views on baptism, the "perseverance of 
the Saints," backsliding and restoration, read like a 
desperate attempt to combine the doctrines of the 
Campbellites, Methodists, and Cumberland Presby 
terians. Finally, they are Millenarians in their speedy 
expectation of Christ s earthly reign ; almost Uni- 
versalists in the belief that a very small portion of 
mankind will finally fail of any heaven ; Spiritualists 
in their faith that the unseen powers produce special 
and actual visible effects on earth, though by natural 
laws, and Communists in their system of public works. 
But it is in regard to the personality and life of Christ 
that their ideas seem most strange and blasphemous. 
They hold that He was the literally begotten, that he 
had five wives while upon earth, two of whom were 
Martha and Mary, and thus actually violated the law 
under which He lived ; at the same time they vaguely 
unite the views of the Greek and Latin Fathers, hold 
ing Him both the Logos and the Aeon, the Mediator 
and the God-man. 

The question which for five centuries agitated the 


early Church as to the personality of Christ, the homo- 
ousian and the homoiousian, the " same substance " or 
the "similar substance," can have no place in their 
theology ; they have boldly evaded it by obliterating 
all distinction, either in form, substance or develop 
ment, between God and man ; both are alike material 
and differ only in degree. Met at the outset by the 
difficulty of comprehending God, they simplified it by 
making, their Deity a "perfected man." This part of 
their theology, then, as far as it is the result of earnest 
and sincere thought on the part of its devotees, merely 
presents itself to my mind as another one of the ten 
thousand schemes of man to get away from that dogma 
which must be received on faith, simply because it is 
utterly beyond the grasp of finite reason. For nearly 
two thousand years the Christian Church has presented 
for the world s acceptance a Being, not all of earth, not 
all of heaven, yet perfect earth and perfect heaven ; has 
asked the world to believe in the God-Man, the Divine- 
Human, the humanly inexplicable mystery of " God 
made manifest in tlie flesh." But man is unable of his 
own reason alone to receive this truth ; and there is an 
intense desire in the natural mind to know more of God 
and hidden things personally, to see or hear them face 
to face. Man would pry into the hidden mysteries of 
Providence, which we are told " the angels desired to 
look into and were not able ;" at the same time the 
carnal mind is unwilling to use the appointed means 
whereby only this knowledge may be obtained; to 
study the written Word, to do the works therein com 
manded, and rise to that degree of moral purity by 


which alone his conception of unseen things can be 
heightened and made harmonious. He would be gross, 
sensual and earthy; and at the same time comprehend 
the pure and heavenly. The two are incompatible. 
Hence, dissatisfied with his own condition and without 
the moral energy to amend it, discontented with the 
truth offered yet unwilling to take the required course 
to gain more truth, he seeks for some shorter, easier 
way, some method more consonant with a .corrupt 
nature, to satisfy his mind and perhaps quiet an 
awakened conscience. This natural feeling of the 
human mind is seized upon by impostors, sometimes 
" the man with a purpose," and sometimes the dupe of 
their own fancies; and hence from age to age the ten 
thousand short lived sects, diverging now to the in 
tensely material and again to the ultra spiritual, but 
still departing from the great central line of the Church. 
In our own da,y, Spiritualism complains that the 
Church is too material, too earthy and secular; that 
man finds therein no supply for the wants of his spirit 
ual nature, and they seek therefor a corrective : the 
Mormons, diverging to the opposite extreme, complain 
that the Church is too speculative and mystical, too 
much given up to the vague and intangible; that their 
God "without body, parts or passions" is too far re 
moved from human sympathy, and for this they would 
find a corrective in the most intense materialism. And 
this reaction once begun, the only limit or law to filthy 
imagination, is the range or power of human fancy. 
The gross familiarity with which fanatics of all kinds 
speak of the Supreme Being, the Mormon claim of the 


office of the Holy Ghost, their polygamy, incest and 
blood atonement, are a necessary and logical result of 
this degrading conception of spiritual things. Nowhere 
through the long detail of their tenets is purity taught 
or hinted at. It is all pure selfishness, mere grossness, 
sexualism deifiecj and the domain of the senses made 
the empire of the universe. The Being, in whose sight 
"the heavens are not clean," who "put no trust in His 
servants and charged His angels with folly," who is far 
above all taint of earthliness, has no place in such a 
system. They have degraded the human conception 
of Deity, till He has become in their minds " altogether 
such a one as themselves." The heathen philosophers 
of two thousand years ago, with only the unaided light 
of reason, were infinitely their superiors; and Plato s 
Deity is as much more worthy of our adoration than 
Brigham s, as the loftiest conceptions of a refined and 
virtuous philosopher are above the impure imaginations 
of a sensualist. 




Poetry of religious concubinage Fanaticism and Sensualism Two ex 
tremes Origin of Polygamy The great revelation Its contradictions 
and absurdities Mormon argument Real origin Beginning of Polyg 
amy A prostitute for religion s sake Failures and Scandals War in 
the Church Stealing a Brother s wife Furore in consequence The 
Expositor Its destruction Death of the Smiths Polygamy practiced 
secretly and denied openly Brigham s marriages Nine years of con 
cealment Avowal at last Argument in its favor Demoralization in 
the English Church A climax of unnatural obscenity The "Refor 
mation Temporary decline in Polygamy Hostility of native Mor 
mon girls Outside influence Difference of opinion It dies hard 
Spiritual wives Mystery and abomination. 

THE occasional references hitherto in regard to " Pre- 
existence of the soul," " Sexual resurrection," " Progress 
in eternity" and " Generation of the gods," have pre 
pared the reader somewhat for special consideration of 
polygamy; but it is necessary also to look into its 
earthly history, and the reasons urged for its origin and 
continuance. And in these reasons we are surprised to 
find how captivating a veil of religious fancy may be 
thrown over an institution naturally and inherently 
vile. Gross forms of religious error seem almost in 
variably to lead to sensuality, to some singular perversion 
of the marriage relation or the sexual instinct ; probably 
because the same constitution of mind and temperament 
which gives rise to the one, powerfully predisposes toward 
the other. The fanatic is of logical necessity either an 


ascetic or a sensualist; healthy moderation is foreign 
alike to his speculative faith and social practice. He 
either gives full rein to his baser propensities under 
the specious name of " Christian liberty," or with a little 
more conscientiousness, swings to the opposite extreme 
and forbids those innocent gratifications prompted by 
nature and permitted by God. Of the former class are 
the Mormons, Noyseites of Oneida, the Antinomians, 
and the followers of St. John of Ley den; of the latter 
the Shakers, Harmonists, monks and nuns, and a score 
of orders of celibate priests. 

The Mormons are particular to declare that they 
never would have practical polygamy, except in accord 
ance with an express revelation from God ; and though 
they occasionally defend it on various physiological and 
scriptural grounds, they always fall back upon the ex 
press command. This revelation is said to have been 
given at Nauvoo, Illinois, July 12, 1843. It was first 
published in the Deseret News Extra, of September 14, 
1852, and next in the April number, 1853, of the Mil 
lennial /Star, Liverpool, England ; and is contained at 
full length in Burton s " City of the Saints," and many 
other publications. It is too long and discursive to 
quote entire, and I sectionize it for convenient reference. 

1. The revelation opens with this remarkable state 
ment, the Lord represented as speaking : 

" Yerily, thus saith the Lord unto you, my servant 
Joseph, that inasmuch as you have inquired at my hand 
to know wherein I, the Lord, justified my servants 
Abraham, Isaac and Jacob; as also Moses, David and 
Solomon, my servants, as touching tne principle and 


doctrine of their having many wives and concubines ; 
behold, and lo, I am the Lord and will answer thee as 
touching this matter," etc. 

It will not escape notice, that as here stated Joseph 
had asked the Lord about the matter. We cannot but 
wonder whether it would have been revealed at all, 
without this preliminary questioning. Many good Mor 
mons think it would not, and Mormon ladies frequently 
express a pious regret that the Prophet ever asked 
about it ! The section concludes by denouncing dam 
nation upon all who reject the new gospel. 

2. This section states that, " All covenants, contracts, 
bonds, obligations, oaths, vows, performances, connec 
tions, associations or expectations that are not made 
and entered into, and sealed by the Holy Spirit of 
promise of him who is anointed," are void in eternity, 
and only good for this world. 

It sets forth also with great verbosity of language, 
that " God s house, is a house of order." 

3. The same principle is applied to the marriage 
covenant, stating that all who are not married " and 
sealed according to the new and everlasting covenant," 
are married for this world only, and shall not be en 
titled to their respective partners in eternity, but shall 
continue " angels only, and not gods, kept as ministers 
to those who are worthy of a far more exceeding and 
eternal weight of glory." 

4. Description of the future glory of those who keep 
the new covenant : " Then shall they be gods because 
they have no end ; there they shall be from everlasting 
to everlasting, because they continue ; then shall they 


be above all, because all things are subject unto them. 
Then shall they be gods, because they have all power, 
and the angels are subject unto them 

5. To such are forgiven all manner of crimes, ex 
cept murder, " wherein they shed innocent blood," and 
blasphemy against the Holy Ghost. Apostasy, be it no 
ted, is the worst form of the latter sin. 

6. This section explains the cases of Abraham and 
other ancient polygamists at great length, concluding by 
citing David as an example of how men lose their " ex 
altation " by abusing their privileges : " In none of 
these things did he sin against me, save in the case of 
Uriah and his wife, and, therefore, he hath fallen from 
his exaltation and received his position ; and he shall 
not inherit them out of the world, for I gave tl\em unto 
another, saith the Lord." 

7. Great power is conferred upon Joseph Smith to 
regulate all such celestial marriages, punish for adultery, 
and take away the wives of the guilty and give them 
to good men. 

8. This section gives very full and explicit instruc 
tions to Emma Smith, wife of Joseph, how to conduct 
herself under the new dispensation ; that she " receive 
all those that have been given unto my servant Joseph, 
who are virtuous and pure before me," and threatening 
her with destruction if she do not. 

9. The revelation changes abruptly and gives Joseph 
Smith full directions how to manage his property ; par- 
ticulary " let not my servant Joseph put his property 
out of his hands, lest an enemy come and destroy him," 
and threatening severely all who injure him. 


The reader familiar with the old Revised Statutes of 
Illinois, would be surprised to find the Lord talking so 
much like a Justice of the Peace. 

10. The revelation comes, at last, to the gist of the 
matter and grants plurality of wives, in these words : 

" And again, as pertaining to the law of the priest 
hood : If any man espouse a virgin and desires to es 
pouse another, and the first give her consent ; and if he 
espouse the second, and they are virgins, arid have 
vowed to no other man, then is he justified ; he cannot 
commit adultery for they are given unto him ; for he 
cannot commit adultery with that that belongeth unto 
him and to none else ; and if he have ten virgins given 
unto him by this law, he cannot commit adultery for 
they belong to him and are given unto him ; therefore 
is he justified. They are given unto him to multiply 
and replenish the earth according to my commandment, 
and to fulfil the promise which was given by my 
Father before the foundation of the world; and for 
their exaltation in the eternal worlds, that they may 
bear the souls of men ; for herein is the work of my 
Father continued, that he may be glorified." 

11. Heavy punishment is threatened to all women 
who refuse, without good cause, to give their husbands 
second wives ; concluding as follows : " And now, as 
pertaining unto this law, verily, verily, I say unto you, 
I will reveal more unto you hereafter ; therefore, let 
this suffice for the present. Behold, I am Alpha and 
Omega. Amen." 

Such is the revelation. Space fails me to note all its 
contradictions and absurdities. One, however, is worthy 


of special remark. In the eighth section Emma Smith 
is commanded to receive lovingly " all those that have 
been given unto my servant Joseph." The past tense 
is used. Thus the first revelation authorizing polygamy 
implies that Joseph had already practiced it. Stranger 
still, polygamy is expressly forbidden by the " Book of 

In the third book and second chapter of that work, 
the angel messenger is represented as saying to the 
Nephites : " But the word of God burdens me because 
of your grosser crimes. For this people begin to wax in 
iniquity ; they understand not the scriptures, for they 
seek to excuse themselves in committing whoredoms, 
because of the things that were written concerning 
David and Solomon, his son. They, truly, had many 
wives and concubines which thing was abominable be 
fore me, saith the Lord, wherefore, hearken unto the 
word of the Lord, for there shall not any man among 
you have save it be one wife, and concubines he shall 
have none, for I, the Lord God, delighteth in the 
chastity oiXwomen." 

It has exhausted all the ingenuity of Mormon writers 
to reconcile this passage with the new revelation, but 
they succeed in doing so sufficiently to satisfy their con 
sciences. The Mormon history relates that when the 
full force of the new covenant was perceived the 
Prophet was filled with astonishment and dread. All 
the traditions of his early education were overthrown, 
and yet he felt that it was the work of the Lord. In 
vain he sought to be released from the burden of com 
municating the new doctrine to the world, and at length 



obtained permission to keep it secret, as yet, from all 
but the Twelve Apostles, and a few other leading men. 
As the hour approached when he was to meet them in 
council, horror and fear of what might be the result over 
came him, and he hastily mounted his horse and fled 
from the city. But a mighty angel met him on the road, 
stood in the way with a drawn sword, and with awful 
voice and offended mien bade him return. 

These pretended forebodings were fully justified by 
the event, for, in spite of the secresy maintained, the 
matter was soon bruited abroad, and there was fearful 
commotion in "Zion." Old Mormons have told me that 
when they first heard it they were horror-stricken at 
the thought, and for years after could not believe the 

When the matter was first broached in secret council, 
William Law, First Counselor to Joseph Smith, stood 
up and denounced it as from the devil, and added : " If 
any man preaches that doctrine in my family, I will 
take his life." This Law had a young and beautiful 
wife, for whom Joseph was already intriguing, and his 
final success with her and attempt to get her divorced 
from her husband, caused the latter to apostatize, and 
had no small share in bringing on the difficulties which 
resulted in Joseph s death. 

As might be expected, the men were the first converts 
Joseph and a few others began soon to act upon their 
new privileges. Joseph seems to have been pretty suc 
cessful, and soon had half-a-dozen spiritual wives, though 
all was still kept secret. While soliciting ladies tc 
become "sealed" to him, he made several unsuccessful 


attempts, which caused great scandal. In particular, 
his doings were published by Miss Martha H. Brother- 
ton, who immediately withdrew from the Church ; also 
by Miss Eliza Rigdon, daughter of Sidney Kigdon, Mrs. 
Foster, and Mrs. Sarah Pratt, first wife of Orson Pratt. 

Great was the fury among the Saints at these revela 
tions, and every epithet a vile fancy could suggest was 
heaped upon these ladies, for what were styled " their 
perjured lies to injure the Prophet." One of them was 
forced to sign a written retraction ; another, discarded 
and denounced by her Mormon parents, died of a broken 
heart. Miss Brotherton escaped and returned to Boston, 
while Foster, Higbee, and a few others, whose families 
had been insulted, apostatized. For awhile the disso 
lution of the Church seemed imminent, but the mingled 
boldness and hfpy^crisy of the Prophet restored some 
thing like order, and polygamy was indignantly de 
nounced and repudiated. 

At this place in our narrative, having given the 
Mormon account, it may be well to give the real origin 
of polygamy. In the Mormon archives are a set of 
phrenological charts, of the various Mormon leaders at 
Nauvoo, taken by a prominent professor. In the chart 
of Joseph Smith s head, in a scale running from one to 
twelve, " amativeness," or sexual passion, is recorded at 
eleven; while that of Bennett, his "right hand man," 
is set down at " ten very full !" In the propensity 
which these are held to indicate, was the real origin of 
polygamy. A prominent Mormon says that Joseph 
Smith informed him that, as early as 1832, he had pre 
liminary revelations upon the subject ; and it is a no to- 


rious fact, that almost from the first, the Prophet had 
lised his powers of fascination to triumph over the 
virtue of his female devotees, and had anticipated polyg 
amy in accordance with revelation, by unauthorized 
promiscuous intercourse. His intrigues with various 
women had involved the rising sect in constant trouble 
at Kirtland and in Missouri ; and by the sworn testimony 
of the best men who seceded from the Mormons in Mis 
souri, the Prophet had already established a sort of 

Shortly after the settlement of Nauvoo also, Sidney 
Eigdon had advanced his " spiritual wife " doctrine, 
which regular Mormons now denounce as the great 
mystery of abominations, " sent by the devil to bring 
dishonor upon the true order of celestial marriage." 
Rigdon s theory of " Spiritual wifery," as reported by 
old Mormons, was as follows : 

In the pre-existent state souls are mated, male and 
female, as it is divinely intended they shall fill the mar 
riage relation in this life ; or, in more poetic phrase> 
" marriages are made in heaven." But in the general 
jumble of contradictions and cross-purposes attending 
man in this state, many mistakes have been made in 
this matter ; A. has got the woman first intended for 
B., the latter has got C s true mate, and thus on, utterly 
defeating the counsel of the gods in the pre-marriage 
of the spirits. But the time had come for all this to 
be set right, and though they might not put aside their 
present wives, which would throw society somewhat 
out of gear, yet Smith might in addition, exercise the 
privileges of husband toward Brown s wife and vice versa. 


This seems to have been merely the Mormon version 
of modern " free-loveism," and from recent evidence it 
is quite probable it also was practiced to some extent 
in Nauvoo, thus making polygamy equally free to men 
and women ; but it is quite different, in theory at least, 
from the present " spiritual wifeism " of the Mormons, 
as will presently appear. 

But Rigdon s doctrines were both varying and dan 
gerous, and he lacked the faculty of concealment ; so he 
was soon condemned, and his doctrines with him. 

As the first open hints of the new doctrine, in the 
autumn of 1843, excited so much contention, and as 
the indignation of the people of Illinois was justly 
feared, orders were given to all the traveling elders to 
persistently deny the doctrine. On the first of Febru 
ary, 1844, the Times and Seasons, church paper at Nau 
voo, contained the following : 


"As we have lately been credibly informed, that an 
Elder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day 
Saints, by the name of Hyrum Brown, has been preach 
ing Polygamy, and other false and corrupt doctrines, in 
the County of Lapeer, and State of Michigan : 

" This is to notify him and the Church in general, 
that he has been cut off from the Church for his 
iniquity; and he is further notified to appear at the 
Special Conference, on the 6th of April next, to make 

answer to these charges. 

Presidents of the Church* 


The Gentiles appear not to have been well enough 
posted on the subject to pay much heed to the "Notice," 
but it excited no little commotion among the Mormons, 
who had heard or received reports from others of the 
doctrine ; and on the day appointed a large number of 
the disaffected, and a few resident Gentiles, were present. 
Hyrum Smith arose and stated that "great reports had 
been bruited * about of schism in Zion, and, no doubt, 
many were present, hoping to witness dissension ; but 
all such hopes were vain, the Lord had healed all back- 
slidings, there would be no charges made, and the day 
would be spent in prayer and other exercises ;" and 
spent it was accordingly. Six weeks afterwards, Hyrum 
found it necessary to write as follows : 

"NAuvoo, March 15, 1844. 

66 To the Brethren of the Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter-Day Saints, living on China Greek, in 
Hancock County, Greeting : 

"Whereas, Brother Richard Hewett has called on 
me to-day, to know my views concerning some doc 
trines that are preached in your place, and states to me 
that some of your Elders say, that a man, having a cer 
tain priesthood, may have as many wives as he pleases, 
and that doctrine is taught here : I say unto you that 
that man teaches false doctrine, for there is no such 
doctrine taught here, neither is there any such thing 
practiced here; and any man that is found teaching 
privately or publicly any such doctrine, is* culpable, and 
will stand a chance to be brought before the High 
Council/ and lose his license and membership also ; 
therefore he had better beware what he is about." 


This letter will also be found in the 5th volume of 
the Times and Seasons, page 474. But affairs had gone 
too far ; a powerful schism broke out in the bosom of 
the Church, and William Law, Dr. Foster, Chauncey 
L. Higbee, Francis M. Higbee, and a number of other 
apostates commenced preaching openly against the 
Prophet, and established at Nauvoo a paper called the 
Expositor, devoted to making war upon the new system. 
But they only issued one number, which contained six 
teen affidavits, mostly from ladies, setting forth the 
licentious actions of Joseph Smith and Brigham Young. 
Joseph was at that time not only Prophet, Priest, and 
Revelator, but also Mayor of the City and Major-Gen 
eral of the Nauvoo Legion. Such a daring publication 
in the stronghold of his power was not to be tolerated. 
So he hastily convened the City Council, who, at his 
suggestion, declared the Expositor a "public nuisance," 
and ordered that it be "at once abated." The City 
Marshal and his posse forthwith attacked the office and 
abated it in the literal meaning of that word, and in 
the Mormon fashion, by breaking the press and scatter 
ing the type. The publishers fled for their lives, and, 
proceeding to Carthage, the county-seat of Hancock 
County, procured warrants against several Mormons, 
under the State law of Illinois, determined to test the 
legality of such extensive jurisdiction by the Council. 
Both the Smiths were finally arrested and murdered in 
jail, as more fully related elsewhere. 

After their death the policy of concealment was con 
tinued. In July, 1845, Parley P. Pratt, in the Millen 
nial Star, Mormon publication at Liverpool, England, 


denounced " spiritual wifery" as a " doctrine of devils 
and seducing spirits; but another name for whoredom, 
wicked and unlawful connection, and every kind of cor 
ruption, confusion and abomination ;" and in the follow 
ing year the General Conference of Europe denounced 
both the doctrine and practice in the strongest terms. 
In May, 1848, the Millennial Star called for the ven 
geance of heaven on all the liars who charged " such 
odious practices as spiritual wifeism and polygism" 
upon the Church ; ending with the following : 

" In all ages of the Church truth has been turned 
into a lie, and the grace of God converted into lascivi- 
ousness, by men who have sought to make a gain of 
godliness/ and feed their lusts on the credulity of the 
righteous and unsuspicious. * * * Next to the long- 
hackneyed and bug-a-boo whisperings of polygism is 
another abomination that sometimes shows its serpen 
tine crests, which we shall call sexual resurrectionism. 
* * * * The doctrines of corrupt spirits are always in 
close affinity with each other, whether they consist in 
spiritual wifeism, sexual resurrection, gross lascivious- 
ness, or the unavoidable separation of husbands and 
wives, or the communism of property." 

In July, 1850, Elder John Taylor held a discussion 
at Boulogne, France, with three English clergymen. 
They quoted from the anti-Mormon works then just 
published by J. C. Bennett and J. B. Bowes, which 
charged polygamy as a practice of the Church; to 
which Taylor made the following reply: "We are 
accused here of polygamy, and actions the most indeli 
cate, obscene and disgusting, such that none but a cor- 


rupt heart could have contrived. These things are too 
outrageous to admit of belief. Therefore, leaving the 
sisters of the white veil and the 6 black veil/ and 
all the other veils with those gentlemen to dispose of, 
together with their authors, as they think best, I shall 
content myself by reading our views of chastity and 
marriage from a work published by us, containing some 
of the articles of our faith." He then read from the 
"Doctrines and Covenants" which was adopted in full 
conference the year after Smith s death, the following : 

"4. * * * Inasmuch as this Church of Christ has 
been reproached with the crime of fornication and 
polygamy ; we declare that we believe that one man 
should have one wife ; and one woman but one hus 
band, except in case of death, when either is at liberty 
to marry again." 

The italics are my own. As a specimen of Mormon 
reasoning, it may here be added, they now insist that 
in the above clause " one wife " really meant of course 
" one or more ;" that the adversative " but " was added 
in case of the woman to cut off any such free rendering 
in her case, and that the clause was so worded " to 
specially deceive the Gentiles and yet tell the exact 
truth." They further add that, " under certain circum 
stances the Lord allows His priesthood to lie in order to 
save His people ; it would not do to give strong meat to 
little children ; they must first be fed with milk, and 
when they get stronger they can have meat : so with 
the truth, they must be taught it little at a time." 

The foreign Mormons were thus kept in perfect 
ignorance of the matter, and were highly indignant 


when the charge was made ; still, as it was practiced, 
reports of ,it were constantly made and generally be 
lieved throughout the United States. 

Brigham Young soon became head of the Church, 
and took for his second wife Lucy Decker Seely, who 
had previously been divorced from Doctor Seely. Not 
long after, at their winter quarters near Council Bluffs, 
Iowa, he married Harriet Cook, whose son, Oscar 
Young, is the first child in polygamy. He is now a 
young man of twenty-two or three, bright, active and 
intelligent, and a great favorite with his Gentile friends, 
though a little to be dreaded sometimes on account of 
his savage temper when angry. 

This marriage was followed by those of Clara Decker, 
Clara Chase, Lucy Bigelow, Harriet Bowker and Har 
riet Barney. Mary Ann Angell Young, the original 
wife of Brigham, still lives in a house of her own, just 
back of the Lion house. She had five children Brig- 
ham, Joseph, John, Alice and Luna; all are married 
and living in Salt Lake City. Brigham was at first a 
widower and the two daughters of his first wife, now 
middle-aged ladies, are both married and living in Utah. 
A few years after leaving Nauvoo, Brigham married 
Emmeline Free, who was for many years his favorite 
wife, and often styled among Gentiles, " the Light of 
the Harem." She was finally discarded, some six 
years ago, for Amelia Folsom, his youngest wife and 
present favorite. It is, of course, impossible to tell 
with exactness the number.of his wives, but those best 
informed place them at twenty-three actual wives, and 
fifty-one spiritual. Miss Eliza Boxy Snow, the Mor- 


mon poetess, is one of his spiritual wives, or " proxy " 
women, and is married to him by proxy for Joseph 
Smith, of whom she claims to have been the first 
spiritual wife. 

Meanwhile the Saints had become firmly fixed in 
Utah, where it seems that " Gentiles, their laws and 
mobs would annoy no more;" and the necessity for 
concealment no longer existed. So the doctrine was 
more and more openly discussed, and finally, on the 
29th of August, 1852, it was publicly announced by 
Brigham Young in a meeting at Salt Lake City, where 
the revelation was for the first time publicly read and 
pronounced valid. The sermons in its favor, by Orson 
Pratt and Brigham Young, were first published, to 
gether with the revelation, in the Deseret News, Extra, 
of September 14th, 1852. From Young s address I ex 
tract the following : 

" You heard Brother Pratt state, this morning, that 
a Revelation would be read this afternoon, which was 
given previous to Joseph s death. It contains a doc 
trine a small portion of the world is opposed to ; but I 
can deliver a prophecy upon it. Though that doctrine 
has not been preached by the Elders, this people have 
believed in it for years. 

" The original copy of this Revelation was burnt up. 
William Clayton was the man who wrote it from the 
mouth of the Prophet. In the meantime it was in 
Bishop Whitney s possession. He wished the privilege 
to copy it, which brother Joseph granted. Sister 
Emma (wife of Joseph Smith) burnt the original. The 
reason I mention this is, because that the people who 


did know of the Kevelation, supposed it was not now 
in existence. 

" The Revelation will be read to you. The principle 
spoken upon by Brother Pratt this morning, we be 
lieve in. Many others are of the same mind. They 
are not ignorant of what we are doing in our social 
capacity. They have cried out proclaim it ; but it would 
not do a few years ago ; everything- must come in its 
time, as there is a time for all things, I am now ready 
to proclaim it. 

" This Kevelation has been in my possession for 
many years ; and who has known it ? None but those 
who should know it. I keep a patent lock on my 
desk, and there does not anything leak out that should 

The people of Utah were prepared for the announce 
ment, but polygamy was too " strong doctrine " for Eu 
rope, and when first published there, in April, 1853, it 
seemed that even then it would destroy the foreign 
Church. In England, especially, the demoralization 
was fearful ; hundreds after hundreds apostatized, whole 
churches and conferences dissolved ; talented knaves in 
many instances, finding in this the excuse for going off 
without surrendering the money-bags which they keld. 
The missions entirely disappeared in many parts of 
Europe, and even in America, thousands of new con 
verts who had not gone to " Zion," turned away and 
joined the Josephites, Gladdenites, Strangites, and other 
sects of recusant Mormons. 

The Millennial Star remained silent on the subject 
for weeks after publishing the revelation, coming out at 


length with a feeble defence of the system, from the 
pen of J. Jaques, a leading Mormon polemic. The 
fact was the people did not understand the new idea, 
they did not see the spiritual necessities for it ; they 
had so far believed that Mormonism was simply an ad 
vance in Christianity, and could not feel that " in this 
the fullness of time, the ancient covenant was restored 
with all its privileges." But in Utah a great rush was 
made for new wives ; old men traded for young girls, 
and the new order was hailed as the great crowning joy 
and privilege of believers. Polygamy continued ex 
tending until that period known "as the " Reformation " 
in 1855-56, when the whole Church was re-baptized, 
and a new point of departure taken. Then the new 
practice seemetj for awhile to reach a furious climax 
of unnatural and degrading obscenity. The duty and 
importance of polygamy were presented every Sunday ; 
hundreds of girls of only twelve or thirteen years were 
forced or persuaded into its practice ; and in numerous 
instances even younger girls were " sealed " to old rep 
robates, with an agreement on the part of the latter to 
wait until the girls were more mature and suited to act 
the part of wives. Hundreds of instances occurred 
which would be utterly incredible at present were they 
not fully proved by many authentic witnesses. Old 
men met openly in the streets and traded daughters, 
and whole families of girls were married to the same 
man. This was the period when polygamy reached its 
worst manifestation, and bad as it is now, gross as many 
of its features still are, it was*ten-fold worse then. Wo 
men of my acquaintance at Salt Lake City, who were 


children at the time, have told me of occurrences during 
that period which would indicate an almost incredible 
reign of lust and fanaticism. Divorce also became so 
common that these marriages scarcely amounted to more 
than promiscuous intercourse. I met one woman who 
had been divorced and re-married six times, and an old 
Mormon once pointed out to me a woman who had 
once been his wife, and had been divorced and re-mar 
ried nine times. In numerous instances a young girl 
would be married to some prominent elder, with whom 
she would reside a few months, after which she would 
be divorced and married to another and again to another, 
" going the rounds," as the phrase was, of half a dozen 

A general demoralization seemed to seize upon the 
community; vulgarity of language, both in public 
address and private speech, became so common that 
thousands of Mormons were themselves disgusted, and 
a reaction set in against such excesses. It would seem 
that Brigham also became alarmed at the tendency, 
and, as he had been greatly annoyed by applications 
for divorce, commenced exacting a heavy fee for the 
service. The period of comparative starvation which 
followed, during the winters of 1856-7, may have had 
something to do with checking the prevailing tendency, 
but certain it is, there has been no such general license 

The entrance of Johnston s army, too, indirectly pro 
duced a great effect ; stage and mail lines were fully 
established; Utah was brought into much closer re 
lations with the rest of the world, a considerable Gentile 



influence began to manifest itself, sources of information 
were multiplied and polygamy began to be unpopular 
with the young women of Utah. In this regard, then, 
Mormon history may be divided into three periods : 

I. The monogamic period: from its origin till 1843, 
during which time all their publications and sermons, 
were opposed to polygamy in their tone. 

II. The transition period: from 1843 till 1852, when 
polygamy was secretly taught and extended, but openly 
denied and condemned. 

III. The polygamic period : from 1852 to the present, 
in all which time polygamy has been avowed and de 
fended as an essential part of Mormon religion. The 
third period might properly again be divided into an 
era of rise and one of decline ; for it is evident that 
polygamy culminated in all its worst features as early 
as 1856, since which time it has been slowly on the 
decline, and even without Government interference 
would hardly have endured much more than another 
generation. In these last statements I am aware that 
I differ from some whose evidence carries the weight of 
authority, particularly Judges Drake and Titus, and 
other United States officials who have lately testified 
before the Congressional Committee on Territories. 
Nevertheless, such is my conclusion from a mass of evi 
dence given by persons both in and out of the Mormon 
Church, and from a careful examination of the records. 
That polygamy has declined in the last five years is 
quite certain, from causes both within and without the 
Church ; it is now almost impossible to induce a young 
girl brought up in Salt Lake City, or the northern set- 


tlements, to enter that condition, and the instances of 
plural marriage are confined almost entirely to young 
women just brought from Europe. 

Of their theology as it relates to polygamy, but little 
need be added. It is so thoroughly grafted into and in 
terwoven with their whole system, that at no point can 
one be touched without attacking the other. Polygamy 
is not, as recusant Mormons assert, a mere addition by 
Brigham Young to the original faith ; it is a necessary 
and logical outgrowth of the system. If Mormonism 
be true, then polygamy is right ; for " pre-existence of 
the soul," " progression of the gods," and all other pe 
culiarities of the system, depend by a thousand combi 
nations and inter-relations upon the plurality system. 
A man s or woman s glory in eternity, is to depend upon 
the size of the family ; for a woman to remain childless 
is a sin and calamity, and she cannot secure "exal 
tation," as the wife of a Gentile or an apostate ; her 
husband s rank in eternity must greatly depend upon 
the number of his wives, and she will share in that 
glory whatever it is. All this points unerringly to 
polygamy. Hence, also, the last feature of this com 
plex and unnatural relationship, known as " spiritual 
wives," which is to be understood as follows : Any 
woman, having an earthly husband of whose final ex 
altation she is in doubt, may be "sealed for eternity" 
to some prominent Mormon, who will raise her and 
make her part of his final kingdom. In theory this 
gives the spiritual husband no marital rights, but, as 
stated by Elder John Hyde, the noted apostate, "it 
may well be doubted whether the woman who can pre- 


fer another man for her pseudo-eternal husband, has 
not fallen low enough to sin in deed, as well as thought, 
against her earthly husband." 

By " marriage for the dead," living women are sealed 
to dead men, and vice versa, some one "standing proxy" 
for the deceased. Thus, a widow and widower may each 
prefer their first partners " for eternity," but like each 
other well enough "for time;" in which case they are 
first sealed to each other " for time," then each, by 
proxy for the departed " for eternity," thus requiring 
three separate ceremonies to settle the temporal and 
eternal relations of all parties, who may in turn be 
divorced from either by Brigham Young and the Pro 
bate Courts. So a man may have a wife " for time," 
who belongs to some man already dead " for eternity," 
in which case all the children will belong to the latter 
in eternity, the living man merely " raising up seed 
unto his dead brother." To such lengths of vain 
imaginings may a credulous people be led by artful 





Open evils and hidden sufferings Miss S. E. Oarmichael s testimony 
Mormon sophistry The sexual principle Its objects Theory and facts 
Monogamist vs. Poly garnist Turk, Persian and African vs. the Chris 
tian White The same effects in Utah Jealousy and misery Children 
of different wives Cultivated indifference Hatred among children 
Brigham s idea of parental duty Are the Mormon women happy ? 
Submission and silence Degradation of women Mormon idea of polite 
ness Heber C. Kimball and his " cows " " My women " Slavery of 
sex Moses and Mohammed outdone Incest Marrying a whole family 
Robert Sharkey Reinorse and suicide Uncle and niece Bishop 
Smith and his nieces Mixture of blood Horrible crimes Half-brother 
and sister The Prophet " sold "The doctrine of incest " Too strong 
now, but the people will come to it" Now openly avowed Brothers 
and sisters to marry for a "pure priesthood" Testimony of Wm. 
Hepworth Dixon Father and daughter may marry Effects upon the 
young Infant mortality Large average-mortality Fatal blindness 
The growing youth Demoralization Youthful depravity No hope for 
young men and women Sophistry and madness Ancient sensualism 
to be revived. 

THE worst period of polygamy has passed, but its 
evil effects continue in full force to the present. At the 
outset I meet with a difficulty in describing its greatest 
evils. As formerly stated, the virtues of Mormonism 
are all easily seen, while its vices are, as much as possi 
ble, hidden, and this is peculiarly the case with 

We can see its evils in a political point of view, in 
their laws, to some extent in their society, in the mix 
ture of population and the blood of near kindred ; but 


who can enter into the penetralia of the affections, 
weigh and .estimate woman s anguish, count the heart- 
drops of sorrow, and say, here is so much misery, or 
there is so much resignation. 

This last is by far the greatest evil of polygamy, and 
though it may be felt, and to some extent seen, it can 
never be described. 

Miss Sarah E. Carmichael, now Mrs. Williamson, 
who was reared at Salt Lake, says : " If I were a man, 
as I am a woman, I would stand in the halls of Con 
gress, and cry aloud for the miserable women of Utah, 
till the world should hear and know the wrongs and 
miseries of polygamy." The Mormons argue that the 
laws of nature, physical nature, point out polygamy as 
the natural condition. There may be some argument 
in its favor in the physical organization,, but when we 
come to the soul and mind, the mentality of woman 
points unerringly to monogamy as her only possible 
state for domestic happiness; and any system which 
attempts to establish unity in the household by dividing 
one man s care and affection among two or three women, 
is founded upon a total misconception of the sexual 
principle. For, why was that principle so deeply im 
planted in the human nature? The Mormons would tell 
us " for the one purpose only, that men might increase." 
But a sound philosophy, and the history of mankind, 
show that this is but one of many reasons, though 
necessary and important, yet not all either of man s 
duty or happiness. 

In the nobler view this principle has at least three 
manifestations, and three objects to fulfil. 


First and lowest is a mere amativeness the feeling 
which the male animal has for the female common to 
man with the brutes. Its object is reproduction, its 
nobler uses, the perpetuation of our species. 

But far above this is a second division of the great 
principle, companionship, society, love of a congenial 
associate. With it is connected the admiration for 
beauty, grace and refinement, mutual help and protec 
tion, and the interchange of kind offices. Its public 
benefits are in the founding of families and establish 
ment of communities, and by it alone can the State be 
established, on aught approaching sure foundations. In 
this view then, marriage is not, as certain theorists 
would persuade us, a matter strictly between the indi 
viduals; the State has the highest interest in its 
regulation, and justly determines from the experience 
of the past what is best for the stability of our institu 
tions. But he who should stop at this point in the 
inquiry would have at last but a poor and mean view 
of the sexual principle or the marriage relation. 

As man is not all animal, but also a member of a 
family and community, one helping and needing help, 
a citizen and a debtor to the public weal ; so he is not 
all man, not all citizen, communist or worker ; he is, in 
part, divine, he has a nature in common with the angels. 
And in this deparmeiit of his nature, the great principle 
manifests itself as a high and holy affection, a pure re 
gard for what is pure, a silent adoration for that which 
is divine in the human ; its exercise and reward alike 
are in a complete intercommunion of soul and inter 
change of pure affection. 


And its very essence is duality ; a divided affection 
is utterly at war with "that sweet egotism of the heart 
called love/ that divine selfishness of choosing one 
being apart from all the world, perhaps the only form 
in which selfishness is approved of God. And the 
object of this principle is a higher development of the 
whole man, male and female ; this is the most noble 
object of the marriage relation, and by this alone is it 
sanctified. Can the wildest fanaticism or most earnest 
sophistry claim that aught of this can be found in the 
polygamic order ? The Mormon is but one-third mar 
ried ; he has in such unions provided for but one-third, 
and that the lowest, basest part of his nature. But, it 
may be said, this last is only a theory. Let us then 
briefly examine a few facts. That this indication is to 
be followed rather than the other, is abundantly shown 
by a comparative view of polygamous and monogamous 
nations. The Indian and native African know nothing 
of the softer sentiments which make life amiable and 
agreeable ; to them woman is merely a superior beast 
of burden ; they can purchase as many wives as their 
means command, and are, by nature, habit and religion, 
thorough-going polygamiste. Coming a little higher to 
the partially civilized races, we find a great improve 
ment, but nothing like Christian ideas. The Hindoo 
considers this such a poor world for women, that it is 
thought no particular harm to drown a female infant, 
though a heinous offence to thus dispose of a boy. The 
same is true, to some extent, of the Persians, Turks, 
and Mohammedan races, generally. Home, as under 
stood by us, is an unknown institution ; the harem 


takes its place, and polygamous customs have destroyed, 
to a great extent, the valor and energy of the men 
and the attractive graces of woman. 

In the march of progress, these nations are fast 
falling behind and sinking beneath the hardy vigor of 
Western Christians. History scarcely records an in 
stance where an organized nation of monogamists has 
fallen before polygamists. 

The monogamic Greeks, with a little army of forty 
thousand men, overran all the proud empires of South 
ern Asia; the effeminate Persians and Hindoos could 
not stand before the hardy valor of that people, who 
held, as a fixed principle, that the dignity of woman is 
the strength of the State. Monogamic Home com 
pleted what Greece had begun, in destroying the power 
of the Western Asiatics. For six hundred years the 
honor and dignity of the Roman matron were the sub 
jects of unwearied praise, till Rome herself was corrup 
ted by the nations she had conquered. The reign of 
the first Asiatic, who wore the Imperial purple, marks 
the beginning of a great decline, and Rome, in turn, 
fell before the hardy monogamists of Northern Eu 
rope. The Mohammedans easily overran Asia and 
Northern Africa, but in Europe their course was soon 
checked. The hosts of Abderahman melted like snow 
before the stout arms of the German nations, who left 
the plains of Poictiers covered with the corpses of three 
hundred thousand polygamists. 

But it may be said these comparisons are unfair, as 
setting civilized nations against semi-barbarians. But 
this fact makes a better comparison impossible, that th& 


lowest nation of monogamists is far above the highest 
of polyganiists. The white inhabitants of Utah are the 
only branch of the Caucasian race that have adopted 
polygamy within many hundred years. Of course we 
would look for certain results there, and if not seen at 
once, many would conclude that Utah was an exception 
to the general rule. But it is to be remembered that 
polygamy has been practiced among them but twenty- 
seven years. Nevertheless it has shown a marked and 
rapid tendency towards evil ; and in many of its features 
probably worse than in any Mohammedan country. 

The first result to be noted is a universal, and worse 
than Moslem jealousy, both among men and women. 
I have the testimony of dozens, brought up in the 
midst of the system, and several of them children of 
second wives, that such a thing as a harmonious family 
of many wives is unknown in their acquaintance. 
Others say there are such, but all admit they are rare. 
I am speaking now of the women and young people s 
testimony; the men will often claim the contrary, 
even when their own families disprove it. Among my 
acquaintances in Salt Lake City is a young lady, who 
is the daughter of a second wife, whose history illus 
trates this matter very forcibly. Her mother had lived 
in polygamy for fifteen years, and finally became con 
vinced that it was as sinful as she had found it miserable. 

The troubles of her mind brought on a mortal sick 
ness, when she called her daughter to her bedside, and 
told her that she had lived in misery, and was dying 
without hope ; that she was now convinced of her sin, 
and only desired her daughter to escape from it. 


The daughter as required, took a solemn oath never 
to enter polygamy. The mother told her to be firm, 
and her mother s spirit would protect her. Soon after 
she died, and the daughter left her father s house, at 
the age of fourteen, to reside with a relative who had 
apostatized, and though twice taken back, is now per 
mitted to live there unmolested. The father stands 
high in the Mormon Church, and still has four wives. 
During the first month of my stay in Salt Lake City, 
the second wife of a well known Mormon left him, and 
went to work in a hotel. After a short stay there, she 
took her child and started to Montana, when the hus 
band took out a writ of habeas corpus for the child ; the 
Sheriff overtook her thirty miles North, when, seeing 
him coming, she ran for the mountains, distant half a 
mile. She was overtaken and the child torn away from 
her, and brought to the city, which, of course, induced 
the mother to return. She was going with some emi 
grants who dared not assist her, for fear of Mormon 

Instances of like nature might be cited at will ; and 
it is only too plain, that the system results in the utter 
destruction of domestic love and harmony. The Mor 
mons themselves hesitatingly acknowledge, that the 
"thing called love among the Gentiles" cannot exist 
under their system ; but claim that they have instead, 
a purer feeling of respect, support and friendship^ 

Hence, it is quite the custom among the Mormon 
leaders, to speak of domestic affection and endear 
ments with a sort of sneer, or as something to be but 
rarely indulged in, and rather unworthy of the manly 


The Mormons claim that a man may love equally 
half a dozen women, as well as a mother may the same 
number of children, and that the women are satisfied 
with this divided affection ; but that this is not, and 
never can be the case, I need say to no one who 
has the slightest knowledge of the female heart. For a 
man to love six women, equally well, is manifestly im 
possible ; but it is possible for him to be equally indiffer 
ent to all. And to this does the teaching of the leaders 
directly tend ; rather than create a jealousy, or show a 
marked preference for one, they are to cultivate a mere 
equal respect for all. Nor is it often possible for a man, 
whose care and affection are divided between three or 
four women of varying charms and tempers, to regard 
equally the children of all ; if he have common affec 
tion, the most affectionate child will become his favor 
ite, and engross his attention; and thus jealousy, far 
from being confined to adults, rages equally in the 
bosoms of the young. This is seen and noticed in 
almost every family, and the story of Jacob s partial 
ity, and his children s jealousy, is repeated every 
day in the year. So greatly do these troubles mul 
tiply in the larger families, that in spite of their incli 
nation to secrecy, the parents are forced in bitterness 
of soul to make known their grievances. 

In one sermon, preached while I was at Salt Lake, 
Brigham Young made this remark : " The women are 
every day complaining of what they have to suffer in 
plurality. If it s any harder on them than it is on the 
men, God help them. Many of them seem to think a 
man in plurality has nothing to do but listen to their 


troubles, and run at their beck and call. I believe I 
have wives that would see me damned rather than not 
get every little furbelow they want." 

But the smaller families are happy in comparison, 
and it is within the walls of the larger harems, accord 
ing to all reports, that the demon of jealousy reigns 
supreme. Female nurses of Salt Lake say that it is no 
uncommon thing, in the better class of polygamous 
households, for a child to be born to one wife and all 
the others to remain sullenly in their rooms, unless 
specially called, apparently without interest or concern 
for the result. 

At first view it seems incredible that any woman 
should be indifferent under such circumstances ; and 
yet we can readily understand that a woman would be 
far from pleased at the birth of a child which was her 
husband s, but not hers. From the torment of such 
feelings there is no refuge but in a cultivated indifference, 
and such seems to be the ideal of all thorough Mormons 
in regard to the affections. 

Brigham Young himself is personally one of the 
coldest of men. According to one who knows his 
habits, he usually sleeps alone, in a small room behind 
his office ; and a woman ,who lived many years in his 
family, tells me she never saw him caress or pet but 
one of his children. In speaking to one of my Mormon 
acquaintances, Brigham gave the following as his idea 
of fatherly duty : " I pay no attention to the children, 
but leave that to their mothers, according to the law of 
nature. The bull pays no attention to his calves." 

In this sentence is embodied the social perfection of 


polygamy, as it will be "when the Lord has healed the 
Saints of all their old Gentilish traditions." The ques 
tion will, of course, be asked : Are the Mormon women 
happy ? It must be remembered that only one-third or 
one-fourth of all the women in Utah are in polygamy, 
either as first or subsequent wives; and, as to the rest, 
there is no particular cause for unhappiness from that 
source, except the constant dread that their husbands 
will take additional wives. These exceptions noted the 
testimony, as far as it can be had, is universal, that Mor- 
monism is a " hard faith for women." Again, it may be 
asked : What do the women say about it ? Generally, 
they say nothing. It is " sound Mormon doctrine," 
that the " first duty of a woman is submission, and the 
second silence ; " and, certainly, the majority of Utah 
women would gain heaven on those conditions. The 
most noticeable fact to a Gentile traveling through 
Mormon settlements is the strangely quiet way in 
which women discharge their household duties. 

They stand behind the guest at the way-side hotel, 
replenish the table and attend upon his wants, but 
never enter into the conversation, venture not the 
slightest observation or inquiry, and very rarely answer 
his questions in anything more than monosyllables. 
And those questions are few, for it is almost, if not 
quite, a capital crime in the Mormon code to "interfere 
with our ivomen" Such principles and such practice 
can tend only to the degradation of woman ; and this I 
note as the second great evil of polygamy. To Eastern 
minds it is quite impossible to convey a full comprehen 
sion of the many ways, the thousand little expressions, 


the tone of public and private manners, and the daily 
incidents in which is manifested this general lack of 
respect for women. This is so marked that it is a com 
mon subject of talk, even among themselves. Said a 
young Mormon woman, who had just married a Gentile, 
to me : "I don t know half a dozen men here who really 
respect their wives. It is a constant wonder to us, the 
way the Gentiles treat their women." 

I have often been amused at the appearance of their 
young women who were attending Gentile balls for the 
first time. That a gentleman should bow so reverently 
to his partner, that he should offer a lady his arm just 
to cross the room, that he should esteem it a pleasure 
rather than a favor, to bring a glass of water or the 
like, seems to excite their amazement. Social lines 
were closely drawn the winter of my stay in Salt 
Lake, and no young woman could venture to associate 
with the Gentiles, without losing her standing among 
Mormons entirely. Still, many found their way into 
Gentile society, though if they persisted in it, they 
were usually "cut off and dis-fellowshiped" by the 
Church authorities. 

The fanaticism of the Mormons is so great that 
they consider a woman "lost" if she associates with Gen 
tile men ; it is concluded at once that she can have no 
pure motive in so doing, and among their own people 
they possess the power to ruin a woman s character 
entirely. An old Mormon, at whose house I visited 
occasionally, seldom failed to give me his views of the 
absurdity of our common ideas of woman. His favorite 
style was to give me a burlesque representation of our 


mode of addressing ladies, and when he got warmed 
up on the subject, it was highly amusing to see him 
skip about the room, hat in hand, bowing and grimacing 
to the chairs, and imitating the dandified address 
of an exquisite. Most of the polygamists habitually 
speak of their wives as " my women," and in his 
jocular moments, while preaching, the late Heber C. 
Kimball often spoke of his facetiously as " my cows." 

I must say, however, that all of this is not due to 
polygamy, but much of it to the women themselves. 
Nearly all of them are of foreign birth, English, Welsh, 
Scotch and Scandinavian, and of that class, too, among 
whom men have never been accustomed to respect wo 
men very highly. I am sure polygamy could not have 
been established in a purely American community, and 
the Mormons themselves say that all the trouble and 
opposition comes from the American or Irish wives, 
though there are but few of the latter. 

But the vileness of Mormon polygamy, which gives 
it infamous pre-eminence over that of Jews, Turks and 
Hindoos, is yet to be described, and consist? in the 
grosser forms of incest, the intermarriage of near rela 
tions. In their general revolt against the ethics of 
Christendom, and attempt to found a society upon the 
most primitive models, they have disregarded alike the 
laws of Moses and Mohammed ; and if they have any 
example in modern times, it must be in the Utes and 
Shoshonees who surround them. To marry a mother 
and one or more of her daughters is even thought 
meritorious ; and the Mormon authorities often advise 
a man to marry sisters, as they usually agree better 
than others. 


Robert Sharkey, a merchant of Salt Lake City, 
married three sisters, one of whom was divorced from 
her first husband to marry him. They all lived in one 
house, and quite happily, it is said, for several years, 
when in some strange manner they all became con 
vinced that polygamy was wrong. One of the sisters 
started East, but soon returned and endeavored to make 
some arrangement for him to put away the other two. 
There were difficulties in the way, and Sharkey s 
trouble was so great on the subject that his mind be 
came disordered, and in August, 1868, he committed 
suicide by shooting himself through the head. The 
widowed sisters still live together, and are determined 
opponents of polygamy. Two of Brigham Young s 
favored wives, Clara Decker and Lucy Decker Seely, 
are sisters, the second having been the widow of Dr. 
Isaac Seely, of Nauvoo, Illinois. One family within 
my knowledge consists of two men and four women, 
the men s first wives being sisters, and their second 
wives each a sister of the other man, all living in one 
house. Or to state it mathematically : A and B, first 
marry sisters, then A marries B s sister, and B A s 
sister. Here is no marriage of blood relations, and yet 
it looks like a terrible mixture somewhere. 

The question arises for lawyers : Suppose each of the 
women to have children, what akin are they respec 
tively ? And which of them could lawfully marry 
according to Leviticus and Chancellor Kent ? If polyg 
amy continues, these mixtures are nothing to what 
must take place in the next generation, for without a 
chemical analysis no " heraldry Harvey " could ever 


succeed in finding the consanguineous circulation, to 
say nothing of the collateral. As it now is, it seems 
as if half the children in the city are related in some 
way or other to the Kimballs, the Pratts or the 
Youngs, and many to all three. If it stopped here, 
some faint excuse might be made ; but the marriage of 
uncle and niece has occurred often enough to establish 
it as a Mormon custom. Bishop Smith, of Brigham 
City, numbers two of his own brothers daughters among 
the inmates of his harem, " sealed " to him by Brig- 
ham Young, with a full knowledge of the relationship ; 
and in the southern settlements several such cases exist. 
As already stated, polygamy is but a mild affair north 
of Salt Lake City, compared with the southern settle 
ments ; and in the latter are found all the worst fea 
tures of Mormonism. There the bishop is absolute, 
spiritual guide, temporal governor and social tyrant; 
there are collected the most ignorant and degraded of 
the foreign converts ; the doctrines of Mormonism coin 
cide fully with the people s natural habits of thought ; 
respect for woman, who is practically a slave, is a thing 
unknown, and the marriage of near relatives is so com 
mon that to remark on it would itself be considered re 
markable. The marriage of first cousins is common, 
but I have heard of no case of aunt and nephew. The 
following affair seems too horrible for belief among any 
people in America ; but is as well proved as any fact 
can be by human testimony, particularly that of the 
woman herself who went out of the Territory with a 
military expedition fitted out under General Connor. 
Some sixteen years ago, a young Scotchman came to 


Salt Lake City in company with his half sister, who 
commenced keeping house for him. After a time he 
went to Brigham and professed a desire to marry the 
girl, citing the example of Abraham and his half sister 
Sarai. Brigham owned there was something in it. 
Abraham was an example in favor of polygamy, and 
why not in this ? He finally sent for the girl, and find 
ing her handsome and lively, solved the problem by 
marrying her himself; the half brother yielded to the 
Prophet s superior claim, and all was well. But in a 
few short weeks the lady s delicate condition showed 
too plainly that the amorous half brother had anti 
cipated marital rights, and Brigham found himself in a 
fair way to have an heir de jure that was not de san 
guine. Here was a problem. It would never do for 
the Prophet to acknowledge himself "sold," so he 
sent for the brother, told him he had reconsidered 
the matter, divorced the woman from himself, and 
delivered her to the brother, who dutifully received 
her from the arms of the Prophet. She lived with 
her half brother a few years as his wife, and bore 
him three children, but finally saw the degradation 
of her position, . and left for the States. This man 
still resides in Salt Lake City, is a prominent 
citizen, and seems to have neither blame nor shame 
attached to him. When I first heard of this and other 
instances of like nature, and heard the horrible doctrine 
of incest attributed to the Mormons, I could not but 
think it an invention of some bitter enemy of the sect ; 
but since then I have heard it fully avowed by the 
same prominent Mormon, whose testimony is given in 


chapter ninth. Referring to the cases above, he said : 
" That is the law of God under the new dispensation. 
Things are allowed under one dispensation which are 
not under others. As it was with Abel and Abraham, 
so it will be again. The day will soon come, wheu 
brothers and sisters will marry. Shouldn t I prefer 
my own blood to any other? Don t I love my own 
blood best?" Still another Mormon avers, that "to 
have a pure priesthood, we may in time have to follow 
the example of the doves in their nest, as Christ meant 
it to be understood." This doctrine was first advanced 
by Brigham from the pulpit several years ago, but was 
received with such undisguised manifestations of sur 
prise and disgust, that he ceased to pursue it further, 
closing with the remark : " Well it s a little too strong 
doctrine for you now ; but the time will be, when you 
will take it in fully." Since then the subject has gen 
erally been avoided " at head-quarters," but cannot be 
altogether denied. Brigham has never favored but 
one Gentile with his views on the subject, viz. : Wm. 
Hepworth Dixon, who gives the following statement in 
his late work entitled " New America : " 

" Perhaps it would not be too much to say that in 
the Mormon code there is no such crime as incest, and 
that a man is practically free to woo and wed any 
woman who may take his eye. 

"We have had a very strange conversation with Young 
about the Mormon doctrine of incest. I asked him 
whether it was a common thing among the Saints to 
marry mother and daughter ; and, if so, on what au- 



thority they acted, since that kind of union was not 
sanctioned, either by the command to Moses or by the 
revelation to Smith. When he hung back from ad 
mitting that such a thing occurred at all, I named a 
case in one of the city wards, of which we had obtained 
some private knowledge. 

" Apostle Cannon said that in such case, the first mar 
riage would be only a form; that the elder female 
would be understood as being a mother to her husband 
and his younger bride, on which I named my example, 
and in which an elder of the Church had married an 
English woman, a widow, with a daughter then of 
twelve ; in which the woman had borne four children 
to this husband ; and in which this husband had mar 
ried her daughter when she came of age. 

" Young said it was not a common thing at Salt Lake. 

" But it does occur ? 

" : Yes, said Young, it occurs sometimes/ 

"On what ground is such a practice justified by the 
church?" After a short pause, he said, with a faint 
and wheedling smile : This is a part of the question 
of incest. We have no sure light on it yet. I cannot 
tell you what the church holds to be the actual truth ; 
I can tell you my own opinion ; but you must not pub 
lish it you must not tell it lest I should be misunder 
stood and blamed. 

"He then made to us a communication on the nature 
of incest, as he thinks of this offence and judges it; 
but what he then said I am not at liberty to print. As 
to the facts which came under my own eyes, I am free 
to speak. 


" Incest, in the sense in which we use the word -mar 
riage within the prohibited degrees is not regarded as 
a crime in the Mormon Church. 

" It is known that in some of these saintly harems, the 
female occupants stand to their lords in closer relation 
ship of blood than the American law permits. It is a 
daily event in Salt lake City for a man to wed two sis 
ters, a brother s widow, and even a mother and daugh 
ter. In one household in Utah may be seen the spec 
tacle of three women, who stand toward each other in 
the relation of child, mother and grand-dame, living in 
one man s harem as his wives ! I asked the President, 
whether, with his new lights on the virtue of breeding 
in and in, he saw any objection to the marriage of bro 
ther and sister. Speaking for himself, not for the 
Church, he said he saw none at all. What follows, I 
give in the actual words of the speakers : 

" D. Does that sort of marriage ever take place ? 
" YOUNG. Never. 

D. Is it prohibited by the Church ? 
" YOUNG. ( No ; it is prohibited by prejudice/ 
" KIMBALL. Public opinion won t allow it. 
" YOUXG. I would not do it myself, nor suffer any 
one else, when I could help it. 

" D. Then you don t prohibit, and you don t practise 

" YOUNG. i My prejudices prevent me. 

" This remnant of an old feeling brought from the 

Gentile world, and this alone, would seem to prevent 

the Saints from rushing into the higher forms of incest. 

How Ions; will these Gentile sentiments remain in force ? 


" You will find here/ said Elder Stenhouse to me, 
talking on another subject, polygamists of the third 
generation; when these boys and girls grow up, and 
marry, you will have in these valleys the true feeling 
of patriarchal life. 

" The old world is about us yet ; and we are always 
thinking of what people may say in the Scottish hills 
and the Midland shires. 

Morally the reader may be shocked, but logically he 
should be prepared for all this ; for if we are to restore 
a line of prophets and follow the example of the patri 
archs, then incest and polygamy are from the same high 
source. The examples of Abraham and Sarai, half 
brother and sister ; of Lot and Judah and earlier wor 
thies are to be repeated. As one Mormon said to me, 
"the world could never have been peopled without 
this practice, and the foremost nations of antiquity 
maintained it ; " and it is darkly hinted at Salt Lake 
that father and daughter may form an allowable union. 
And why not ? If " the souls in the spirit world 
wait earnestly for tabernacles," to furnish them is a 
mere mechanical act, and may be performed by one per 
son as well as another. 

Thus polygamy, incest and blood atonement grow as 
naturally from Mormon theology as three branches from 
the same stock. 

The mind revolts from the pursuit of these disgusting 
details, and to the credit of the Mormon people be it 
said, they are far from being universal in approval of 
these later doctrines. 

Will it be credited after all this that the Mormons 


claim to be the most virtuous people in the world ? Yet 
such is the fact ; and they never weary of pointing to 
the prostitution of our great cities, claiming is 
their appointed destiny to remove all such evils, and 
make woman universally pure. This, then, is the self- 
proclaimed task of Mormonism : to save a few by re 
ducing all to a level ; to abolish prostitution by legaliz 
ing concubinage ; to promote conjugal purity by multi 
plying the husband s temptation and opportunity, and 
to improve the condition of woman by making her a 
mere life-giving machine. 

Perhaps the most saddening feature of Mormon polyg 
amy, is the effect it has had upon the young. The 
medico-theologians of Utah claim that polygamy tends 
to a more rapid increase of population, as well as to the 
physical and moral improvement of the species. The 
former claim may well be questioned, and that the latter 
is a serious mistake, is plain to any unprejudiced 

Salt Lake City already shows its bad effect on the 
offspring. The site is forty-three hundred feet above 
the level of the sea, in a dry and bracing climate, equally 
free from extremes of heat and cold ; and consequently 
it should be one of the healthiest cities in the world. 

Exactly the reverse is the fact. The death rate, of 
all ages, was for years a little more than twice that of 
the State of Oregon, and greater than that of New 
York, or any city north of the Gulf States. When we 
come to children, the disparity is still more frightful. 

By actaal statistics it is shown that the mortality 
among children was, for many years, greater in Salt 


Lake City than any other in America, and the death- 
rate of Utah only exceeded by that of Louisiana. The 
Mormons have greatly exaggerated the population of 
the city, which really contains a little less than eighteen 
thousand souls, and in this small number the sexton s 
report for October, 1868, the healthiest month in the 
year, and my first in the city, gives the interments at 
sixty, of which forty-four were children. Last year was 
unusually healthy, and yet the death rate exceeds that 
of any other State or Territory west of the Mississippi. 
The Mormons explain this by saying that their people 
are generally poor and exposed to hardships, but much 
of that poverty is directly traceable to their religion. 
Another sad fact is the general neglect of medical care, 
or rather a general tendency to run to wild and absurd 
schemes of doctoring. They claim that " laying on of 
hands and the prayer of faith " will heal the sick, and, 
yet, no people within my knowledge are so given to 
" Thomsonianism," "steam doctoring," " yarb medicine," 
and every other irregular mode of treating disease. 

One day, during my residence there, three young 
children died in the seventeenth ward of scarlet fever. 
In neither case was a physician called; the Bishop 
came and "laid on hands with the holy anointing," 
and an old woman treated two of them with a mild 
palliative, such .as is used for a sore throat. If the 
patients live after such treatment, it is a " miracle ;" if 
they die " it is the will of the Lord." Two-thirds of the 
polygamists do not and cannot attend properly to their 

The bishop of one ward, the fourteenth, has thirty 


cliildreii living, and neaiiy twenty dead. Joseph Smith 
had a dozen spiritual wives ; but three sons survived 
him all of his legal wife. 

When Heber Kimball was alive there were five men 
in the city who had together seventy wives ; they had, 
all told, less than a hundred and fifty children. 

A Mormon grave-yard is the most melancholy sight 
on earth. One bishop of the city has seventeen children 
buried in one row, and the longest grave is not over four 
feet. If these men have but the common feelings of 
humanity, how fearfully are they punished for the 
crime of polygamy ! Brigham s children are generally 
healthy, except that the girls mostly have weak eyes, 
and two of them are nearly blind ; but they are well 
fed, housed and clothed. But such is the exception, 
and I could mention a dozen men whose houses are full 
of women, but their children are in the grave. 

The Asiatic institution was never meant to flourish 
on American soil, and has resulted here in a " slaughter 
of the innocents," which is saddening to contemplate. 
As only the most hardy survive, they generally grow 
up robust and active ; but the effects of their social bias 
are seen in a strange dullness of moral perception, a 
general ignorance and apparently inherited tendency to 
vice. If the testimony of Oscar Young, of the oldest 
son of the Elder Stenhouse mentioned above, and of 
numerous other young Mormons, can be relied on, 
youthful demoralization certainly begins at an earlier 
age in Salt Lake than in other places. In many cases 
of poor men in polygamy, the husband, two wives and 
their children occupy the same room; in many in- 


stances the husband and two wives have but one bed, 
and when we consider the scenes and conversation to 
which thesa children are witnesses, it would seem that 
no exalted ideas of purity could ever enter their minds. 
Taken from school at an early age, or only permitted 
to enter it at all during a few winter months, they are 
often put in extreme youth to herding cattle on the 
" bench," or beyond Jordan ; there they hear the slang 
of older youths, and from hearing learn to repeat, observe 
and imitate ; demoralization spreads and moral decay 
seizes upon the very bloom of youth. 

From what they so often hear at home, they become 
precociously prurient and premature observers of the 
brute creation ; and from personal observation and the 
testimony of many young Mormons, I am convinced 
there is no part of America where youthful vice, of the 
peculiarly destructive and degrading kind, prevails so 
extensively as in Salt Lake City. And this is but a 
natural result ; for polygamy is tenfold more unnatural 
with such a climate and race than in Southern Asia or 

Strange and paradoxical it is that in a barren land 
and temperate or harsh clime, they have succeeded in 
setting up a practice which social philosophy had de 
cided to belong only in regions of abundance, in 
voluptuous climes where soft airs incline to sensual 

Stranger still, in the attempt to found a purely 
religious community, they have begun by utterly re 
versing every idea which the experience of three thou 
sand years had proved to be valuable ; and in the very 


inception of a young society, which was to be fresh, 
vigorous and pure, have adopted the worst vices of an 
old and worn out civilization. But to them these 
arguments are idle ; " the mouth of the Lord hath com 
manded it ;" and it is theirs not to study results but to 
leave it with the Lord : so, beholding all around them 
the furious revenges of nature on those who violate her 
most important law, they shut their eyes to these facts 
and pronounce them false; and bearing in their own 
bodies the effects of physiological sin, impiously claim a 
divine sanction to violate the laws of nature. 

When, leaving the mere youth we come to young men 
and women, we observe two curious effects of polygamy. 
The first is a growing tendency to single life ; polygamy 
to some extent necessitates celibacy, for the number of 
the sexes being about equal, even in Utah, if one man 
marries two wives, some other man must do without his 
one. Polygamy is in fact the worst kind of robbery, 
and for the twelve young women whom Heber C. Kim- 
ball married after reaching Utah, some of them not over 
eighteen, twelve young men must remain single. 

This tendency is now greatly on the increase, 
particularly among the girls, and it is a common 
remark with them that they will never marry till 
they can leave the Territory. And this accounts in 
part for the second, a general desire among the un 
married to get away and settle out of Utah. The 
world would be surprised at the constant losses to 
their population from this source; there has been 
for years a constant leak from the territory in every 
direction, and in one sermon I heard Brigham 


Young enumerate a score of places in California, Nevada, 
Washington and Oregon, -settled entirely by recusant 
Mormons. In spite of a steady immigration from 
Europe of from one to four thousand per year, it is still 
a debatable question whether the Mormons have gained 
faster than by natural increase for the last five years. 

Indeed, Utah offers but few inducements for a young 
Mormon, if he possess more than average intelligence or 
enterprise ; and such, it will generally be found, make 
their way to some other locality. Much has been 
claimed by the Mormons for the virtue of their young 
women, and more said against it by some of their oppo 
nents. From the best evidence at my command I think 
their virtue will average as well, or nearly so, as that 
of any very poor and ignorant people ; but the fatal 
error of the Mormons is in allowing for no virtue ex 
cept that by constraint and constant watching. No 
dependence whatever is placed upon the innate moral 
sense, and apparently no effort made to cultivate or 
strengthen it ; it is not supposed that virtue is founded 
in aught but dread, and every thorough going Mormon 
acts as if he expected his daughters to go wrong the very 
first opportunity. 

The jealousy of the men is even greater than that of 
the women. Nine-tenths of them take it for granted 
that a Gentile can have no good purpose in addressing 
a Mormon girl ; and it is not uncommon to hear a Mor 
mon say, " I will shoot any Gentile I see walking with 
my daughter." 

It must be confessed, they have some foundation for 
this harsh judgment, as in former years hundreds of 


Gentiles merely came there to winter, and often left 
their wives in the spring ; and it is a sad fac that of 
all the women who have left the Mormons, the majority 
have turned out badly. When the California volunteers 
left there, they took off a great many with them, of 
whom the majority were not married. The Mormons, 
of course, attribute this to the immoral character of the 
Gentiles ; but it is plainly attributable to their system 
of forced virtue, by means of constraint and constant 
watching. "The virtue that must be guarded is not 
worth the sentinel ; " and these girls, who have been 
brought up in such strictness and seclusion, with the 
idea that none of their Mormon companions would 
dare attempt their virtue, are but poorly prepared to 
encounter the seductive arts we know to be common in 
the Gentile world. If there is such a thing as trust 
between the sexes in Utah, I have witnessed no mani 
festations of it ; society has already assumed the same 
air of jealous distrust so often remarked among the 
Moslems, while austerity and reserve are considered 
the noblest graces of woman. 

It is gratifying to state, however, that the grossness 
of sentiment and language which prevailed ten years 
ago, is slowly yielding to something better, and plain 
spoken as the Mormons now are, they would hardly 
listen quietly to the indecent harangues once so com 
mon from Heber C. Kirnball. Though they constantly 
insist that they care nothing for the Gentile world, and 
will not be moved by its opinions, yet the Mormons 
are being slowly improved in spite of themselves ; they 
have adopted Sunday schools, daily papers, and lyce- 


urns from the Gentiles settled among them, and a more 
healthy sentiment is struggling weakly against the tide 
of corruption. But with all present mitigating features, 
polygamy still remains the foulest blot upon America s 
fame, and the Mormons still defy every law of God and 
man in their doctrines, and, to some extent, in their 
practice. Such, in brief, is Mormonism. While all the 
world is striving to move on to a higher, more spiritual 
plane of religious truth, they have turned back to the 
gross forms and symbols of the time when religion was 
in its infancy. It is as though the old mathematician 
should throw aside his acquired learning, and go back 
to the sticks and balls with which he learned to count. 
While the Christian world is rejoicing, that Christ has 
freed us "from the yoke which our fathers were not 
able to bear," they go back two thousand years, and 
seek all their examples from a barbarous age and a 
stiff-necked and rebellious people. And their practice 
is like their faith. Claiming a religion which will 
elevate men to gods, they plead for examples the base 
instincts of the brute creation ; with snow in sight the 
year round, they pattern their domestic life after that 
of inter-tropical barbarians, and vainly hope to produce 
the vigor of hardy North-men from the worst practices 
of effeminate Asiatics. 




Absolutism An ancient model Three governments in Utah Church 
officials First President First Presidency " The worst man in Utah " 
Quorum of Apostles " The Twelve " A dozen men with fifty -two 
wives President of Seventies Patriarch " A blessing for a dollar " 
Bishops Division of the City and Territory Their magisterial capacity 
High Council Judge and jury "Ward teachers The confessional The 
priesthood Aaronic and Melchisedec Evangelists Secret police or 
" Danites " Civil government only an appendage Excessive power of 
the Mormon Courts Perversions of law and justice Organic Act de 
fectiveFederal Judges Their weakness and disgrace Verdict by 
ecclesiastical "counsel" Verdicts dictated from the pulpit Probate 
Judges really appointed by Brigham Young Voting system Marked 
ballots " Protecting the ballot" The Hooper-McGroarty race Plu 
rality of offices as well as wives Tyranny of the Church The Mormon 
vs. the American idea--The evils of which Gentiles complain. 

IN government, as in doctrine and practice, the Mor 
mons have adopted the most ancient model. But it 
was not quite possible even for them to entirely ignore 
the popular element, hence they have pieced out their 
theocracy with a shred of universal suffrage, proving 
themselves eclectic in politics as well as theology. 
Government in Utah is to be viewed in three relations, 
or rather, there are as many distinct governments : 

I. The recognized and openly acknowledged ecclesi 
astical government of the Mormon Church. 

II. The secret and irresponsible government operated 
by a few of the leading men. 


III. The Territorial government, which was for years 
but the mere convenient machine of the Church, and 
has hut lately stood forth in anything like its intended 

For the success of such an institution as Mormonism, 
it was absolutely necessary there should be a recognized 
priesthood, through which channel alone, all commands 
from heaven should come. If any man who " felt the 
moving of the Spirit" was at liberty to prophesy, 
prophets would soon cease to have any honor. It was 
necessary, too, that this priesthood should bear com 
plete rule, and to this end an ignorant laity was neces 
sary. These conditions have all been filled, and the 
Mormon Church stands forth complete as a theocratic 
absolutism. I present in the order of their rank, the 
various officers of the Church, and the duties connected 
with them. 


This officer stands at the head of all the affairs 
of the Church, temporal and spiritual, financial and 
priestly ; he alone has the power of " sealing," though 
in some cases he may delegate it, and he only is ac 
knowledged revelator. This office, first filled by Joseph 
Smith, is now held by Brigham Young, who is "Prophet, 
Priest, Seer, Re vela tor in all the world, First President 
and Trustee-in-trust of the Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter-Day Saints," and doubtless ex-qfficio the reposi 
tory of any other needed office or power. 

To consider him in all these roles* would exceed my 

* Those who are curious to learn more fully of Brigham Young, 
and his wives and children, will find this with much other valuable 



present space; his various powers will appear more 
fully in the course of the work. Suffice it to say, that 
as Prophet, he holds the " keys of the kingdom," and 
without his permission none can enter the Church or be 
saved ; as Revelator, he unfolds to the people the will 
of God concerning them ; as Seer, he is warned to avoid 
any danger which may be in the future for him or his 
people, and, as Priest, he " seals " men and women for 
eternity. In temporal matters he is equally absolute. 
As President, he orders all the concerns of the Church, 
appoints new bishops and elders, and determines the 
political bearings of the community ; as Trustee-in 
trust, all the title to the Church property is in his 
name, he buys, sells, and conveys it with no fixed sys 
tem of rendering account, and as Treasurer of the Per 
petual Emigrating Fund, his draft alone can be honored 
where the funds are on deposit. He claims and is 
acknowledged by his followers, to be the Supreme 
Pontiff of the world in all spiritual matters, and 
entitled to the obedience of all Mormons. 

True, there are various parties now rising up among 
the Mormons, who claim that the President is entitled 
to their obedience only within certain limits ; but they 
are generally held as heretics, " governed by an apos 
tate spirit," and all " good Mormons " claim that they 
are bound by the orders of the Prophet, even to matters 
of life and death. The doctrine has lately been still 
more authoritatively declared by the First President 

information, in the ably written and only authentic work on the sub 
C. Y. WAITE. Printed at the Riverside Press, Cambridge, 1866. 


and his Counselors, that " it is apostasy to differ with 
the Priesthood though ever so honestly a man may 
honestly differ, and go to hell for it." If there is any 
limit to his power, it is not apparent to the Gentile mind. 


This consists of the First President and his First and 
Second Counselors, George A. Smith and Daniel H. 
Wells. The first place was formerly filled by Heber C. 
Kimball, who died a short time before I entered the 
Territory, and at the ensuing Conference, Smith was 
chosen to the place. These last also have the title of 
President, they are the Lieutenants and Prime Ministers 
of the President to do all his commands, and are autho 
rized to act in various capacities in his absence. In ad 
dition George A. Smith is Church Historian, and Dan 
iel H. Wells is Mayor, Justice of the Peace and Lieu- 
tenant-General of the Nauvoo Legion. He seems to 
bear about him less of the ecclesiastical character than 
his colleague, and is generally denominated Squire 
Wells ; but he is probably the worst man in the Hier 
archy, being both a half-crazy fanatic and a blood-thirsty 


The body third in importance in the Church is the 
College or Quorum of the Twelve Apostles. They 
come much nearer to the people than the First Presi 
dency, as the whole Mormon territory is nominally di 
vided between them, and it is their duty to inspect 
their various districts and see " that each stake is set 
in order." Individual Apostles are often put in charge 



of foreign missions, sent away to edit newspapers or 
magazines, or to preside over some newly selected 
" stake " of the extending settlements, in either of 
which cases, another Apostle is chosen in place of the 
absent. Thus there are sometimes as many as fifteen 
acting Apostles, but only the Twelve are entitled to 
seats in the Quorum at one time. 

I present the list as it stood during my residence in 
Utah, and as an Apostle s dignity, like that of most 
other officers, depends largely upon the number of his 
wives, I give their number also : 


Ezra Benson died last summer, and his place had not 
been supplied when I left Utah. With the exception 
of John Taylor the Apostles are reported to be poor 
men ; Orson Pratt particularly is in very moderate cir 
cumstances, and Orson Hyde has the reputation of 
being " an inveterate beggar," in an ecclesiastical way, 
of course. 


First Apostle, 

Five Wives 

Second " 



Third " 



Fourth " 






Sixth " 



/Seventh " 



Eighth " 



Ninth " 



Tenth " 



Eleventh " 








This office appears to rank next to that of an Apos 
tle, and arises as follows : The great working body of 
male Mormons is divided into seventy Quorums, each 
having nominally seventy members, though, in reality, 
they range everywhere from ten to seventy. Each has 
a President and these, collectively known as the 
Se venty, constitute a grand missionary board, which 
has the general control of all matters connected with 
propagating the faith. These seventy Presidents have 
also a President, filling the office under consideration. 
These offices have no special rank in the Church, as an 
Apostle or leading elder may be but a lay member in 
this order. 


I place this office fifth in rank because, though of 
great sanctity and honor, it is entirely spiritual, con 
ferring no power. His business is merely to grant " bles 
sings," written out and signed by him. The usual fee 
therefor is one dollar, and the " blessings," as far as I 
have read any of them, consist of vague and general 
promises that the recipient will " be blessed if faithful." 
The first Patriarch in the Church was " Old Father 
Smith," or Joseph, father of the Prophet, who was suc 
ceeded by the latter s brother Hyrum, he by " uncle " 
John Smith, cousin of Joe, and he in turn by William 
Smith, son of " Hyrum the martyr." To hold this 
office the only qualifications which seem necessary, are 


that one should be an " uncle " and a Smith, neither of 
which is liable to fail for some time 


We now consider purely temporal officers, a set of 
men who direct municipal regulations and are, as occa 
sion demands, either officers of the Church or Civil 
Magistrates. Of these the most important is the bishop. 
Salt Lake City is divided into twenty-one wards, each 
of which has a bishop, and the entire Territory is in 
the same manner conveniently divided into wards with 
a bishop over each. They " hear and determine " all 
complaints, and as they are, under the peculiar statutes 
of Utah, also Probate Judges in their respective counties, 
they govern Gentiles in that character. Thus, as 
spiritual guide in all matters of dispute among members 
of his flock, and civil magistrate, in all cases where 
Gentiles are concerned, the bishop is equally "master 
of the situation," and fully apprized of whatever is 
.going on. Hence, also, his character as informer. 
From his decision as Judge the Gentile may appeal to 
the Superior Court, at Salt Lake City ; from his epis 
copal adjudications the Mormon can appeal to the 


This body is composed of fifteen men, chosen from 
the High Priests. Twelve act as a jury, of whom a 
majority decide the case, and the other three pass 
sentence, or fix the damages and costs. From this 
tribunal there is an appeal to the First Presidency. 
The bishop is assisted in his labors by the 



Their duty is to visit all the people in their ward, 
report all suspected persons, catechize every one as to 
personal feeling, belief, etc., to report all irregularities, 
heresies, false doctrine and schism, and generally to 
act as spies and informers. On these visitations every 
person is obliged to formally subscribe to all the doc 
trines of the Church, and many misdemeanors and 
even criminal ties are hushed up in the ward where 
they occur, without the slightest knowledge thereof 
being made public. Hence much of the reputation for 
good order, claimed by the Mormons. In one instance, 
which came to my knowledge, an atrocious rape, com 
mitted upon a girl thirteen years old, was not known 
outside of the ward where it occurred until one year 
after, and it would probably not have been then made 
known, had not the father of the girl apostatized. In 
many cases boys of fifteen years fill the place of 
Teacher, and are required to report the doings of their* 
fellows. All Mormons are solemnly sworn to keep no 
secrets from the Teachers, and on their monthly visits 
to each family these have the right to see each person 
alone, and hold a strict and nasty " confessional." 
This, with the " Danite " or secret police system, makes 
of Mormon society a united and tyrannized whole. 


Thus far I have treated rather of the temporal 
offices, but all officiating Mormons are divided into 
two Codies The Aaronic and the MelcJiisedec Priest- 


hood. The latter is the superior, and in many respects 
includes the former; it is both spiritual and temporal, 
while the former is exclusively temporal A High 
Priest of the Melcliisedec order may always officiate in 
place of an Aaronic Priest ; but without special ordain- 
ment, the latter is always confined to temporal affairs. 
All the higher officials belong to the Mdchisedec order 
The High Priest ranks next to the Apostle, and after 
him some order of Elders, below whom are simple 
Priests and ordinary Elders. In these different ranks 
all Mormons are Priests of some sort, and in religious 
cant speak of themselves as " Kings and Priests of the 
most High God: 


These, as the name implies, are propagandists. The 
name seems to indicate a kind of work rather than 
specific rank or office. 

Such is the recognized ecclesiastical polity of the 
Church. But lest this should not prove effective in all 
cases, or some should grow restive under such restraint, 
the Church has often used an order of secret police, 
popularly known, as "Danites." This order was first 
instituted during the troubles in Missouri ; it was re 
modeled in the third or fourth year of their residence ct 
Nauvoo, and has been continued since. By some of the 
Mormons its existence is denied, by others defended on 
the score of self-protection. That thousands of honest 
Mormons are ignorant of and do not believe in its exist- 


ence, I am well aware ; but that it has been, and to 
some extent is yet, an active working force, is as clearly 


proved as any fact can be. From the nature of the case 
but little can be known of its secret organization ; its 
work plainly appears in the course of Mormon history. 

With all their ecclesiastical organization, both public 
and private, much would have remained beyond their 
power to compass without a civil government ; and the 
manner in which they have used it, merely to further 
Church policy, is a singular comment on the forbearance 
of a republican government. 

The most common perversion of right, and yet the most 
is difficult to be comprehended by residents in the East, 
the peculiar manner in which the laws and local courts of 
the Territory are made an engine of tyranny in the hands 
of the ruling oligarchy. Like every other territory, 
Utah has Federal District Courts and local Probate 
Courts ; but unlike any other State or territory in the 
Union, the powers and jurisdiction of the latter are 
made superior to those of the former. Section 29, page 
31 of the Territorial Statutes, gives the Probate Courts 
general jurisdiction in all matters, civil and criminal; 
while section 1 of an "Act in relation to Bills of Divorce 
and Alimony," gives the Probate Courts exclusive juris 
diction over all such cases, thus making them superior 
to the Federal District Courts in such matters, and 
equal to them in every other respect. 

All this in opposition to the fact that the Organic 
Act of Utah gives the Legislature no power to build up 
such local courts, and in other territories this matter 
has been settled by appeal to the Supreme Court, and 
by its decision the Probate Courts limiicd to probate 
matters and a very limited civil jurisdiction. But the 


Organic Act provides that the Probate or County Courts 
shall have " such jurisdiction as shall be prescribed by 
law," and from this loose wording the Legislature claims 
the right to give them jurisdiction over all subjects what 
ever. This anomaly in the judicial system is not with 
out good cause. The District Judges are United States 
officials, and are supposed to be supporting the national 
authority ; the Probate Judges are simply the bishops 
or elders in the different counties, over whom Brighton s 
power is absolute. In former days, Brigham divorced 
whomsoever he saw fit, on his own motion, and on pay 
ment of a fee of ten dollars. He boasted once in a 
sermon, that he made enough this way, " by their 
d d foolishness, to keep him in spending money." But 
of late years it has been thought best to give some at 
tention to forms of law ; and now, though parties must 
first be divorced by Brigham, or a special deputy within 
the Church law, yet, after that, they must have a legal 
divorce in the Probate Courts. Of course, it never hap 
pens that Brigham s wishes are disregarded in the 
Probate. But this is their own affair ; it is with their 
criminal jurisdiction that Gentiles have to do. A case 
which occured in a southern settlement, while I was in 
Utah, illustrates in so forcible a manner their style of 
getting rid of obnoxious citizens, that I set it forth entire. 
In 1860, a lad of that district, of more than ordinary 
intelligence, left for California, where he remained for 
eight years, when he returned home with a consider 
able amount of money, and of course, with no disposition 
to submit to the exactions of Mormonism. His parents 
being Mormons, and that his native place, he properly 


belonged to the class known as " hickory Mormons " or 
" Gome-outers." With plenty of money, and being 
well dressed, he \vent into all their dances and social 
parties, became a great favorite with the Mormon 
girls, did not hesitate to express his opinion about the 
bishops and elders, and, in short, his example was, as 
the bishop said, " d d demoralizing." One evening 
he accompanied a Mormon s daughter from the village, 
to her home in the country. On their way was a nar 
row ravine, about half way between two houses which 
were just a furlong apart. They remained some min 
utes in this hollow, and were afterwards seen chatting 
for half an hour at her father s gate. One week after 
wards he was arrested on a charge of rape ! He was 
first taken before a magistrate, where he demanded a 
jury of twelve men, and was by them unanimously ac 
quitted. Then the Bishop of the settlement, also a 
Probate Judge, issued a bench warrant, pronounced all 
the proceedings before the magistrate void, brought the 
young man before himself, and by the aid of her father, 
absolutely forced the girl to testify against him, and 
iipon evidence that would have been laughed out of 
court in any State, pronounced him guilty, and sen 
tenced him to the penitentiary for ten years ! He was 
started at once for the prison in Salt Lake City, but 
managed to inform Judge Strickland, a lawyer of the 
city, who succeeded in having him brought before Chief 
Justice Wilson, of the District Court, by writ of habeas 
corpus, where the girl refused to testify to anything 
criminating him, and he was released. This atrocious 
perversion of legal principles, is practiced all over -the 


country settlements by these bishops judges, who are 
directed in their proceedings by " authority," and use 
their offices to drive out, or scare away all " Gome- 
outers" or recusant Mormons. If the accused is brought 
to Salt Lake City, the United States officials are often 
able to interfere ; but no matter how plain and direct 
the evidence, as in the case above, nine-tenths of the 
Mormons merely think it another case, in which a vile 
criminal is let loose upon them by Gentile Judges. 

As might be expected, the Brighamites are very 
tenacious of this great power in their hands, and 
threaten and bluster whenever it is questioned. In a 
case tried before Chief Justice Wilson, the power of the 
Probate Courts was put in issue, and on the 20th of 
November, 1868, when this case was argued, Z. Snow, 
a Mormon lawyer, and Attorney-General for Utah, said : 
"If his Honor decided against such jurisdiction, blood 
would flow in the streets of this City." From the 
known character of Judge Snow, it is highly probable 
he never would have made such a statement but by 
express direction from Brigham Young. The statement 
was made in open court, in presence of the entire bar of 
the city, and a few moments after consultation with his 
associate counsel, also a Mormon. The plain meaning 
of this was, that the Brighamites intended to obey the 
law only when construed in their favor, but otherwise 
to evade it, and, when safe, try violence. Fair notice 
was thus given to all officials to yield, or be crushed. 
Judge Snow also said that, until within a few years. 
" United State Judges had not resided here but a very 
small portion of their time, though he did not know 


This Lint opens to remembrance a melancholy view 
of the dishonor to our Government through its officials 
in Utah. Not that Brigham Young has tried violence 
in many cases. He is far too wary for that. Brute 
force is the last resort of a really astute mind, like that 
of Brigham. Chicane is his natural weapon, and with 
it he has completely circumvented the majority of the 
judges; assisted too often by the imbecile appointments 
from the time of Fillmore until Lincoln s Administration. 
The first judge, Perry E. Brochus, was incautious in his 
attacks upon polygamy, and, having been led to believe 
that his life was in danger, left the Territory. Another 
official was detected in immorality, .and resigned to 
avoid exposure ; another disgraced his office by taking a 
prostitute upon the bench with him ; another impaired 
his efficiency by secret drinking; and still another 
allowed himself to be completely entrapped by two of 
Brigham s "decoy women." One of these delinquents 
was followed into Weber Canon by a self-appointed 
committee of "Mormon boys," and received at their 
hands a severe castigation. 

It is a prime principle of the Mormon faith that their 
affairs ought not to come before a Gentile Court at all ; 
and if they must go there in a case where a Gentile is 
interested, the jury should be governed by "counsel" 
in making up their verdict. But there seem to have 
been restive spirits, even in the most palmy days of the 
Church government, who were often chastised from the 
Mormon pulpit, as witness the following from a sermon 
delivered in the Tabernacle by Jedediah M. Grant, one 
of Brigham Young s councilors, on Sunday, March 2d, 


" Last Sunday the President chastised some of the 
Apostles and Bishops who were on the grand jury. 
Did he fully succeed in clearing away the fog that sur 
rounded them, and in removing blindness from their 
eyes ? No ; for they could go to their room and again 
disagree, though to their credit be it said, a little expla 
nation made them unanimous in their action. But 
how is it with the little jury? Some of them have 
got into the fog to suck down the words and eat the 
filth of a Gentile court, ostensibly a court in Utah." 
This extract gives a sufficiently clear idea of the jury 
system in Utah, and from all that has yet appeared the 
attempt to enforce any Federal statute by Mormon ju 
ries, would simply amount to a solemn farce. To ren 
der the matter worse, these Bishop-judges are not 
elected by the people, but under the provisions of the 
Judiciary Act, are appointed by the Territorial Legis 
lature, which means in effect by Brigham Young; 
thus the Judiciary are as completely under his man 
agement as the officers of the ecclesiastical organization. 
One might think there was still some chance for the 
people in voting, and many are inclined to ask : If 
there is dissatisfaction, or opposition to Brigham Young s 
government, can it not make itself felt in the elections ? 
Even this outlet is effectually barred by the following 
Section of "An Act regulating elections," passed in 
January, 1853 : 

" Each elector shall provide himself with a ballot 
containing the names of the persons he wishes elected, 
and the offices he would have them fill, and present it 
neatly folded to the judge of the election, who shall 


number it and deposit it in the balloi>box. The clerk 
shall then write the name of the elector and opposite 
thereto the number of his vote." 

With a sarcasm which is almost amusing, the Mormon 
leaders call this a measure " to protect the freedom and 
purity of the ballot." Thus artistically do they abolish 
the free vote while they retain the ballot. " Thus," 
says the English Captain Burton, their apologist, "they 
retain the privilege of voting, while they avoid the 
evils of universal suffrage; subjecting, as it always 
should be, the ignorant many to the supervision of the 
intelligent few." 

Under this system, Brigham Young s emissary can 
go into any precinct in the Territory and discover just 
how any man has voted at any election for the last 
fifteen years ! And with this ignorant people, alive to 
spiritual terrors, and knowing too well what temporal 
trouble may be brought upon them, it is plain that the 
opposition must be in a majority before it can venture 
to make itself known. It cannot make a start to con 
solidate. It may be worthy of note here, that all the 
officers of the Mormon Church are proposed for re-elec 
tion or rejection, twice every year, at the General 
Conferences, thus apparently tempering this theocratic 
absolutism with universal suffrage, women voting as 
well as men. But only three instances have been 
known of persons daring to vote against the known 
wishes of the Hierarchy ; and in each case the offenders 
were promptly cited before the High Council and re 
quired to explain, in default of which they were "cut 
off" as being in a "spirit of apostasy." Practically, 


one man in each settlement or ward might just as well 
do all the voting. The Church puts her ticket in the 
field, and the bishop directs the people to vote it, which 
they do accordingly. 

On one memorable occasion, it is said, a sort of 
spiritual rebellion occurred in the Utah Lake district, 
where many American converts reside, and the opposi 
tion candidate to the Legislature was elected. On 
reaching Salt Lake City the successful candidate was 
simply " counseled " to resign, did so quietly, and the 
regular nominee was declared entitled to the seat. 
Tl;ree years ago the Jews, Gentiles, Apostates and re 
cusant Mormons of the Thirteenth Ward, in the city, 
found they had a majority, as nearly all of these classes 
in the city lived in that ward. They elected Bishop 
Wooley, a good Mormon, however, for Councilman, 
against the regular nominee. The Bishop was at once 
cited before Brigham, promptly resigned according to 
"counsel," and the other candidate was admitted to 
the seat. 

When the celebrated and somewhat amusing Hooper- 
McGroarty race, for delegate to Congress, took place, 
hundreds who would have voted for an available Gen 
tile nominee, but who regarded McGroarty s* candidacy 
as a mere burlesque, did not vote at all ; consequently 
that gentleman received less than two hundred votes, 
while, as the Mormons did their best, Hooper received 
some fifteen thousand. It is yet a standing joke in 
Utah to repeat portions of McGroarty s speech, prepared 
to be delivered before Congress ; he employed a lawyer 
to write it for him, and while committing it to memory, 


he could never talk ten minutes with a friend without 
running into his speech, assuming an oratorical manner, 
and the plural number, as if addressing Congress. 

The evils of this system of voting are numerous, be 
sides the immense power it gives a few leaders ; but one 
is particularly noticeable, the number and variety of 
offices held by the same man. In the town of Fillmore, 
the old capital, at one time one man held the offices of 
County Clerk and Recorder, Town Clerk and Justice of 
the Peace, Assessor and Collector of Internal Revenue, 
and ex qfficio Overseer of the Poor. While I was in 
Salt Lake City, one Robert T. Burton was Collector of 
Internal Revenue for the Territory, Sheriff of the County, 
Assessor and Collector of Territorial and County taxes, 
and a General in the Nauvoo Legion ; besides being a 
prominent elder in the Church, the husband of three 
wives, and one of the chiefs of the secret police. This 
Burton is the man who led the posse to capture the 
Morrisites, a sect of recusant Mormons, and, according 
to his own account, shot four of those people after their 
surrender, and his continuance in the revenue office was 
a damning blot upon the Johnson administration in 
Utah. He is in appearance 

t"The mildest mannered man 
That ever scuttled ship or cut a throat." 

But if there is truth in one-fourth the private memoirs 
of apostates, he is a most cruel and blood-thirsty bigot. 
All the various civil officers are at the same time 
leading dignitaries in the Mormon Church, active 
agents of its will, chosen to their civil position solely 
on that account; they consider the latter far inferior in 


importance, and, in fact, subordinate in policy to their 
Church dignities, and knowing little, if any, law, they 
are guided by ecclesiastical authority and " counsel." 

Let one travel wherever he will through the outer 
settlements, he rarely if ever hears the people speak of 
the Probate Judges as judges ; it is always " the bishop 
decided so and so." With them he is always acting in 
his character as bishop, never as judge. Nor need we 
be surprised at this ; it is the natural conflict under 
such a system, between the theocratic, the ecclesiastical, 
and the popular, the democratic and laical. The Ameri 
can idea is that power is derived from the people, is 
merely delegated to the officer, and rests upon the just 
consent of the governed. The Mormon idea is exactly 
the reverse : power and authority come from above and 
operate downward through all the grades ; the official 
is not responsible to those below him to them he is 
the voice of God but to those above him ; from them 
he derives his authority, and to them he must render 
an account. 

In the words of a Mormon polemic, "It is not con 
sistent that the people of God should organize or be 
subject to man-made governments. If it were so, they 
could never be perfected. There can be but one perfect 
government that organized by God ; a government 
by apostles, prophets, priests, teachers and evangelists ; 
the order of the original Church, of all churches acknowl 
edged by God." I am thus minute in my statements, 
because so many people in the East have an idea that 
polygamy is the only great evil of Mormonism. There 
are many evils felt more than that ; in fact, polygamy 


in itself is but a slight annoyance to the Gentile resi 
dents of Utah. 

Mormonism was an unmitigated evil before they had 
polygamy ; the priests ruled the ignorant people with 
spiritual terrors, and that made them dangerous neigh 
bors and troublesome citizens wherever they lived. 
Probably some of these other evils grew out of or have 
been strengthened by polygamy, but that of itself 
troubles other residents very little. It is that the Terri 
tory is ruled by a Church, that civil and legal measures 
are carried by ecclesiastical policy rather than law ; that 
residents, not Mormons, are subjected to all the annoy 
ances of petty tyranny; that in their business and 
social life they are constantly subjected to the secret 
espionage of the Church ; that they are hampered in 
business by church hostility and the imposition of ex 
cessive taxes ; that friends and fellow-countrymen have 
been secretly murdered, and the Church prevents them 
from obtaining justice ; in short, they are exposed to 
the tyranny of an unopposed majority, and that majority 
controlled by a small and compact hierarchy, working 
out its Star-chamber decrees against liberty by secret 
and, to the people, irresponsible agents. 

It is this that grinds the feelings of American citizens, 
not polygamy, though that is a great moral and social 
evil. The Mormon people as a mass are naturally dis 
posed to deal justly, but, unfortunately, the people are 
ciphers, and it seems to be the policy of their leaders to 
keep them in a constant state of irritation and hostile 
feeling towards all outsiders, and to the Government of 
the United States. 

Thus it is the union of Church and State, or rathei 


the absolute subservience of the State to the Church, 
the latter merely using the outside organization to carry 
into effect decrees already concluded in secret council, 
that makes Mormonism our enemy. Missouri and Illi 
nois found, at dear cost, that no State could tolerate a 
church exercising an absolute temporal jurisdiction, with 
in the State, but independent of and often hostile to it; 
dominating and directing the action of courts within its 
influence, subverting free institutions, and exercising a 
greater right over the consciences of its subjects than is 
claimed by the laws of the State. In short, it is not 
the social, immoral, or polygamic features that so chiefly 
concern us, but the hostile, the treasonable and the 
mutinous. The law against polygamy should be strictly 
enforced, as every other law of the Government ; but 
it is idle to say, as so many do, that that is the only 
objection to the Mormons, or to the admission of Utah 
as a State. If polygamy were blotted out to-morrow, 
we could never admit Utah in her present condition. 
Such a State organization would be opposed to every 
principle of our political structure, and our Constitution 
was never meant to recognize the temporal government 
of a church. Happily the present Administration have 
recognized many of the needs of Utah, and begun by 
removing all polygamists and Mormon sympathizers 
from office, filling their places with good men. Much 
remains to be done by the Executive and Congress, but 
it is gratifying to note that something of a reform has 
set in, and that Utah is no longer what it was through 
three Administrations, " the Botany Bay of worn-out 





Repression not unity Great break up at Nauvoo Sidney Rigdon s Church 
J. J. Strang Cutler, Brewster, and Heddrick: "The Gatherers" 
The " Truth-teller " Lyman Wight in Texas San Bernardino Mor- 
mons Apostasy, Spiritualism and insanity Brigham supreme in Utah 
First Secession, the "Gladdenites" Persecution and murders Blood- 
atonement introduced Second secession, the " Morrisites " War with 
the Sect Massacre of the "Morrisites" Governor Harding s adven 
ture General Connor protects the recusants Soda Springs Another 
Prophet The "infant Christ" Beginning of the Josephites Emma 
and her sons The "Reorganized Church" First Mission Mission of 
the " Smith Boys" Excitement at Salt Lake Priestly lying The God- 
be Schism Liberal principles Hqpeful indications After Brigham, 
Who ? Orson Hyde ? Daniel H. Wells ? George A. Smith ? Probable 
future of the Church. 


BUT all this hedging about with officials, and double- 
lock of civil, ecclesiastical and secret governments, has 
not always held the Mormons in perfect unity or pre 
vented schism and revolt. Perfect conformity in re 
ligion can only be secured by the rack, the stake, 
and the dungeon of the inquisition ; Mormonism carried 
within its bosom the germs of disintegration, long 
latent though they might be, and the original organiza 
tion has from time to time given rise to no less than 
twenty-five sects, ites and isms, of which six or seven, 
besides the main branch under Brigham, still preserve 
a sort of moribund existence. Like the non-juring 
bishops of Anglican history, secession once begun con- 


stantly repeated itself; the recusant and deposed 
priests in turn denounced and deposed all who ques 
tioned their prophetic right, and each of the sects 
solemnly points to all the others, as blind and erring 
apostates, whose feet are treading on the straight line 
to hell. During the life of Joe Smith there seem 
to have been no organized secessions, though many 
apostasies The living oracle could be consulted, with 
no dispute as to the meaning of his words ; Joe Smith 
Mormonism was true or none was, and there was no 
other alternative. But his death cut off the source of 
infallible interpretation, and opened the way at once 
for a variance in doctrine. Some account has already 
been given of the struggle for succession, and it only 
remains to briefly note the course of the diverging sects, 
in the ever shifting phases of their pseudo-theology 
and protean forms of error. Of all the scattering sects 
no other had a leader with the executive ability, 
the iron nerve, and the cruel, remorseless ambition of 
Brigham Young; and, in consequence, as fast as they 
came in contact with purer faiths, most of their 
organizations dissolved and fell away. 

Sidney Bigdon led a large colony, and that of the 
best material, to Pennsylvania; but there was not 
sufficient ignorance in the laity or secretive cunning in 
the leader, and little by little they scattered among the 
Gentiles, a few only, with Apostle Wm. Marks at their 
head, returning to the Brighamite Church, from which 
they afterwards turned away to young Joe Smith. J. 
J. Strang had multitudinous revelations, that Wisconsin 
was to be the next " gathering place " of the Saints, 


and a few thousand followed him to the unsettled por 
tion of that new State. He afterwards settled the 
remnant on Beaver Island, in Lake Michigan, and 
maintained some organization till his death ; no prophet 
arising after him, some of his flock went " hunting for 
Zion " in Iowa and Missouri, some went to Salt Lake, 
more went back to the "re-organized Church" at Piano, 
Illinois, and many went crazy. 

The small party which followed William Smith, only 
surviving brother of the Prophet, to Northern Illinois, 
soon dissolved. Elder Brewster took another party 
to Western Iowa, and Bishop Heddrick, a considerable 
sect into Missouri, both of which fell to pieces on the 
death of the leaders ; but the remnants have lately got 
together under a new prophet, and formed the sect 
known as " Gatherers." They are attempting to gather 
and settle again in Jackson County, and are numerous 
enough to have an organ called " The Trutliteller" a 
weakly periodical, published in Western Missouri. 
Bishop Cutler also led off a small party in Northern 
Iowa, and after his death most of them returned to the 
" Re-organized Church." 

When the Church set out from Nauvoo, the Apostles 
issued orders to Elder Sam Brannan, then in New 
York, to proceed with a party by sea to their intended 
destination in California. He accordingly sailed soon 
after in the ship Brooklyn, with a body of two hundred 
and forty-six foreign converts, and $60,000 in gold, the 
property of the Church ; but, arriving at San Francisco 
(then Yerba Buena), when the country was first at 
tracting attention, he, and most of his party, apostatized 


and remained there. He invested the Church funds in 
real estate, and became one of San Francisco s wealthi 
est citizens ; but has since repaid the money to the 
Church with interest. 

Soon after, Bishop Lyman Wight led another large 
party to Texas, where they increased greatly, and were 
for some years highly prosperous. They at first ac 
knowledged allegiance to the Twelve Apostles, but 
when Brigham took the reins they grew restive ; when 
polygamy was avowed, Wight solemnly "cut-off" the 
Salt Lake Mormons, and no long time after, was him 
self cut off by death, and his flock scattered for want 
of a shepherd. 

Soon after the founding of Salt Lake City, a large 
colony of Mormons was also established in San Ber 
nardino County, California ; but they were too far from 
headquarters, to be governed either by Apostles or " Dan- 
ies," and soon became entangled in the politics and public 
interests of the State. Orders were issued for their 
return to Utah, a few obeyed, and the remainder " lost 
the spirit and fell into apostasy." But it is a fixed fact, 
that ninety-nine out of a hundred who have believed 
Mormonism for ten years, are ever after unfit for any 
sensible faith ; apostates from Mormonism are generally 
infidels or visionaries, Millenarians, Adventists or Lu 
natics ; and the San Bernardino schismatics, in a body, 
embraced Spiritualism. From the unseen world a reve 
lation was received, that a youth of one of the old Mor 
mon families would in time be called as a prophet, and 
unite the whole Chuch ; but unfortunately the young 
man died soon after, and San Bernardino was left with- 


out a prophet. A few returned to the parent organi 
zation, and a few to the "Re-organized Church;" insanity 
prevails to an amazing extent among the remainder, 
who long contributed from twelve to twenty additions, 
per year, to the insane asylum at Stockton ; and it is 
reported, that institution now contains a hundred of 
the sect, and would have five hundred more if it were 
not full. 

Deducting all preliminary secessions, nearly 20,000 
followed the Twelve Apostles from Nauvoo, of whom 
less than 10,000 ever reached Utah. Throughout 
their Iowa pilgrimage bands and parties fell away like 
sparks from a flying meteor, and almost every " stake " 
soon became a village of recusant Mormons ; Garden 
Grove, Mount Pisgah, Council Bluffs, Florence and 
Columbus were originally settled by these apostates / 
and considerable bodies gathered to Nebraska City, 
Omaha and other river townB. Dr. Isaac Gall and died 
in extreme poverty in Iowa, and nearly all the old 
Nauvoo allies of Joe Smith ended their days in the 
gutter, the penitentiary or the poor house. But thou 
sands of those who had honestly embraced Mormonism, 
and abandoned it only when convinced of the im 
posture, became valuable citizens among the Gentiles. 

In all these branch organizations there was no 
isolation from the world, no repressive power, and no 
one man to seize the reins and drive ruthlessly forward, 
regardless alike of the sufferings of his people and the 
lives of his enemies; hence, inherent weakness in 
creased, and they fast decayed. But in Utah Brigham 
was absolute; he had perfect isolation, and talent 


without the troublesome adjunct of a conscience, and 
there despotism has been a success. Nevertheless, 
even in Utah there have been no less than four distinct 
and organized attempts to throw off the yoke of Brig- 
ham, and " return to a more perfect faith." None of 
these bodies have professed a desire to break up the 
Church, only to purify it. 

The first was by the sect known as " Gladdenites." 
It will be remembered that Gladden Bishop was con 
demned at Nauvoo ; but he soon after came baok to 
the Church, and other recusants were beginning to 
return, when, in 1852, polygamy was avowed, and to 
this and other new features the Gladdenites were 
opposed. Their mission in Salt Lake City was headed 
by one Albert Smith, from Saint Louis, and seems to 
have made sufficient progress to stir up the Brighamites, 
who have left about the only history we have of the 
Sect in Utah. The following extract from a " sermon" 
by Brigham will clearly indicate how this movement 
was crushed : 

" I will ask, What has produced your persecutions 
and sorrow ? What has been the starting-point of all 
your afflictions? They began with apostates in your 
midst; those disaffected spirits caused others to come 
in, worse than they, who would run out and bring in 
all the devils they possibly could. That has been the 
starting-point and grand cause of all our difficulties, 
every time we were driven. I am coming to this place, 
I am coming nearer home. * . . Do we see 
apostates among us now ? We do. 

" When a man comes right out like an independent 


devil, and says, Damn Mormonism and all the Mor 
mons/ and is off with himself to California, I say he is 
a gentleman by the side of a nasty, sneaking apostate, 
who is opposed to nothing but Christianity. I say to 
the former, Go in peace, sir, and prosper if you can. 
But we have a set of spirits here, worse than such a 
character. When I went from meeting last Sabbath, 
my ears were saluted with an apostate, crying in the 
streets here. I want to know if any one of you w T ho 
has got the spirit of Mormonism in you, the spirit that 
Joseph and Hyrum had, or that we have here, would 
say, f Let us hear both sides of the question. Let us 
listen and prove all things. What do you want to 
prove ? Do you want to prove that an old apostate, 
who has been cut off from the Church thirteen times 
for lying, is anything worthy of notice ? I heard that 
a certain picture-maker in this city, when the boys 
would have moved away the wagon in which this 
apostate was standing, became violent with them, say 
ing, Let this man alone ; these are Saints that you are 
persecuting. [Sneeringly.] 

" We want such men to go to California, or anywhere 
they choose. I say to those persons, c You must not 
court persecution here, lest you get so much of it you 
will not know what to do with it. Do NOT court 
persecution. We have known Gladden Bishop for 
more than twenty years, and know him to be a poor, 
dirty curse. Here is sister Yilate Kimball, brother 
Heber s wife, has borne more from that man than any 
other woman on earth could bear ; but she won t bear 
it again. I say again, you Gladdenites, do not court 


persecution, or you will get more than you want, and 
it will come quicker than you want it. 

" I say to you. Bishops, do not allow them to preach 
in your wards. Who broke the roads to these valleys? 
Did this little nasty Smith, and his wife ? No. They 
stayed in St. Louis while we did it, peddling ribbons, 
and kissing the Gentiles. I know what they have 
done here they have asked exorbitant prices for their 
nasty, stinking ribbons. [Voices, That s true. ] We 
broke the roads to this country. 

" Now, you Gladdenites, keep your tongues still, lest 
sudden destruction come upon you. I say, rather than 
that apostates should flourish here, I will unsheathe 
my bowie-knife, and conquer or die. [Great commo 
tion in the congregation, and a simultaneous burst of 
feeling, assenting to the declaration.] Now, you nasty 
apostates, clear out, or judgment will be laid to the 
line, and righteousness to the plummet/ [Voices 
generally, c Go it, go it. ] If you say it is all right, 
raise your hands. [All hands up.] Let us call upon 
the Lord to assist us in this and every other good 
work." * 

It must be remembered that all these sermons are 
quoted exactly as reported by the Mormons themselves 
and printed in the Church paper, that Brigham carefully 
revises them before they are printed ; and that they are 
frequently so pared down and modified, with most of 
the oaths and obscenity struck out, that it is difficult 
for the hearer to recognize the published form. In an 
other part of the above harangue, Brigham warns the 
~ * March 27, 1853. Jour, of Dis., vol. i, p. 82. 


Gladdenites that they "were not playing with shadows, 
but were trying to fool with the voice and hand of the 
Almighty, and would find themselves badly mistaken." 
The effect of such preaching was horrible, and that 
some of the Gladdenites were murdered outright is 
beyond a doubt. But the Church authorities seem to 
have been fearful that a spirit of rebellion might still 
lurk in the minds of the people, and determined to 
stamp out the last traces of apostasy. To this end, the 
doctrine of "blood-atonement" was introduced and 
preached regularly for many years. This doctrine was 
urged particularly with a wild and savage earnestness 
by Jedediah M. Grant, who, it is but charity to suppose, 
was insane on the subject; a blood-crazy wretch, legit 
imately succeeded by Daniel H. Wells. Like the latter 
he was First Counselor to Brigham, Mayor of the 
city and Chief of the secret police ; and like him, too, 
he regarded murder as a holy act, if done in accordance 
with the rites of the Church ; and there is testimony 
that some of these unfortunate apostates were actually 
sacrificed in the Endowment House, "to atone for their 
sins and save their souls." Young Mormons, who were 
children then, have often told me of hearing this J. M. 
Grant preach his favorite doctrine of blood-atonement, 
with furious mien and gestures, and actually foaming at 
the mouth in the intensity of fanatic rage. If any 
should doubt the possibility of men going to such 
lengths in a bloody doctrine, let them peruse this ex 
tract from one of Grant s sermons, delivered March 12th, 
1854, as recorded in the Mormon publication, the Deseret 
News ; and remember, too, that it is only the mildest 


possible language which is published, compared with 
that actually used. 

" Then what ought this meek people who keep the 
commandments of God do unto them ? Why/ says one, 
they ought to pray to the Lord to kill them! I want 
to know if you would wish the LORD to come down and 
do all your dirty work ? Many of the Latter-day Saints 
will pray, and petition, and supplicate the Lord to do a 
thousand things they themselves would be ashamed 
to do. 


" When a man prays for a thing, lie ought to be will 
ing to perform it himself. But if the Latter-day Saints 
should put to death the covenant-breakers, it would try 
the faith of the very meek, just, and pious ones among 
them, and it would cause a great deal of whining in 

" Then there was another odd commandment. The 
Lord God commanded them not to pity the person whom 
ikey lulled, but to execute the law of God upon persons 
worthy of death. This should be done by the entire con 
gregation, SHOWING NO PITY. I have thought there 
would have to be quite a revolution among the Mor 
mons before such a commandment could be obeyed 
completely by them. For instance, if they can get a 
man before the tribunal administering the law of the 
land, and succeed in getting a rope around his neck, 
and having him hung up like a dead dog, it is all right. 
But if the Church and Kingdom of Q-od should step 
forth and execute the law of God, 0, what a burst of 
Mormon sympathy it would cause ! / wish we were in a 


situation favorable to our doing that which is justifiable 
before God, without any contaminating influence of Gen 
tile amalgamation, laws, and traditions; that the People 
of God might lay the ax to the root of the tree, and every 
tree that bringeth not forth good fruit might be hewn 

" What ! do you believe that people would do right 
and keep the law of God by actually putting to death 
the transgressors ? Putting to death the transgressors 
would exhibit the law of God, no matter BY WHOM it was 
done. That is my opinion. 

" You talk of the doings of different Governments 
the United States, if you please. What do they do 
with traitors ? What mode do they adopt to punish 
traitors ? Do traitors to that Government forfeit their 
lives ? Examine also the doings of other earthly Gov 
ernments on this point, and you find the same practice 
universal. I am not aware that there are any excep 
tions. But people will look into books of theology, and 
argue that the people of God have a right to try people 
for fellowship, but they have no right to try them on 
property or life. That makes the devil laugh, saying: 
I have got them on a hook now ; they can cut them 
off, and I will put eight or ten spirits worse than they 
are into their tabernacles, and send them back to mob 

Brigham follows up this reasoning with a plain 
declaration that none can expect finally to escape, and 
sooner or later the vengeance of the Church will over 
take them. But he uses a different phraseology, as 
follows : 


"There is not a man or woman who violates the 
covenants made with their God, that will not be re 
quired to pay the debt. The blood of Christ will never 
wipe that out, your own blood must atone for it ; and 
the judgments of the Almighty will come sooner or 
later, and every man and woman will have to atone for 
breaking their covenants." 

With these plain directions to an ignorant and fanat 
ical people, from those they looked upon as the incar 
nate voice of God, the fate of the Gladdenites is easily 
foreseen. Those who could, escaped to California ; the 
others recanted or "atoned," and we hear no more of 
them after 1854. 

Second in order of time was the Sect known as 
" Morrisites," whose history is substantially as follows : 

Joseph Morris was a native of Manchester, England, 
and came to Utah among the early converts. Like 
thousands of others, he thought that the pure truth 
delivered by Joseph Smith had been corrupted, and 
conceived the design of effecting a grand reformation 
in the Church. According to his own account, while 
engaged in reflection on the subject, he was one day in 
the pastures beyond Jordan, when he was favored with 
a glorious vision, and by command of Christ, Enos, (son 
of Seth,) John the Baptist, and the archangel Michael, 
who constitute the triune mission of Mormonism, ap 
peared and endowed him with the holy priesthood, as 
the true successor of Joseph Smith. 

On announcing his mission, he was at once an object 
of interest to all persons at South Weber, his res 
idence, some thirty miles north of this city, and in a 


short time had converted to his views Bishop Cook, of 
Weber settlement, his brother, John Cook, and several 

Persecution by his neighbors soon followed, and his 
life was frequently threatened ; but little attention was 
paid to the matter by the regular authorities, as Morris 
was an exceedingly simple and illiterate man, who was 
thought incapable of giving the slightest trouble. 
Meanwhile, he continued to receive voluminous revela 
tions, and, under the supposed influence of the Holy 
Spirit, composed two letters directed to Brigham Young 
and Heber C. Kimball, which he took to the city and 
delivered in person. Brigham treated the matter lightly 
at first, but it soon grew so serious that John Taylor 
and Wilford Woodruff, both apostles, were sent to Weber 
to investigate the matter. They called a Church meet 
ing, in executive session, on the llth of February, 1861, 
when Taylor rose and demanded whether there was a 
man in that ward who claimed to be a prophet, and if 
so, whether he had any followers ? To the consterna 
tion of the Brighamites seventeen persons, with Bishop 
Cook at their head, arose and avowed their belief that 
"Joseph Morris was sent of God, and was the true 
priestly successor of Joseph Smith." It is to be noted 
that the Morrisites never denied the right of Brigham 
to be First President, by election, and temporal head of 
the Church ; but they claimed that he was " neither a 
prophet, nor the son of a prophet." 

A violent discussion followed, in which an old man 
named Watts said that the Morrisites " ought to be cut 
off under the chin and laid away in the brush," for 


which he was sternly rebuked by Bishop Cook. After 
the customary " admonition," by Taylor and Woodruff, 
all the adherents of Morris were formally excommuni 
cated, and " delivered over to the buffetings of Satan 
for a thousand years." Morris established his church 
by baptizing five persons in the Weber Eiver, on the 6th 
of April, 1861, exactly thirty-one years from the first 
baptism by Joseph Smith. Converts flocked rapidly 
from all parts of the Territory, and the new sect soon 
numbered three hundred. It never exceeded five hun 
dred. Morris employed two scribes to take down his 
revealed gospel, and his followers now have six volumes 
of them, each containing two or three hundred manu 
script pages. 

The spring review of 1862, of the Nauvoo Legion, 
the Territorial militia, came on, and the Morrisites re 
fused to drill, for which several of them were arrested 
and fined $60 and $80 each. Other troubles arose be 
tween them and the surrounding Mormons, about which 
there is great conflict of testimony. I have the story 
from those of the Morrisites now at Camp Douglas, 
from various Brighamites, and from official papers and 
testimony left by Judges Waite, Drake, and Titus. 
The Sect occupied a portion of the Weber Valley, with 
their town made in a sort of encampment in a circular 
hollow, below which was their cultivated land. They 
had all things in common, and every new convert divided 
his surplus property among the needy, while their 
common cow-herd was attended by a detailed herder 
among the mountain hollows. Intelligent Mormons, 
then resident on the Weber, tell me they took a large 


number of cattle from their neighbors, and committed 
other depredations ; which the Morrisites deny, saying 
that they only retaliated where they had been robbed. 
At length one Jones seized a load of flour belonging to 
the Morrisites at a mill near Salt Lake, and detained it 
and the two boys in charge, as he alleged, in satisfaction 
for injuries done him. 

The Morrisites sent out a strong posse, retook the 
load, and brought Jones and two confederates, as pris 
oners to their camp. Meanwhile, the Sheriff had ap 
peared, and purposed to arrest all those who could not, 
or would not pay the fines assessed for refusal to drill, 
but he was refused admission to the settlement. Com 
plaint was at once made to Chief Justice Kinney, who 
issued writs for the arrest of the leading Morrisites, and 
Robert T. Bur ton, Sheriff of Salt Lake County, attempted 
to serve them, but returned to the city unsuccessful. 
The Nauvoo Legion was at once ordered out, with 
several cannon, and placed under Burton s command. 
On their way they were joined by reinforcements from 
Ogden, Kaysville, and Farmington, till early on the 
morning of June 13, 1862, they arrived before the 
Morrisite Camp, with a thousand well armed men, and 
five pieces of artillery. They captured the Morrisites 
cow-herd, killing such as they desired for beef, and sent 
the boys attending it into the camp, with Burton s procla 
mation, calling for surrender. The camp, or fort, consisted 
of a few houses made of willows, woven together and 
plastered, and covered wagons, surrounded by some 
rude fortifications. Morris called his men together, 
when they received another note to remove the women 


and children, as firing would begin in one hour. In 
about twenty minutes a cannon was fired, of which the 
ball entered the fort, killing two women, and carrying 
away the jaw of another. 

Meanwhile, Morris had donned his priestly robe, and 
taken his divining rod, and was waiting for a revelation 
as to what course should be taken. After an hour or 
two of fanatic supplication, no revelation was received ; 
and as the Brighamites had begun to surround the 
camp, the Prophet divided his forces, placed a band at 
each of the weak points, and assumed the responsibility 
of fighting. His camp was upon a knoll in the hollow 
of the Weber, a mile or so below the present railroad 
station of Uintah, while the Brighamite posse occupied 
the adjacent slopes. The latter soon opened a general 
fire upon the camp, when the Morrisites at once flew 
to arms and the battle began. The cannon and long- 
range rifles of the Brighamites completely raked the 
fort, to which the Morrisites could only reply with 
their ducking-guns and a few Spanish scopeetes, which 
inflicted only slight wounds. The cannon, too, were 
often loaded with small balls, which tore down the 
wicker-work and pierced the sandy hillocks, wounding 
the women and children who had taken refuge behind 
them. Still these deluded people would not surrender, 
and for three days, fighting with the desperate energy 
of religious fanaticism, maintained the unequal battle. 
At. intervals, during that time, they often called on 
Morris to intercede with the Lord for their deliverance, 
to which he made reply : " If the Lord will, we shall 
be delivered and our enemies destroyed ; but let us do 



our duty." On the evening of the third day, some one 
raised a white flag ; when Morris saw it, he said : 
" Your faith has gone and the Lord has forsaken us. 
I can now do nothing more." 

They threw down their arms and the Legion marched 
in. Amid the wildest confusion the men and women 
were separated, and the former placed under guard. Few 
of the women could speak English, and all expected 
nothing but destruction. Burton shot Morris, his 
Lieutenant, Banks, and two women, after the arms 
were given up, while the soldiers plundered the houses, 
took all the watches, jewelry and money, and destroyed 
all they could not carry away. Here, too, there is great 
conflict of testimony. Some of the boys who were with 
the Brighamite forces say that Morris ordered his men 
to take their arms and fight again, for which he was 
shot. Still others say that Banks was only slightly 
wounded, and called for water, when a cup was handed 
him by the Brighamite surgeon. Dr. Jeter Clinton ; that 
he drank of it and expired in a few minutes. The 
Morrisites are confident he would have recovered, if he 
had not been poisoned. The following affidavit will 
give most clearly the Morrisite version of the affair : 

" United States of America, Territory of Utah, ss. 

" Alexander Dow, of said Territory, being duly 
sworn, says : 

" In the spring of 1861, I joined the Morrisites, and 
was present when Joseph Morris was killed. The 
Morrisites had surrendered, a white flag was flying, and 
the arms were all grounded and guarded by a large 
number of the posse. 


" Eobert T. Burton and Judson L. Stoddard rode in 
among the Morrisites. Burton was much excited, and 
said : 6 Where is the man? I don t know him. Stod 
dard replied, That s him/ pointing to Morris. Burton 
rode his horse upon Morris, and commanded him to 
give himself up in the name of the Lord. Morris re 
plied : " No ; never, never. Morris said he wanted to 
speak to the people. Burton said, Be d d quick 
about it. Morris said, Brethren, I have taught you 
true principles he had scarcely got the words out of 
his mouth, when Burton fired his revolver. The ball 
passed in his neck or shoulder. Burton exclaimed, 
6 There s your Prophet. He fired again, saying, What 
do you think of your Prophet now ? 

"Burton then turned suddenly and shot Banks, who 
was standing five or six paces distant. Banks fell. 
Mrs. Bowman, wife of James Bowman, came running 
up, crying, Oh ! you blood-thirsty wretch ! Burton 
said, No one shall tell me that and live, and shot her 
dead. A Danish woman then came running up to 
Morris, crying, and Burton shot her dead also. Burton 
could have easily taken Morris and Banks prisoners, if 
he had tried. I was standing but a few feet from Bur 
ton all the time. And further saith not. 


"Subscribed and sworn to before me, this 18th day 
of April, A. D., 1863. 

"Associate Justice, Utah Territory" 

All the loose property of the Morrisites having been 
" confiscated," the dead bodies of Morris, Banks and 


eight others were thrown into a wagon, with Morris robe, 
crown and rod, and succeeded by the captured Morris- 
ites, they were guarded to the city. Young and old 
turned out to see them, with mingled emotions of glee 
and horror, and the bodies of Morris and Banks, lying 
for several days in the City Hall, were visited by great 
crowds, eager to see the noted " schismatic." The vast 
majority of these people regarded it simply as the pro 
per punishment due to one who had " set himself up to 
teach heresy in Zion and oppose the Lord s anointed." 
During the entire battle two Brighamites and ten Mor- 
risites were killed, and a very large number wounded. 

Ninety-three of the Morrisites were at once arraigned 
before Judge Kinney, but there was so much popular 
excitement, and as it was probable more would die of 
their wounds, he proceeded to place them all under 
bonds of $1,500 each, for their appearance in April, 
1863. Only five of them would sign the bond ; few of 
the rest could speak English, and those who could pro 
tested against the entire proceedings, and announced 
their determination " to lie in jail till the Devil s thou 
sand years were out," before they would even by impli 
cation confess that they were treated legally. 

But as the five signers still owned considerable prop 
erty, Judge Kinney ruled that, as in a sort of commu 
nity, they could bind all the rest, as their representatives. 
Whe,n the April term (1863) came on, twenty of them 
were out of the territory, and one was dead, but most 
of the rest appeared. Kinney said that " their absence 
made no difference ; he was glad to see that so many 
had appeared ;" and proceeded to enter a fine of one 


hundred dollars each against the present, dead and 
absent. In addition, several leaders were put on trial, 
and sentenced to the penitentiary for from five to fifteen 
years each. 

In June, 1862, Kinney was the only United States 
Judge in Utah, and the compliant tool of the Brigham- 
ites. But Governor Harding and Judges Waite and 
Drake had arrived in time to hear the trial of the Mor- 
risites, and were convinced that great injustice had 
been done them, or even if they were guilty of resist 
ance to legal process, the law had been strained to in 
flict a cruel and unusual punishment. It was known, 
too, as it is now, that sentence to a long imprisonment 
in Utah simply means DEATH, if the keepers in charge 
are so instructed. Petitions began to circulate for their 
pardon, signed by Gentiles and some of the Mormons 
who relented at such severity. Quite an excitement 
was created by these attempts, and Governor Harding 
was warned by the more violent Brighamites not to 
interfere with the sentence of law. Bishop Woolley 
called upon the Governor with an earnest remonstrance 
against the proposed pardon, adding in conclusion, 
" Governor, it stands you in hand to be careful. Our 
people are much excited ; they feel it would be an out 
rage to pardon these men, and if it is done they might 
proceed to violence" etc., etc. 

To this truly Mormon attempt at intimidation the 
Governor responded with his usual firmness. While 
the petition, with names attached, was still in his pos 
session, not acted upon, the Governor was aroused from 
sleep one night, between mid-night and morning, by a 


furious knocking at the door; it was opened by his 
son, Attila, who acted as his private secretary, and 
there presented himself a stranger of rough aspect, who 
demanded -peremptorily to " see the Gov n r." No repre 
sentations of the unseasonableness of the hour appeared 
to move him ; he insisted that his business was too im 
portant for delay ; he had ridden thirty miles over bad 
roads, could not arrive sooner and must return at once. 
With precautions against surprise they admitted him to the 
Governor s room, and he at once began : " I understand 
that you have a petition for the pardon of some of the 
Morrisites that you won t act on it because you don t 
think there are enough o Mormon names on it or Mor 
mons that are well known. An you say some Mormons 
want to sign it, want em pardoned, but are afeard to sign. 
Gi me that paper an I ll show you one Mormon that s 
not afeard to sign an one that s purty well known, too. 
An I ve rid thirty miles this night on purpose to sign it." 
The petition was procured and handed him, and after a 
rapid survey of the names, he seized the pen and in 
broad, sprawling Roman capitals, extending entirely 
across the sheet, inscribed the well known name, 


It was indeed the redoubtable "Danite" captain. 
" There," said he, holding it off at arm s length, " there 
is a Mormon name they all know, an they can read it 
without specks. Talk o bein afeard o Brigham 
Young ! I tell you Brigham Young is a good deal more 
afeard o Bill Hickman than Bill Hickman is o Brig- 
ham Young." Thus speaking he departed as uncere 
moniously as he came, nor did any further explanation 


of this singular affair ever reach the Governor. After 
a short imprisonment, the Morrisites were pardoned ; no 
violence was attempted or threatened against Governor 
Harding, but another singular occurrence took place 
soon after. 

One beautiful evening, while the bright sun of Utah 
was sinking behind the Lake island hills, into a " sea 
of glass, mingled with fire," tipping with a golden glory 
the gray peaks of the Wasatch, two women might have 
been seen descending the hill from the Morrisite settle 
ment near Camp Douglas, and seeking the residence of 
the Governor. The elder was a brawny and sunburned 
Danish woman, of most coarse and common clay, who 
assisted the other s steps till they stood before the Gov 
ernor. The younger woman was of a frail and delicate 
aspect that indicated either long sickness and privation, 
or a nervous organization worn to exhaustion by excite 
ment ; her dark, sunken eyes glowed with a strange, un 
earthly fire, and the blue veins of her forehead stood 
out from a skin of marble whiteness, while her long 
delicate fingers clasped and intertwined with intense 
earnestness as she told her mission. It was the widow 
of Banks, the murdered Morrisite. She had, according 
to her faith, been in communion with the soul of her 
husband, and thence received knowledge of a plot 
against the Governor, not to take his life but to place 
him in the same category with Steptoe and Dawson. 
She related all the particulars of the purposed attempt, 
with that convulsive trembling, that dilation and up 
ward roll of the eye and that unearthly hollow tone so 
familiar to those who have investigated the phenomena 


of mesmerism and psychology, in their purely physical 
effects upon the nervous female. " Oh, Governor, Gov 
ernor," she exclaimed, her thin, spirituelle form quiver 
ing with intense feeling, " friend and saviour of our peo 
ple ! Beware, beware. The spirit of the Lord and his 
martyred prophet is upon me, to warn you of this dan 
ger. It will come to you in the form of a beautiful 
woman ; but be guarded, and if, within a fortnight you 
are introduced to a fair woman who presents a great 
temptation to you, think of this warning and do not 
yield." The Governor, being gallant as well as brave, 
was taken somewhat aback by the fact that the seer 
had so well anticipated the temptation best calculated 
to overcome him ; but the rest of the story is best re 
lated in his own words : 

" Well, I wondered how the woman got her informa 
tion, but, as the boys say, I wa n t afeard, I rather 
liked the idea. A few days after the temptation came . 
I was called from my room to receive some company in 
the parlor, and was there introduced to two ladies whose 
beauty exceeded anything I had seen in Salt Lake. 
They remained to tea with my landlady, after which 
we had a delightful evening. The youngest and most 
beautiful, (I withhold the name given by the Governor,) 
made herself particularly agreeable to me, and was my 
partner in several games at cards. When the time for 
starting came, it was pretty plainly intimated by my 
landlady that I was to see the lady home. 

"But this was not my programme. As she stood 
pulling at her gloves, evidently waiting for me to make 
a break/ I stepped forward, shook hands with her and 


merely said, Ladies, I should be pleased to act the 
complimentary, but I understand it is not the custom 
among your people for Gentiles to escort the women of 
the Saints. So I bid you good evening. I then 
retired to my room. I afterwards learned beyond 
doubt that this was the beginning of a scheme which, 
if carried out, would have seriously compromised me." 
Whether the Governor s virtue or his astuteness ena 
bled him to escape the evil, the writer will not pretend, 
to say; but it is rather .curious how the Morrisite 
woman received her first impressions of such a plot, 
for we cannot doubt that it was a previous mental 
impression acting upon her peculiar temperament which 
led to her dream or " vision," whichever it was. 

Meanwhile, the bonds of the absent Morrisites were 
declared forfeited by Judge Kinney, and execution 
issued against the property of those still in Utah, who 
had any, to collect the penalty. Abraham Taylor, a 
prominent Morrisite, had his property in the city, 
worth $3000, levied upon and announced for sale. He 
applied to Judge Waite, who found, on examination, 
that the records of the court showed no judgment 
against the delinquents, which fact he represented to 
Judge Kinney, and applied for an injunction against 
the officer. The application was refused by Judge 
Kinney, who stated that, " if there was no judgment, 
he could render one, as the Court had not permanently 
adjourned, but only to meet again on his own motion." 
Taylor s homestead was put up at once and sold to one 
Joseph A. Johnson, Clerk of Judge Kinney s Court, 
for $200, and the family literally forced into the street. 




They remained a few days in the street in front of the 
house, then took refuge at Camp Douglas. 

After General Connor arrived with two regiments of 
California volunteers, and established Camp Douglas, 
the Morrisites gathered there; and in May, 1863, the 
General sent eighty families of them, including over 
200 persons, to Soda Springs, Idaho, where they now 
have a nourishing settlement. Abraham Taylor, one 
of their leaders, remained at Camp Douglas, and in 
1866, by Major Chas. H. Hempstead, his attorney, filed 
a bill in the United States District Court, Judge Titus 
presiding, praying for restitution of his property ; and, 
after two years of delay and chicanery by the Mormon 
lawyers, and some of the hardest swearing that ever 
" reeked to heaven," at the October term, 1868, a decree 
was made in his favor by Judge Wilson, giving him 
possession of his old homestead, with rents for five 
years. The popular Mormon idea of justice may be 
seen from the fact that three-fourths of the people 
looked upon this decree as a gross outrage on a Utah 
citizen by a United States Judge, and a severe act of 
" persecution." 

Taken all in all, the Morrisites deserved a better 
fate. True, their religion was a wild compound of 
materialism, spiritism, diabolism and deism run mad, 
but their code was far better than that of the Brig- 

Another prophet named Davis arose among them in 
Idaho, but before his Church was well established he 
had a revelation that all the rest were to deed their 


property to him as. trustee, and practice communism, 
which soon weakened his prophetic hold. Not long 
after, they got some sort of revelation that a little child 
among them was to be their future Christ, and kept 
the child "set apart" and dressed in white for some 
time ; but lately their organization has broken up, and 
many of them removed to Nevada. 

The most successful of all the recusant and anti- 
polygamous sects, is that under the leadership of young 
Joseph Smith, self-styled the " Ke-organized Church of 
Latter-Day Saints/ but generally known as " Joseph- 
ites." It will be remembered that Joseph Smith, the 
Prophet, obtained gratis from Dr. Galland, most of the 
land upon which Nauvoo was built. After the reve 
lation for his people to gather there, he sold them the 
lots at high prices, and realized an immense fortune, re 
ported as high as one million dollars by the best in 
formed. With this he paid all his old debts in Ohio, 
lived in considerable style, supported a dozen women, 
and still left a considerable fortune, mostly in houses 
and lots in Nauvoo. Spiritual wives having no legal 
rights in Illinois as in Utah, all this property was held 
by his widow Emma, who refused to emigrate and re 
mained with her three sons, Joseph Jr., William Alex 
ander and David Hyrum, in Nauvoo. The oldest and 
youngest had been in turn blessed and dedicated to the 
leadership by their father, the latter before his birth ; 
and when the Strangites organization had dissolved, 
Strang s successor went " hunting for Zion " in North 
ern Iowa, where he met the remnants of the Cutlerites, 
and together they decided that " Young Joe was the 


man," formed a church and made overtures to him ac 
cordingly. He responded that he had received no 
"call" but expected one; the Church rapidly aug 
mented from the debris, of the scattered sects, and 
finally, in 1860, Young Smith was "called as a 
Prophet " and the " Re-organized Church " was set up, 
with head-quarters at Piano, Illinois. They number 
twenty or thirty thousand in the West, and have flour 
ishing missions in Great Britain and Scandinavia. In 
July, 1863, E. C. Briggs and Alex. McCord, their first 
missionaries to Utah, reached Salt Lake and created 
quite a sensation ; Brigham intimated to them that their 
lives were in danger, and refused them the use of any 
public building in the city. But General Connor was 
then in command at Camp Douglas, with a small pro 
vost guard in the city, and the Brighamites dared not 
try violence ; Briggs visited the people at their homes 
and preached wherever Gentiles would open their houses 
to him, and soon had many converts. Nearly two hun 
dred of these left the Territory in 1864, under a mili 
tary escort furnished by General Connor, and since that 
time many more have left Utah, and their missions 
there include over five hundred members. 

But all the excitement connected with Briggs visit 
was as nothing to that of last summer, when it was 
announced that William Alexander and David Hyrum, 
" sons of the Prophet and Martyr," had reached Salt 
Lake to advocate the reformed faith. They obtained 
Independence Hall, the only public building belonging 
to the Gentiles, for their meetings; and on their first 
service it was crowded by the Mormons, among them 


most of the widows of Heber C. Kimball and the wives 
of Brigham Young. Unable to dispute the revelation 
in favor of David, the Brighamites maintain that he 
" is now in apostasy, and when he embraces the true 
faith and comes in the right way, they will receive him." 
This they confidently believe he will yet do. The evi 
dent absurdity of dictating to a foreordained Prophet, in 
just what way he shall come, does not seem to affect 
their views. The Brighamites were startled clear out 
of their propriety, abandoned their silent policy and 
organized a series of meetings in opposition to the 
" Smith boys." But Brigham was entirely too shrewd 
to take the lead, and put forward Apostle Joseph F. 
Smith, son of " Hyrum the Martyr," to manage the op 
position meetings. The writer attended most of the 
meetings, and fully realized the force of the maxim in 
regard to gleaning the truth from the disagreement of 
rogues. The controversy was one of that peculiar kind 
where both parties " know they are right," and can 
prove all they wish by abundant testimony. 

The Brighamites can prove beyond a doubt that 
Joseph Smith practised polygamy, while the Josephites 
can prove, by equal personal and documentary evidence, 
that he denied and reprobated the doctrine till the last 
day of his life. Sixteen women swore most positively, 
and allowed their affidavits to be published in the 
" Expositor," at Nauvoo, that Joe Smith made proposals 
to them to become his concubines ; twelve women now 
in Salt Lake City make affidavit that they were the 
spiritual wives of Smith at Nauvoo ; Joseph F., son of 
Hyrum Smith, testifies that he knew certainly of his 


father having more than one wife, and hundreds of old 
Mormons testify that Joe and Hyrurn taught them the 
doctrine., and sealed them to extra wives. 

The proof on the other side is equally clear, as al 
ready detailed,* making the question one wilich can 
never be settled by evidence, which means eternal con 
troversy. A Gentile would find an easy way out of the 
dilemma by considering Joe Smith a lying impostor ; 
but that would never do for these sects, each of which 
claims to be his only true Church. The Brighamites, 
however, flatly acknowledge that all these denials were 
made ; freely admit that their Prophet often found it 
necessary to lie to save his life, and generally state that 
their "religion occasionally makes it necessary for the 
priesthood to lie," all of which their history abundantly 
proves to be the case. Bat the "Smith boys" accomp 
lished little in Utah. They were not the men to 
organize a revolution ; they were in no respect shrewd 
enough to contend with the leading Brighamites, nor 
half crazy and violent enough to excite the people ; they 
were, in fact, hopelessly mediocre. Their position was 
weak and untenable ; their claims for their father easily 
disproved, and their propositions inherently absurd. 
The writer, from personal acquaintance with William 
and David, is disposed to esteem them highly as citizens, 
and respect them as honest in their aims ; but would 
respectfully ask: If you "purify the Church," if you 
blot out polygamy, incest, blood-atonement, "Adam- 
worship," and "Danites," what will you have left? 
How much Mormonism will there be in your Church ? 

The "Re-organized Church" has a number of period- 
* See Chapter XIV. 


icals, and a lengthy " Confession of Faith," from which 
I extract those tenets disinguishing them from the 
Brighamites : 

" We believe in being subject to kings, queens, presi 
dents, rulers, and magistrates ; in obeying and honoring 
the law. 

"We believe that the Church in Utah, under the 
presidency of Brigham Young, have apostatized from 
the true order of the Gospel. 

"We believe that the doctrines of potygamy, human 
sacrifice, or killing men to save them, Adam being God, 
Utah being Zion, or the gathering place for the Saints, 
are doctrines of devils, instituted by wicked men, for 
the accomplishment of their own lustful desires, and 
with a view to their personal aggrandizement. 

"We believe in being true and loyal to the Govern 
ment of the United States, and have no sympathy or 
fellowship for the treasonable practices or wicked 
abominations endorsed by Brigham Young and his 

Young Joe has had but two revelations, both very 
mild, and seems to be slow in the business of Prophet. 
But whoever leads off the ignorant of Utah must 
outbrigham Brigham, must go to greater lengths of 
fanaticism and have copious revelations daily. This 
accounts in part for Morris success ; he was as crazj 
as any of his followers. 

The last revolt against the power of Brigham is 
headed by several prominent men in Salt Lake City, 
among them Wm. S. Godbe, Henry Lawrence, W. H. 

Shearman and Tullidge. This sect has been long in 

growing, consisting of those who supported the Utah 


Magazine as the organ of independent thought ; but it 
was not till last autumn that the leaders boldly 
announced the policy of opposition to the excessive 
temporal government of the priesthood. The First 
Presidency promptly condemned the Utah, Magazine, 
and Brigham issued a general order forbidding all true 
Saints to patronize or read it. The Editor and pro 
prietors were cited before the High Council, and refusing 
to recant and ask pardon were summarily " cut off." A 
few who voted against this excision were called upon to 
explain their votes, and failing to do so were also " cut 
off." The schism increased, the new party contained 
some wealthy and influential men, and in a short time 
they had established a new weekly paper, the Mormcni 
Tribune, to promulgate their views. They call their 
new organization the " Church of Zion," and at last ac 
counts numbered nearly five thousand in the Territory. 
Their platform lays down the principles, that the 
Priesthood are only teachers, and have no right to con 
trol the people in all their social and business relations; 
that the mines should be developed, and trade free and 
unrestricted with all classes \ that tithing should con 
sist of a tenth of all one s increase, and not a tenth of 
his yearly proceeds, and many other liberal principles. 
This is so far the most sensible and promising set of 
principles from any of the recusant sects. They still 
claim to be good Mormons, maintain polygamy and 
every man s right to revelation. Many of the leaders 
are spiritualists ; most are evidently honest in their 
views , and it is to be hoped they are sufficiently crazy 
to outdo Brigham in fanaticism and carry the matter 


through. The present year will probably witness 
strange changes at Salt Lake. Granted that Mor- 
monism is to work out its own destiny without govern 
mental interference, the question at once arises : After 
Brigham, what ? Who will be his successor ? There 
is no one in the church who can entirely fill his place, 
and five or six probable aspirants, of whom one is about 
as well fitted as another. According to precedent in 
the case of Brigham himself, Orson Hyde, President of 
the Twelve Apostles, would succeed; but he is a 
bkmdering and impulsive scamp, mean enough for the 
place, but lacking in discretion. He is besides rather 
old, and has apostatized once. Daniel H. Wells is next 
in rank, but his bloodthirsty fanaticism would involve 
the people in war in a short time. Orson Pratt is the 
most learned of the Apostles, but is a dreaming astron 
omer, quite impractical. George A. Smith is an easy 
going, good-natured sensualist ; unscrupulous enough for 
the place, perhaps, but without executive ability. 
Should Brigham die at an early day, the strong prob 
ability is that the Church would divide into at least 
three bodies. Many of the English and Americans would 
follow David Hyrum Smith ; the most enlightened and 
liberal would epter the " Church of Zion," and the ig 
norant mass would follow the lead of the Twelve Apos 
tles as before, eventually coming under the rule of one. 
Having brought down our history to near the present 
time, let us take a brief view of the material interests 
and resources of Utah. The notes in the two succeed 
ing chapters are the result of a year s travel and 
residence in Utah, aided by a study of the best authori 
ties, to which due credit is given in passing. 




Territorial limits" Basins " " Sinks " Flats "Rain and evaporation 
Elemental action and reaction Potamology Jordan Kay s Creek- 
Weber Bear River Cache Valley Timber Blue Creek Promontory 
Great Desert Utah Lake Spanish Fork Salt Creek Timpanogos 
Sevier River Colorado System Fish Thermal and Chemical 
Springs Healing Waters Hotwater plants Analysis by Dr. Gale 
Mineral Springs Salt beds Alkali flats Native Salts GREAT SALT 
LAKE First accounts FREMONT STANSBURY Amount of salt Val 
leys Rise of the Lake Islands Bear Lake " Ginasticutis " Utah 
Lake Climate Increase of rain Singular phenomena Fine air Re 
lief for pulmonary complaints. 

UTAH is included between the 37th and 42d parallels 
of North latitude, and meridians 109 and 114 west 
from Greenwich ; deducting, however, from the north 
east corner a section of one degree of latitude by two 
of longitude, lately attached to Wyoming. Its greatest 
length is thus, from north to south, five full degrees, 
and its width from east to west, five of the shorter 
meridional degrees; the whole area divided nearly 
equally between two geographical sections, viz. : the 
valley and drainage of the Colorado and its affluents, 
the Green and Grand rivers, and the district known as 
the Great or Interior Basin. This remarkable section, 
containing the western half of Utah, all of Nevada, 
and a part of southeastern California, includes all that 
portion of the continent extending north and south 
between the parallels 37 and 42, and from east to 


west from near the meridian 111, Greenwich, to the 
Sierra Nevadas, which tend northwesterly from the 
meridian of 116, to that of 121 ; an irregular parallelo 
gram four hundred miles in extent, from north to south, 
and five hundred miles from east to west. The term 
" basin," is only applicable to the whole tract, in view 
of the fact, that its waters have no outlet to the ocean, 
for the general level of the lower tracts is as high as 
average mountain ranges, and the so-called valleys are 
little more than mountain flats; the entire section is 
thus composed of a succession of heights, basins, and 
mountain plateaus. A " succession of basins," because 
many of the traverse ranges are of equal height with 
those on the borders ; dotted also in the most level por 
tions with detached hills and knobs, relieved at rare in 
tervals by fertile vales, spotted again by vast deserts of 
sand and alkali or brackish lakes a region 

" Now of frozen, now of fiery alps, 
Rocks, fens, bogs, dens and shades of death." 

Wherever the mountains are high enough to furnish 
melting snow throughout the the summer, large streams 
flow down their sides, and fertile tracts are found along 
their base, caused by the percolation of moisture from 
above ; but in general at any great distance from the foot 
of the mountains we find barrenness, and throughout 
the Great Basin a large tract without mountains is in 
variably a desert. Most of the mountain streams sink 
before connecting with any other body of water, in 
many places among the foot-hills before reaching the 
plain ; others spread out and supply natural irrigation 
to a mile or two of land, producing broad savannas of 


coarse, rank grass, little oases, quite attractive in them 
selves and delightful in comparison with the sterility 
beyond. Along the foot of some ranges the traveler, 
every mile or so, crosses a considerable stream, rushing 
clear and strong from the mountain hollows, but two or 
three miles down the plain not .a channel or trace of 
water is to be found, the thirsty soil, warm sun, and 
drying air, having exhausted the scant liquid ; and it 
is only in very wet seasons that any of these streams 
form lakes! In other localities a more plentiful supply 
and the cool shadow of long ranges give rise to streams 
of sufficient size to be called rivers, of which the best 
known in Utah are the Jordan, Bear River, Sevier, 
Ogden and Weber ; and bordering these larger streams 
are valleys of great fertility, comprising the agricultural 
wealth of the Territory. Many of the smaller streams 
form long, shallow lagoons or marshes near the centers 
or at the points of lowest ^depression in the basins, 
generally called " sinks," in which term is embodied an 
empirical explanation of the disappearance of the water, 
by those ignorant of the fact, that in nature s laboratory 
action and reaction are equal, and that the fall of rain 
and snow in an enclosed basin must be exactly counter 
balanced by evaporation. In most cases the water sup 
ply is so scant that these " sinks " become entirely dry 
in summer, and are then known as * mud flats," of 
which, the most extensive are in Western Nevada. A 
smaller number contain some water all the year, of 
which a few rise to the dignity of lakes. With no out>- 
lets, and receiving all the chemical material brought 
down by the wash of their " feeders," they are of neces- 


sity either very saline in character, or brackish and 
impregnated with iron. 

Throughout the Great Basin certain general features 
are observable ; the mountain ranges mostly run north 
and south, and the longer valleys lie in the same direc 
tion. But in this particular man has not been able to 
accommodate himself to nature, and the course of civili 
zation as well as empire has made it necessary for the 
roads to run east and west. One may go from Montana 
to Arizona, and travel in valleys nearly all the way, 
seldom crossing anything more than a low "divide," 
but from east to west each range must be crossed at 
certain points, for which cause the old road south of the 
Lake was a perfect zig-zag, selecting the most feasible 
valleys, avoiding the mountains wherever possible, or 
" canyoning" up one side and down the other, diverging 
great distances from the direct line, and running to 
almost every point of the compass. 

The " riin of the Basin" is uncontinuous, formed by 
various ranges. On the north are the broken chains of 
the Oregon system, from 8,000 to 10,000- feet high, send 
ing out many spurs and traverse ridges. On the western 
border the Sierra Nevadas average 10,000 feet, and some 
peaks tower far above that altitude. On the south are 
the lower sub-ranges of the Kocky Mountains, mere 
"divides," separating the waters of the Basin from 
those of the Colorado; and on the east is the main 
Uintah range, known by various names, with several 
portions rising to 9,000 or 10,000 feet. Thus the sur 
face configuration of Utah is a great depression in a 
mountain land, a trough, so to speak, elevated 4,000 or 


5,000 feet above sea level ; subtended on all sides by 
mountain ranges 8,000 to 10,000 feet high, and sub 
divided by transverse ranges ; in the geologic age, a 
sweet water inland sea, in aboriginal times, the home 
of the most abject savages long a region of miscon 
ception and fable then the chosen home of a strange 
religion, and but yesterday found to be of use and inter 
est to the civilized world. Leaving the mountain ranges 
which bound the great basin, there is a general break 
ing down, so to speak, towards the interior ; most of the 
transverse ranges run north and south, terminating in 
bold headlands towards the south, though none are 
of sufficient length and continuous height to constitute 
a well defined system. Few of these ridges present 
regular slopes, but are formed of acute and angular cap- 
pings, superimposed upon Hatter prisons ; and frequently 
after ascending two-thirds from the base, the upper part 
becomes wall-like and insurmountable. Of these interior 
peaks, or terminal headlands, the most noted are the 
Twin Peaks, southeast of Salt Lake City, ascertained by 
Orson Pratt and Albert Carrington to be 11,660 feet in 
height; Mount Nebo, 8,000 feet; the Wasatch spur, 
near Salt Lake City, averaging 6,000 feet, and the 
Oquirrh range, which terminates in a bold headland at 
the south end of the Lake, locally known as the West 
Mountain, lying twenty miles west of Salt Lake City. 

The Salt Lake Basin, including many adjacent and 
connecting valleys, was evidently an inland sea, as 
shown by the " bench formation," a system of water 
marks along the mountains, points of successive subsi 
dence of the waters ; while many of the detached 


mountain peaks were as evidently islands, similar to 
those now rising above the surface of the Lake. Ac 
cording to some, the dry land was formed by successive 
upheavals; according to others, by ages of evaporation. 
If the latter theory be correct, it must have been through 
a " dry cycle " of many thousand years, and if, as many 
suppose, the " dry cycle " has ended and the rain zones 
are changing so as to again include this section, we may 
look for a still greater rise in the Lake surface than 
that of the last dozen years. 

The river system of Utah is curious, but unimportant 
as to navigation. The noted Jordan, an exact counter 
part of its Eastern namesake, has its origin in Utah 
Lake, and by a course of fifty miles, a little west of 
north, discharges the surplus waters of that body into 
Great Salt Lake. It is quite evident, however, from 
mere inspection, that a much greater quantity of water 
IB poured into Utah Lake from its many mountain 
affluents than flows out through the Jordan ; a small 
portion may escape by percolation, but at that elevation 
and in that drying air more is accounted for by evap 
oration. This stream has an average width of eight or 
ten rods ; through the upper part of its course and in 
Jordan Canon it is swift and shallow, in the lower val 
ley and near the City more sluggish, with a depth of 
ten feet or more. 

Passing around the Lake eastwardly, the next stream 
of any note is Kay s Creek, furnishing plentiful irriga 
tion to the farms of Kay s Ward, besides which, there 
are numerous streams of smaller size which break out 
of the Wasatch range, are diverted into irrigating 


canals, and by a thousand rills through the farms find 
their way to the marshy lands near the Lake. 

The main stream from the east is the Weber, which 
has its rise some sixty miles east of Salt Lake City, in 
the highest valley of Summit County ; thence, flowing 
to the north, is swelled by the waters of East Branch, 
Silver, White, Clay and Echo Creeks, then turning 
northwest breaks through the Wasatch range, gives form 
and name to Weber Canon, enters the valley thirty -three 
miles north of Salt Lake City, and forming a large U, 
with the bend sharply to the north, enters the Lake. 
Bear River rises in the same county, and but a little 
east and north of the Weber, and running nearly two 
hundred miles down a northern slope, between two 
spurs of the Uintah Mountains, forms a great U in 
Idaho, then turning southwest, "canyons" through 
another spur of the Uintah, into Cache Valley, the 
northeastern section of the Territory and home of 
12,000 Mormons; then "canyons" downward three 
miles, with a fall of 1000 feet, out of Cache into Bear 
River Valley, through which it runs to the head of 
Bear River Bay, the last twenty miles of its course the 
only navigable river in Utah. 

From the mouth of Bear River Canon to the head 
of the Bay is about thirty-five miles in a direct line, 
the valley maintaining an average width of fifteen 
miles down to Corinne, where it widens imperceptibly 
into Salt Lake Valley. 

Bear River runs through the finest lumber region in 
Utah, of which it is the natural outlet, and many 
thousand logs have already been sent down to Corinne, 




where a saw-mill and sash factory are now in opera 

The Malad joins Bear River a few miles above 
Corinne, between which place and the promontory 
there are a few springs breaking out of the mountains, 
constituting but one stream large enough to have a 
name. Blue Creek. West of the promontory a few 
springs run together in the midst of a horrible desert 
and form Indian Creek, which sometimes reaches the 
lake in wet seasons. Thence, around the head of the 
lake and down the entire western shore, for one hun 
dred miles, there is no stream large enough to have a 
name, and but one furnishing running water in all 

On the southwest a small creek from Tooelle vallej 
reaches the Lake, completing the list of affluents to that 
body. Next in importance are the feeders of Utah 
Lake, of which the principal are, Salt Creek from the 
south, Spanish Fork from the east, and Timpanogas 
from the northeast, which, with the addition of several 
smaller streams, furnish at least twice as much water to 
that "gem of the desert," as the Jordan carries off. 
The only other stream of any importance is the Sevier 
River, which rises near the southern boundary of Utah, 
in Fish Lake, runs a hundred and fifty miles to the 
north, then bends to the west around the point of Iron 
Mountain, receiving the small supplies of Salt Creek, 
San Pete, Chicken Creek, and Meadow Creek, then 
taking a southwest course, is lost in the " big sink " of 
Sevier Lake Desert. West of the Iron Mountain range 
are a score of " sinking creeks," among them Pioneer, 


Chalk, Cove and Corn Creeks, which are fed by the 
melting snows of the mountains, furnish scant irriga 
tion to a small strip of land, and are " lost " in the 
Great Desert of southwestern Utah. 

Below the " divide," the only streams of note are the 
Rio Yirgen and its affluents, which belong to the Colo 
rado system. Most of the larger streams abound in fish, 
among which mountain trout are particularly worthy 
of note ; their waters, on issuing from hills, are of great 
clearness and purity, and it is only where small streams 
have run some distance across the plain that they are, 
in local phrase, " alkalied." 

The rivers depend for their existence upon the moun 
tains, and without those gorges, which supply melted 
snow during the spring and summer, there would be no 
running water. 

Next to the " sinking " rivers of Utah, the thermal 
and chemical springs constitute a remarkable feature , 
They are found in almost every part of the Territory, 
but principally along the road from Salt Lake City 
northward. All along the foothills of the Promontory 
range, in the mountains southwest of Utah Lake, and 
between the city and Bear Eiver, are fountains of strong 
brine, discharging in many instances large volumes of 
water ; there are sulphurous pools at the southern ex 
tremity of Salt Lake Valley; in one of the islands in the 
lake are springs of every character, and in places along 
the Wasatch, hot, cold and chalybeate, are found side 
by side. 

First in fame, and probably in medical value, are the 
Warm Springs in Salt Lake City. Issuing in large 


volume from the mountain side, the water is conveyed 
in pipes to a regular bathing house on one side, and to 
a plunge pool on the other, constituting, in my opinion, 
the most praiseworthy of Mormon institutions. 

The following analysis is by Dr. Gale, assistant of 
Captain Stanbury, in 1850. One hundred parts of the 
water, whose specific gravity was 7.0112, gave solid 
contents of 1.068,087, divided as follows : 

Sulphuretted hydrogen 0.038,182 

Carbonate of lime 0.075,000 

" magnesia 0.022,770 

Chloride of calcium 0.005,700 

Sulphate of soda 0.064,835 

Chloride of sodium 0.861,600 

The usual temperature is 102. 

Three miles north of the city the Hot Springs boil 
out from a rock at the foot of the mountain, forming a 
hot pool two or three rods in circumference, whence the 
branch runs westward and forms the Hot Spring Lake, 
a body of sulphurous water some two miles long, and 
about half as wide, having an outlet into the Jordan. 
At several places around the margin of this singular 
lake, small jets of hot water boil up with great force ; 
the air in the neighborhood is loaded with the vapors, 
and immediately over the spring is almost stilling. 
Gazing into the small pool, formed by the spring, the 
eye is charmed by the variety of fanciful growths, the 
confervae on the rocky bottom. Every conceivable 
form of vegetation is to be seen ; leaves, plants, flowers 
and fernlike stems, all of the purest emerald. . But all 
are deceptions, mere imitations of plants formed by the 


chemical material on the points of stone. The temper 
ature of this spring is 128; its specific gravity 1.0130, 
and one hundred parts yield solid contents 1.0602, 
divided, according to Dr. Gale, as follows : 

Chloride of sodium 0.8052 

" magnesia 0.0288 

" calcium 0.1096 

Sulphate of lime 0.0806 

Carbonate of lime 0.0180 

Silica.. . 0.0180 


The most noted mineral springs are seventy miles 
north of Salt Lake City, near the north crossing of 
Bear River; they are hot and cold, impregnated with 
iron or with sulphur, some twenty in number, and all 
rising within a few feet of each other. Three springs, 
the first very hot and sulphurous, the second moder 
ately warm and tasting of iron, the third of cold, pure 
water, rise within a space of three feet. The waters, 
all flowing into the same channel, do not mix at once, 
but run apparently in separate strata for several 
hundred yards, the hot metalic water often running 
under the clear, cold water ; nor is it until the sudden 
bends in the channel have thrown the streams violently 
from side to side, that they mingle in a fluid of uniform 
temperature. South of Salt Lake City, along the Jor 
dan, are found hot pools which send out very little 
water, and in other places are chalybeate springs, 
coating the earth and rocks with oxide of iron. There 
are also chemical springs on one or two of the islands in 
the lake. 

The great salt beds of the Basin are in Nevada, but 


in southern Utah is a peak known as the " Salt Moun 
tain," from which that mineral can be cut in solid 
blocks, in its pure crystalized state. 

Of the mud flats, impregnated with soda, and the 
alkali deposits, there is a decided surplus, particularly 
as man has been unable to devise any use for such a 
quantity of those chemicals in that shape. It is 
thought the presence of alkali increases the cold, nor 
does it seem possible to eradicate it from the soil. A 
slight admixture is thought to be beneficial to vegeta 
tion, but wherever there is enough to " flower out " 
upon the surface, it is death to all vegetation even 
the hardy sage brush. Saltpetre is found, though 
rarely ; sulphur is rather too common ; borax is found 
in moderate amount; petroleum has lately been dis 
covered " in paying quantities," and the native alum 
was analyzed and pronounced good by Dr. Gale. From 
his report a hundred grammes of the freshly crystalized 
salt gave : 

Water 70.3 

Protoxide of manganese 08.9 

Alumina 04.0 

Sulphuric acid 18.0 

Of the vast chemical wealth of the Territory but 
little is known, and next to nothing has been utilized, 
but in a general view the entire Basin seems a vast 
laboratory of nature, where all the primitive processes 
have been carried out on a scale so extensive as to 
make man s dominion, at first -sight, seem forever im 

First in interest among the large bodies of water, is 


the Great Salt Lake, the " Dead Sea of America," which 
lies toward the northwest corner of Utah Territory, 
4,200 feet above sea-level, and twelve miles, at the 
nearest point from Salt Lake City. It is in the form 
of an irregular parallelogram, of which the major axis, 
running N. W. by N., is seventy miles in length, and 
the minor axis forty miles; the different projections, 
however, greatly increase the area, which is laid down 
by Captain Stansbury at 90 by 40 miles, in round 
numbers. The first mention in history of this wonder 
ful Lake is by Baron Hontan, French Governor of New 
foundland, who made a voyage west of the Mississippi, 
in the year 1690, and sailed for six weeks up a river, 
probably the Missouri, according to his description. 
Here he found a nation of Indians called the " Gnacsi- 
tares," probably one of the now extinct Mandan tribes. 
These Indians brought to him four captives of a "na 
tion, far to the west, whom they called Mozeemleks," 
of whom the Baron says : 

" The Mozeemlek nation is numerous and puissant. 
These four captives informed me that at a distance of 
one hundred and fifty leagues from where I then was, 
their principal river empties itself into a salt lake of 
three hundred leagues in circumference, the mouth of 
which is two leagues broad; that there are a hundred 
towns, great and small, around that sort of sea, and 
upon it they navigate with such boats as you see drawn 
on the map, which map the Mozeemlek people drew me 
on the bark of trees ; that the people of that country 
made stuffs, copper axes, and several other manufac 
tures, which the Outagamis and other interpreters could 


not give me to understand as being altogether unac 
quainted with such things/ etc., etc., etc. 

These captives may have been of the Ute nation, or 
more probably, the semi-civilized races of Mexico had 
colonies there at that time, as indicated by the ruins 
found south of the Lake. The next mention of the 
Lake is in a work published in America in 1772, en 
titled "A description of the Province of Carolana, by 
the Spaniards called Florida, and by the French called 
Louisiane," in which are recited the native accounts of 
"a lake many leagues west of the mountains, in which 
there is no living creature, but around its shore the 
spirits inhabit in great vapors, and out of that lake a 
great river disembogues into the South Sea! 

The " spirits" w r ill be readily recognized in the Hot 
Springs, but it is singular that both accounts should 
give the Lake an outlet. Not long afterwards the Lake 
became well known to hunters and trappers, and in 
1845 Colonel Fremont, then on his second expedition, 
made a sort of flying survey, which was scientifically 
completed in 1849-50, by Captain Howard Stansbury. 
In geologic ages the Lake was doubtless an inland sea, 
which has declined to its present limits ; but it is sin 
gular that since Stansbury s survey the lake surface has 
risen at least twelve feet, of which eight feet were 
gained in the years 1865-66 and 67. The natural 
result has been to greatly weaken the saline character 
of the water. There is a wide-spread misapprehension 
on this subject, it being customary for Eastern lecturers 
to state that " three gallons of the water will make one 
of salt" The highest estimate, however, that by Fre- 



mont, only gave twenty-four per cent, of salt, and the 
water was taken from the northwest corner, the most 
saline portion of the lake. Dr. Gale found one hundred 
parts of the water to contain solid contents 22.282, dis 
tributed as follows : 

Chloride of sodium, (common salt) 20.196 

Sulphate of soda 1.834 

Chloride of magnesium 0.252 

Chloride of calcium a trace 


But it is quite evident that an analysis at this time 
would show much less, probably not more than 18 per 
cent, of solid matter, perhaps even less in the Eastern 
part, and not over 12 or 14 per cent, in Bear River 
Bay, the least saline arm of the Lake. Those engaged 
in making salt on Spring Bay, certainly the most 
saline, state that in 1869 it required six gallons of 
water to make one of salt. Even with this reduction, 
it has no superior but the Dead Sea water, of which 
one hundred parts give solid contents 24.580, while 
the Atlantic ocean only averages three and a half per 
cent, of its weight, or about half an ounce to the pound. 
At the spring floods the Lake often rises several feet, and 
retiring in the summer, leaves vast deposits of crystal- 
ized salt. In places, large bayous could easily be filled 
during the summer by wind-mills upon the Lake shore, 
making millions of tons of salt at a trifling outlay. 
Considering the area of the Lake, 90 by 40 miles, and 
its average depth ten feet, this would give a little over 
a thousand billion solid feet of water, or at the rate 
above mentioned, 4,800,000,000 tons of salt ! Estimat- 


ing the population of the earth at 1200 millions, this 
would be enough to supply them all, as well as domestic 
animals, for a thousand years. All through the slopes 
northwest of the lake and down the western shore, 
are a number of springs running pure brine, and east 
of the Promontory, all the wells dug within five miles 
of the Lake have yielded salt "water at a short depth. 

If any one doubts the statement that the waters of 
the Lake are taken up by evaporation, and inclines to 
the hypothesis of an underground outlet, he can easily 
convince himself by dipping a basin of the water and 
exposing it for a few moments to the action of sun and 
wind; the drying air and the direct rays of the sun 
will evaporate it in an incredibly short space of time. 

Very beautiful effects are produced by taking shrubs 
of dwarf oak or pine, and dashing the salt water over 
them at intervals of a few minutes, allowing the salt to 
form on the leaves in thin filmy crystals. The ingenu 
ity of man seems in a fair way to utilize even the im 
mense saline deposits in and near the Lake. The newly 
discovered process of reducing native ore, in which salt 
is extensively used, bids fair to be generally adopted, 
and, as there is valuable ore all over Nevada and three- 
fourths of Utah, the day may not be distant when we 
will need all of this useful preservative, which is poured 
out here in such profusion as to seem a waste on the 
part of nature. Whence comes this salt ? The mount 
ain rains and melting snows carry the washings of the 
"salt mountains" of southern Utah to Utah Lake, 
where they are imperceptible to the taste, but are car 
ried down by the Jordan ; united with the contributions 


of Bear Eiver and the brine springs of Promontory, 
they are subjected to the condensing process of nature 
in Grealt Salt Lake. If there were an underground 
outlet, a few months discharge, with the constant re 
ception of fresh water, would make it as fresh as Utah 
Lake. Standing on the shore of Great Salt Lake, one 
may observe the whole process of nature in rain forma 
tion, he may see the mist from the lake rise to a certain 
height, then form in light fleecy clouds which sail away 
to the mountains, where they are caught by projecting 
peaks and higher currents of air, and forced into denser 
masses, and at times he may observe them pouring 
upon the heights, the water which will run back and 
mingle with the mass at his feet, completing thus the 
cycle of moisture which Solomon remarked in the ex 
actly similar phenomena of the Dead Sea : "All the 
rivers run into the sea, yet the sea is not full; to the 
place whence they came, thither the waters return." 

The country bordering Great Salt Lake presents al 
most every possible variety of soil, but little or no 
change in climate. 

First to the south lies Jordan Valley, which is gen 
erally meant when the people speak of Salt Lake Val 
ley, forty miles long by about twelve in breadth ; all 
the eastern half is valuable for agriculture, and most 
of the western for grazing. Proceeding northward a 
strip of salt marsh and low pasture land, near the Lake, 
is bounded on the east by a strip of fertile land from 
one to five miles wide, back of which are considerable 
pastures, even some distance up the mountain side. The 
same is true of Bear Eiver Valley and the eastern 


slope of the Promontory, the former consisting of a fer 
tile tract from ten to fifteen miles in width ; but crossing 
Promontory to the west the change is sudden, and we 
find at the northwest corner of the Lake a valley of al 
kali flats and salt-beds of indescribable barrenness. The 
entire western shore is a perfect desert ; a salt and arid 
waste of clay and sand, of the consistency of mortar in 
wet weather and a bed of stifling dust in dry ; not even 
the sage brush and greasewood find life in the poisonous 
soil, and near the Lake thousands of acres lie glistening 
in the sun, bare white with salt and alkali. Running 
water is found in but one place, and even the scant 
springs are separated by journeys of fifty miles. It is 
comfortable to reflect that a further rise of five feet in 
the Lake surface would bring it upon this desert, with 
an area of seventy miles square to cover, and requiring 
at least ten times as much water for a rise of one foot 
as it did ten years ago. Along the shore the atmosphere 
is bluish and hazy, and Captain Stansbury observes 
that " it is a labor to use telescopes for geodetic purposes, 
and astronomical observations are very imperfect." In 
the body of the Lake are several islands and projecting 
rocks, designated in the order of their size, as follows : 

1. Antelope, also called Church or Mormon Island, 
having been appropriated by the corporation or Church 
of Latter-day Saints, for their stock, a sort of consecra 
ted cattle-corral " for the Lord and Bro. Brigham." 

At the nearest point it is about twenty miles north 
west of Salt Lake City ; for many years the channel 
between it and the eastern shore was fordable, and is 
still occasionally ; it contains a number of green valleys, 
and some springs of pure water. 


In the shape of an irregular diamond, with a sharp 
western projection from the northern point, it is sixteen 
miles long with an extreme width of seven miles ; it 
contains many ridges and detached peaks, the highest 
3,000 feet above the lake, and consequently 7,200 above 
sea-level. Near the northeastern coast is a rock called 
Egg Island, and on the most eastern cliff, " they say " 
there is a cave, with remarkable blue grottoes, of which 
" monstrous stories " have been told. 

2. Stansbury Island is the second largest in the Lake, 
lying southwest of Antelope, near the western shore, 
with which it is connected at rare intervals of low 
water by a sand-spit. It is about half the size of Ante 
lope Island, and consists of a single ridge, twelve miles 
in length, and rising three thousand feet above the 
lake. It is of some use for grazing purposes, and is 
frequented by ducks, geese, plover, gulls and pelicans. 

3. Carrington Island, so named from the Mormon 
engineer, Albert Carrington, who assisted Captain Stans 
bury in his survey, is an irregular circle with a single 
central peak ; it contains no springs, but abounds in a 
great variety of plants and flowers. It lies a little 
northwest of Stansbury, and west of the north point of 
Antelope Island, near the western shore. 

4. Fremont Island lies between Antelope and Prom 
ontory Point, nearer the last, and just below the point 
where Bear Kiver Bay opens into the central part of 
the lake. It is shaped somewhat like a half moon 
abounds in plants, particularly the wild onion, but is 
destitute of wood and water. Colonel Fremont named 
it Disappointment Island, having been led to believe, 


before visiting it ? that it abounded in " trees and shrub 
bery, teeming with game of every description ; " Stans- 
bury gave its present name, and it is sometimes locally 
known as " Castle Island," suggested probably by the 
turreted formation of its principal peak. 

5. Dolphin Island lies far up towards the northwest 
ern corner, a mere rocky knoll. 

6. Hat Island, southeast of Gunnison, and another 
small island in the vicinity are probably pail of the same 
reef. The deepest sounding in the Lake, forty feet, is 
found between Stansbury and Antelope Islands. The lat 
ter is also rich in minerals, marble of the finest quality and 
roofing slate, being readily obtained hi large quantities. 
Boats could run directly alongside of the quarries and 
load with the greatest convenience. A considerable 
boating interest will yet be built up on the Lake, in 
which these islands will play an important part. On the 
eastern shores of the Lake are cultivated farms, populous 
towns, mines of all valuable metals ; on the island are 
valuable tracts for pasturage, and at the foot of the sur 
rounding mountains are medicinal springs, hot and cold, 
sulphur, iron and soda. The summer air of the Lake 
is light, saline and health-inspiring; the scenery un 
surpassed, and abounding in views of memorable beauty. 
The romance of this Mare Mortuum has survived the 
investigations of science, and from a region of miscon 
ception and fable, the vicinity of the Great Salt Lake 
has become the Switzerland of America. 

Besides the noted " Dead Sea," the Great Basin is 
well provided with lakes, such as they are, of which 
those in Utah constitute an irregular chain from north 
to south. 


Bear Lake, a mere " tarn " among the mountains, 
extending from Cache Valley into Idaho, is chiefly 
notable as the home of the " Bear Lake Monster," a 
nondescript with a body" half seal, half serpent, and a 
head somewhat like a sea lion, which has often been 
seen and described by Indians and Mormons, but never 
by white Christians, that I have heard of. It has 
never been properly classified or named, as it is invisi 
ble when scientific observers are at hand, but from the 
descriptions current among the latter-day Philosophers, 
I judge it to be a relic of that extinct species generally 
denominated the " Ginasticutis." 

The sweetwater reservoir, Utah Lake, is fed by large 
streams from the western slopes of the Uintah range, 
its circumference, exclusive of offsets, being estimated 
at eighty miles. This singular analogue of the Sea of 
Galilee receives the waters from the southern moun 
tains, containing a few grains of salt to the gallon, and 
after furnishing space for considerable evaporation, dis 
charges them by way of Jordan into Great Salt Lake. 
Sevier, Preuss, Nicollet, and Little Salt Lake in like 
manner receive and furnish "sinks" for the waters 
from the Iron Mountain range, and the southern branch 
of the Wasatch, none of these lakes communicating 
with any other, but each dependent on a distinct water 
system. Only the larger streams form lakes, the 
smaller are either evaporated or sink in ponds and 
puddles of black mire ; the waters in places reappear 
or pass underground to feed the larger lakes. 

The deserts of Utah consist of alkali flats, barren 
sand or red earth, resulting, in most instances, merely 


from the lack of water, for where this can be supplied 
in sufficient abundance, the alkali is, in no long time, 
washed away ; and many of the sandy districts, once 
thought to be irreclaimably barren, have been proved 
quite fertile by irrigation. It is quite evident, also, 
that a change has been going on for many years, re 
claiming large tracts in the vicinity of the mountains. 
Tracts, entirely barren a score of years ago, after re 
ceiving the wash of higher lands, present a scant growth 
of grease- wood, which is succeeded in time by whitesage 
brush, and that in turn by the ranker growth of blue 
sage-brush, each step marking an increase of fertility in 
the soil. Large tracts are found entirely barren of vege 
tation, others that have advanced to the grease-wood 
stage, still others to the growth of sage-brush. In many 
places the transition is evident, and from the testimony 
of early explorers, certain tracts have completed the 
entire circuit of increasing fertility within the memory 
of man. 

Utah is in the parallel of the Mediterranean, but the 
elevation renders it more bleak, though not liable to 
sudden vicissitudes of temperature ; the changes in any 
one winter are quite moderate, but the difference be 
tween successive winters is often much greater than in 
any other part of the United States. Cattle have been 
wintered in Cache Valley, Ogden Hole, and other sec 
tions, entirely upon the range and without shelter ; on 
the other hand, there have been winters in which all 
the settlements were isolated, when snow fell almost 
every day, with a high westerly wind, sometimes so 
high that spray was carried from the lake into the city. 


The first two winters the Mormons spent in the val 
ley were unusually mild, cattle living along the streams 
without feed; the third winter, and that of 1854-55, 
were exceedingly harsh, and the people being unused 
to make provisions therefor, many hundred cattle per 
ished in the snow. 

Twenty years ago, rain very seldom fell between May 
and October; in 1860 it continued quite showery, even 
to the first of July, and, at present, some rain may be 
counted on with certainty every month in the season. 
The change is attributed by one class of philosophers 
to a gradual change of the rain zones ; p by the Mormons 
to their prayers and piety, and the favor of Heaven, but 
is probably due to cultivation and planting. The same 
phenomenon is observed in western Nebraska and 
Kansas, and in upper Egypt. The Indians say, " the 
pale face brings his rain with him." The summer, as 
marked by the thermometer, is hot, but the great eleva 
tion, the lightness and dryness of the air, the cool winds 
from the canons and the complete absence of malaria, 
render it delightful and wholesome. 

At the north end of the lake they have the sea- 
breeze, the mountain air and the refreshing zephyrs 
from the plains. During the last summer the ther 
mometer usually rose eight or ten degrees from sun-rise 
till noon ; the greatest mid-day heat was not oppressive, 
and the mornings and evenings, cooled by the moun 
tain airs, were deliciously soft and pure. 

The most disagreeable feature of this section is the 
dust-storms and thunder-storms, which, during the last 
season, though not frequent, were severe. Showers 


are expected when the clouds come from the west and 
southwest ; from the east they will cling to the hills. 
Cultivation and irrigation giving greater facilities for 
evaporation, the process of nature in the cycle of mois 
ture is quickened, the particles of water make the 
circuit oftener, and more frequent showers are the re 
sult. It is evident this climate of cool, dry air in the 
winter, moderate dryness and extreme tenuity in the 
summer, and stimulating rarity at all seasons, is suited 
to all healthy and most sickly constitutions. Paralysis is 
rare, consumption almost unknown the climate lacks 
that humidity which develops the predisposition 
asthma and phthisis meet with immediate relief, and 
from my personal experience, it is evident the air tends 
to expand, strengthen and give tonic force to the lungs. 
But rheumatism and neuralgia are by no means uncom 
mon ; as in other bracing climates, they effect the poor, 
and those from any cause, insufficiently fed, housed or 
clothed during the winter. For all who would avoid 
humidity, either in soil or air; who. seek relief from 
pulmonary diseases or dyspepsia, the climate is unsur 
passed ; but for inflammatory diseases the good effects 
of this climate are still open to debate. 




Amount of arable land Its nature and location Increased rainfall Causes 
Probable greater increase Mode of irrigation Aquarian Socialism 
No room for competition Alkali Some advantages Yield of various 
crops u Beet-sugar" Sorghum syrup Mormon improvements (?) 
Grossly exaggerated True Wealth of Utah Mining and grazing 
Bunch-grass Mountain pastures Sheep and goats "Fur, fin and 
feather" Trapping and hunting Garni vora Ruminants Buffalo 
None in the Basin Shoshonee tradition Game, fowl Amphibia 
"Sandy toad" Serpents Fish Oysters in Salt Lake Insects 
"Mormon bedbugs" Advantages from the dry air Insectivora 
Crickets Grasshoppers or locusts ? Indians of Utah Rapid extinction 
" Diggers " " Club-men" Utes Shoshonees -Their origin Mor 
mon theory Scientific theory Chinese annals Tartans in America 
Mormon settlers Twenty -three years of "gathering" Much work, 
slow progress Reasons Inherent weakness of the system Great 
apostasy Their present number Exaggeration Enumeration of set 
tlements and population Nationality Total military force Future 
of the Territory. 

OF the entire area of the Great Basin, probably one 
half is a complete desert to begin with ; one-third is 
of value for grazing purposes, and the remaining one- 
sixth agricultural land. 

Most of the complete desert is in Nevada, and at 
least three-fourths of the fertile land in Utah. In the 
entire basin are numbered thirty-five considerable val 
leys containing cultivable land, of great, or at least 
average fertility, of which the best known are the 
Jordan or Salt Lake, Bear River, Sevier, Cache Tovelle, 


Ruby, Malad Carson, and Humboldt Valleys. Of these, 
all those in Utah are fully occupied by the Mormons, 
except Bear Eiver, on which they have but a few set 
tlements, and those along the mountains eastward. 
The entire basin thus contains about as much good 
land as the State of Indiana, and three or four times 
as much of little or no value. 

Even the most fertile valleys contain occasional 
desert tracts, generally of small extent, of which tracts, 
Bear Eiver and Cache Valleys contain the least. The 
Sevier Valley is peculiar in its features; the fertile 
tracts are apparently richer than in the more northern 
valleys, but the deserts much more barren and desolate 
in appearance ; the traveler, in places, traversing an 
arid waste five or ten miles in width, the bare, gray 
sand unrelieved even by white sage-brush, and then at 
a sudden turn of the road into a mountain cove, or a 
depression in the land, finding a few thousand acres of 
beauty and fertility. 

Towards the upper part of its course, that valley 
presents a rare picture of romantic beauty. Wood and 
water are abundant, game plenty, and the soil very rich 
along the foot of the mountains. The agricultural 
system of Utah would present many novel features to 
an eastern farmer, and at first view the difficulties would 
seem to him insurmountable. 

The most marked feature of the interior plains is 
the scarcity of timber ; for, with the exception of a few 
scant willows along two or three of the streams, the 
whole valley of Salt Lake was originally as bare of 
trees as if blasted by the breath of a volcano. 


The nearest timber to Salt Lake City, fit for fuel, is 
fifteen miles distant, and that up City Creek Canon, 
which belongs to Brigham Young, by act of Territorial 
Legislature ; and he requires every third load to be left 
at his corral. So, most of the fuel used in the city 
comes from canons twenty or twenty-five miles distant, 
and ranges from twelve to thirty dollars per cord. 

This evil has been greatly increased by their strip 
ping the heights more bare every year, and many 
.conjecture that this prevents the former heavy ac 
cumulations of snow, which, in turn, blows into the 
valley worse each winter, and may in time even lessen 
the source of the streams, which are chiefly supplied 
by the melting snow. 

Planting trees, except in orchards or along the streets, 
has been entirely neglected. Unlike the farmers of 
Iowa and Nebraska, who purpose to grow their own 
fire-wood, there is, not to my knowledge, an artificial 
grove in the entire valley. 

True, the trees would require occasional irrigation, 
but with the facilities afforded by the many little streams 
crossing the " bench," one man could easily attend to 
several thousand acres, and though his returns would 
be slow, they would in time be ample. The suggestion 
may sometime be found practicable. 

The second drawback is want of water, or rather of 
rain, for there is plenty of the article in streams which 
are the source of supply. 

At the first settlement of Utah there were periods of 
five or six months without rain, but of late years there 
has been a great change in that respect, and last sum- 


mer rains were so frequent along the streams that many 
tracts required no irrigation at all. This is probably 
due to the same cause as the similar phenomenon in 
other places ; but the change has probably been greater 
here, as irrigation, distributing the water so generally 
over the land in ditches and through fields, has presen 
ted a greater scope for solar evaporation, the great 
right hand of " cloud-compelling Jove." 

This has increased the fall of rain, which must, in 
turn, add to the productive force of nature, till in time 
irrigation will be needless for the small grains and 

Under the present system, each settlement becomes a 
sort of " socialistic community " as to its water supply. 
Enough of families must make a settlement together in 
some convenient valley, to construct a dam further up 
the canon, from which reservoir a main canal is carried 
through the settlement, and from this side canals and 
ditches convey the water among the farms, and thence 
into fields, and by tiny rivulets between the rows of 

The various crops are watered from one to three 
times per week, according to their nature, during the 
dry season. The greatest labor is in establishing a set 
tlement, and opening these sources of public supply, but 
thereafter, the whole settlement turns out each spring, 
at the call of the Water-Marshal, and a few days work 
gets all in order. 

Hence the settlement must move as a unit in this 
case, and every man claims a supply of water according 
to the money or labor contributed to the first construc 


For many years, in certain settlements, the Water- 
Marshal turned the supply to different districts at dif 
ferent hours, and the proprietors in each district further 
divided the time when each might take water ; day and 
night during the dry season, being devoted to the work. 
In some settlements, and in the city, fines as high as 
sixty dollars were imposed for " stealing water," that is, 
for turning it on one s fields out of the prescribed time. 
But with the increase of rain and heavy dews which 
now water " the garden of the Lord and modern Zion," 
this aquatic penuriousness has ceased to be necessary, 
and there are but few if any localities where one may 
not " take water " at any hour. 

The great expense is in getting the system started ; 
after that it need not be as great as the losses attendant 
on waiting for rain in other regions, or having too much 
of it at a time. Herein also is an important politico- 
religious feature of the system ; no Gentile can start in 
with a new settlement, formed as it is by a " call " from 
the Church authorities, and he cannot of course go it 
alone. Gentiles could only settle by entire neighbor 
hoods together, or in some place buy out a Saint whose 
water-rights are already established, and run with the 
land. For these and other reasons, one rarely meets 
with a Gentile outside of the towns. 

Alkali is another enemy of the Utah farmer. A 
moderate infusion is thought to be an advantage, but 
in many places it is so thick as to " flower out " like a 
heavy frost or light snow on the surface ; there it is 
fatal to most crops, and many think it will not yield to 
the longest continued cultivation. Some crops will 


flourish, where it is abundant, others are ruined by the 
slightest sprinkle. The common 1 pie-plant entirely 
loses its acidity, and the sorghum cane is completely 
v " alkalied." 

But the principle of compensation in nature applies 
even here, and the Utah farmer has some marked ad 
vantages. There are neither droughts nor freshets 
both considerable items to an Illinois farmer ; the latter 
are unknown, and the former of no consequence in the 
practice of irrigation. In the summer of 1866, there 
occurred a furious wind and rain storm in the locality 
of the writer s residence in the States, which destroyed 
corn, wheat, and fruit, to the value of fifty thousand 
dollars in one township. This amount would have ir 
rigated for many years, a tract in Utah as large as that 

Wheat for many seasons has required but one or 
two waterings, and in 1867 the average yield, accord 
ing to Mormon statistics, was seventeen bushels per 
acre. With flour at eighteen dollars per barrel, and 
last year it was sometimes above that, this would pay 
well for irrigation. 

Barley and potatoes yield very heavily, and have 
heretofore sold at enormous prices. But the last year 
there has been a great decline in prices. The land pro 
duces all the small grains, especially wheat, oats and 
barley, in great abundance; a little Indian corn is 
raised, but the climate is not favorable ; nearly all the 
fruits and vegetables of the temperate zone, pumpkins, 
beets and carrot&^-in Gentile slang, " Mormon currency" 
in great size and plenty. Peaches of fine flavor, in, J 


in great quantity, are grown in almost every valley. 
Salt Lake Valley and the lower tracts adjacent being most 
favorable. But I do not fully appreciate the apples of 
Salt Lake ; they seem insipid, stunted in some places and 
overgrown in others, and decidedly " pithy." The lower 
part of Bear River Valley and the slopes leading 
thereto, have all the natural indications for one of the 
finest fruit countries in the world, the easy changes 
of the winter and spring being peculiarly favorable. 

Beets and onions grow to an unusual size, which sug 
gested, in 1853, the idea of making beet sugar. The 
"inspired priesthood," headed by " Brother Brigham," 
entered into the matter with zeal ; one hundred thou 
sand dollars were expended upon the building and 
machinery, but the Lord must have "spoken to the 
Prophet with an uncertain voice ;" for the experiment 
failed utterly ; on account of the alkali, the Mormons 
say ; for want of good management, say the perverse 
Gentiles, who sometimes add that the Saints made a 
fiery article of " Valley Tan " whiskey out of the useless 
material. But other sweets abound; there is great 
profit in sorghum, and one farmer near Kaysville reports 
that last year he made one hundred and five gallons 
from one-third of an acre, and two hundred gallons per 
acre throughout his field. At the low price of one dol 
lar per gallon, this will pay for irrigation. But cane 
farmers must avoid the alkali lands. Of farm improve 
ments there is little to be said. The impression prevails 
quite generally that the Mormons are remarkably in 
dustrious. I have impartially endeavored to find the 
evidence, but, with due regard for others opinions, I 


fail to see it. They have built houses, barns and fences, 
but such as they were absolutely forced to have in order 


to live at all. If there is a single farm-house between 
Salt Lake City and Bear Kiver, which shows an ad- 
yanced idea of architecture, I do not remember it. 

If there is any particular development of taste, out 
side a few of the cities, any adornment which shows an 
aspiration for the higher and more beautiful, or any im 
provements indicating comprehensive grasp and energy 
of thought, I have missed them in my travels. The 
Mormon converts are drawn from the most industrious 
races of Europe ; it was impossible for even Mormonism 
to entirely spoil them, and they have done nearly as 
well, perhaps, as any other people would have done under 
the same circumstances. 

Compared with the same races in the Western States, 
the Swedes, Norwegians, Danes and English, of Iowa 
or Minnesota, the latter have made as much progress in 
five years after settlement as the Mormons in ten or 


twenty. But on the credit side of the estimate for the 
latter, we must set down the fact of their great distance 
from civilization, the natural barrenness of much of their 
country, the grasshoppers, crickets, wild beasts and 
Indians with which they had to contend ; the spiritual 
despotism under which they labor ; their poverty and 
their ignorance of this mode of farming ; on the debit 
side, the advantages from overland travel, and neigh 
boring mining regions, which enabled them to obtain 
fabulous prices for their grain, the general advantages 
of a new country in " fur, fin ; and feather," the rare 
healthfulness of their climate, the unlimited range for 
stock and the benefits of unity in their labor system. 

The wonder is that they settled there at all ; having 
settled there they, have done less in the way of im 
provement than their countrymen in other sections in 
half the time. 

But the true wealth of the Territory is in grazing 
and mining. The range is practically unlimited and 
the mountain bunch-grass is the best in the world for 
cattle. This valuable and rather anomalous provision 
of nature seems to be indigenous to the interior plains 
of the Rocky Mountains. It is first found, I believe, 
on the western slope of the Black Hills, and extends to 
the eastern slope of the Sierra Nevadas. West of that 
boundary it gives place to other seeded grasses of the 
Pacific slope, and to the " wild oats " of California, 
which are supposed to have been introduced by the 
Spaniards. Millions of acres are rendered valuable by 
the presence of bunch-grass, which, without it, could 
hardly be traversed by cattle. As the name indicates 


it grows in clumps, and to an eastern eye would appear 
as if it sought the most barren spots, flourishing even 
upon slopes of sandy and stony hills. Like winter 
wheat it remains green and juicy under the snow; it 
usually commences growing in February or March, and 
continues till May or June, when it dries up and ap 
pears to die, but in the form of a light straw contains 
abundant nutriment. In places, during autumn and 
after shedding the seed, it puts forth a green shoot, 
apparently within the old withered stalk; with the 
advance of summer the best is found higher up the 
mountains, and it thus furnishes food the year round. 

It yields a small pyriform seed, which is greedily de 
voured by cattle, and has remarkable fattening proper 
ties, giving an excellent flavor to the beef. It is often 
a subject of remark, how little food will fatten cattle 
upon the elevated prairies, and interior plateaus of the 
West ; the exceeding purity, dryness and rarity of the 
air, by perfecting the processes of digestion and assimi 
lation, no doubt accounts for this. 

The same has been observed of the highlands of 
Central Asia. From the same causes cattle endure a 
greater degree of cold without shelter, and the plains 
can be made to produce abundant forage for winter. 
The finest, juciest, tenderest steaks of home growth, 
appear daily upon the tables of the Utah publicans, and 
there is scarcely a limit to the possible supply. By 
greater improvement in irrigation, and by the increase 
of rain, Utah will in time have great agricultural wealth, 
but stock raising will be her best paying interest. 

Facilities for grazing are practically unbounded, the 


valleys supply plentiful pasturage in winter, and as 
spring advances and the snow line recedes up the hills, 
cattle will find fresh pastures. 

In the valleys of Green, Grand and Colorado rivers, 
are many thousand square miles of the finest country 
in the world for wool growing ; on all the mountain 
slopes west of Bear River grass grows luxuriantly, and 
the higher portions of Sevier Valley contain millions of 
acres of grazing land, the natural home of the Merino 
sheep and Cashmere goat ; the climate and elevation are 
exactly suitable for the production of the finest wools; 
all the facilities for manufacturing exist along the lower 
course of the mountain streams, and the day will come 
when the finest of shawls and other fabrics will be pro 
duced in Utah, rivalling the most famous productions 
from the highlands of Persia and Hindoostan. 

Of " fur, fin and feather," the Great Basin is rather 
deficient, in an economical view. There are minks, 
ermines, American badgers, wolverines, woodchucks, 
musk-rats, beavers and otters, the last two rare in other 
parts, but still found in such plenty on the upper tribu 
taries of Bear River, as to make trapping profitable. 
The principal carnivora are the cougar, cat-o-mountain, 
large and small wolf, and a variety of foxes. Of the 
ruminants we find the antelope, deer, elk, and Rocky 
Mountain sheep. The buffalo is seldom found west of 
Laramie plains, not at all in the Great Basin, though 
the Indians have a tradition that they were once very 
numerous even to the Sierra Nevadas, and old hunters 
and travelers speak of finding traces of their former 
existence there. The Shoshonees give, the following 






















00 I 

short short 

01 OW 

bl V f 7 


a c 



6 D S 


I M 


Mormon Alphabet. Invented by 0. Pratt and W. Phelps 
to be used in Mormon Literature. 


account of their banishment : When the buffaloes 
herded in great numbers in these valleys, the crickets 
were less in number than now, but being the weakest 
of all the animals, they had the ear of the Great Spirit 
when oppressed. The buffaloes, in crowding to the 
rivers to drink, trampled upon the crickets and did 
not heed their cries, upon which the latter complained 
to the Great Spirit, who by a sweeping decree changed 
all the buffaloes to a small race of crickets, leaving no 
thing of the buffalo but the milt ! It is a singular fact 
that the crickets found in the basin contain a " milt " 
or spleen, exactly similar in shape to that of the bovine 

Of game birds there are several varieties : quail or 
partridges; two varieties of grouse, the most common 
called the sage-hen ; the mallard duck is found in great 
plenty on the lower part of Bear Kiver and Jordan, 
and is particularly abundant on the Sevier; while 
brant, curlew, plover and wild geese are much more 
numerous than the appearance of the country would 
indicate. Of useless animals and reptiles there are 
quite enough to give variety to animated nature. That 
purely western American phenomenon, half toad, half 
lizard, locally known as the " horned toad " or " sandy 
toad," scientifically ranked Phrynosoma, is found on all 
the high, dry plains. Its scaly body and inability to 
jump prevents its ranking strictly among " batrachi- 
ans." It is found on the highest and driest ridges, is 
calloused on the belly like an alligator, its back is 
thickly studded with horny points about a quarter of an 
inch in length, it has legs like a common toad, but runs 
swiftly like a lizard. 


Of serpents, there are rattlesnakes, water snakes and 
swamp adders, and a few others, all very rare. The 
fishes are perch, pike, bass, chub, mountain trout, and 
a species of salmon trout, of which thirty-pound speci 
mens have been caught. There are very few molluscs, 
periwinkles or snails. There has been much discussion 
of a project to plant oysters in Salt Lake at the various 
river mouths, but the scheme seems to have been aban 
doned. Probably it would not succeed, from the ex 
treme density of the lake water, which is often driven 
some distance up the rivers by high winds. 

In view of the desirableness of any country as a place 
of residence, the entomology is no inconsiderable item. 
Utah, in regard to insect life, is subject to great extremes. 
On entering the Territory from the east, the visitor s 
first impression would be that both animal and insect life 
were rare. On the road from Green River to Salt Lake 
City, particularly in the early part of the season, there 
are few stock flies, few scavengers and few large birds ; 
troublesome insects are rare, even in the valleys, and 
unknown on the upland desert ; but in other localities 
there is a surplus, and after longer residence one finds 
enough of them to be troublesome. 

In Salt Lake City the flies are probably worse, both 
as to number and peculiarities, than in any other city 
in America, but fortunately their time is very short. 
During the spring and early summer they are rarely 
seen ; in August they begin to multiply, " coming in 
with the emigration," according to local phrase, mean 
ing the Mormon emigrants, who formerly completed the 
journey across the plains by the latter part of July. 


From the middle of August till cool weather they are 
perfectly fearful, certainly much worse than they need 
be if proper cleanliness were practised ; large, flat-headed, 
light- winged and awkward, they light and crawl over the 
person in the most annoying manner, not yielding, like 
" Gentile flies," to a light brush or switch, but requiring 
literally to be swept off. No other part of the Territory 
I have visited, is half so bad in this respect as Salt 
Lake City, and the southern valleys seem peculiarly 
free from this pest. 

Fleas are, in western phrase, "tolerable bad," but 
bed bugs are intolerable ; both in numbers and voracity 
those of Utah beat the world, particularly in the coun 
try towns, and among the poorer classes of foreign-born 
Mormons. In certain settlements their ravage is incred 
ible, and Mormon bed-bugs seem as much worse than 
others as their human companions. Like the latter, 
too, they seem to regard the Gentile as fair prey. More 
than once, in some secluded valley, has the writer re 
tired to rest (intentionally) with reckless confidence, 
and after an hour of fierce resolution to hold out 
against any amount of blood letting, has risen from his 
couch with a full appreciation of Byron s beautiful line : 

" No sleep till morn 

I have given the worst side of affairs first, and in 
other respects the resident is rather free from annoy 
ance. Mosquitoes are bad in very few places ; three- 
fourths of the country is entirely exempt, lacking 
humidity enough to produce them. With stock flies 
the case is much the same ; in places along Bear River, 


and other streams where the current is sluggish they 
are troublesome, though such places are rare. In places 
around the Lake gnats are troublesome, and Captain 
Stansbuiy speaks of encountering on the western shore 
dense swarms of small black flies, of which he says : 
"An incredible number perfectly covered the white 
sand near the shore, changing its color completely a 
fact only revealed as the swarms rose upon being dis 
turbed by our footsteps. They, too, had apparently been 
driven in by the storm; for I afterwards discovered 
that they were as thick upon the water as the land, 
moving over its surface with great ease and swiftness. 
In the shallows left by the receding waters, I noticed 
also quite a number of ants (the first I had seen) 
drowned seemingly by the over-flow. Both of these 
insects furnished food for the gulls and snipes, which 
are almost the only birds found along this shore. 
Across the little bay ran a broad streak of froth or 
foam, formed by the meeting of counter currents, and 
driven in by the wind. Passing through it I found it 
filled with the small black flies, in the midst of which 
were flocks of gulls, floating upon the water and in 
dustriously engaged in picking them up, precisely as a 
chicken would pick up grains of corn, and with the 
same rapidity of motion." 

With the exceptions noted, the whole of Utah is re 
markably free from insects ; there are few, if any, of 
the thousand varieties of wood-borers, aphides, tere- 
brce, curculio, weevil, wheat-fly, and the numberless in 
sects that infest the grass and the bark of trees in lower 
altidudes ; they are either totally wanting, or found so 


seldom as to be innoxious. In consequence there are 
very few birds of the insect-eating kinds, and no par 
ticularly dangerous reptiles. Of insects destructive to 
vegetation the cricket was once very troublesome, but 
ceased to be so at least ten years ago, though the grass 
hopper still makes occasional visits, as in all the Terri 
tories. The question has been raised in Utah, whether 
this insect, locally known as grasshopper is not really a 
locust perhaps the locust mentioned in Scripture. But 
an examination shows it to be congeneric with the in 
sect scientifically designated the OEDIPODA MIGRATORIA, 
which is certainly of the grasshopper species, though 
known in the East by the English name of " migratory 

The grasshopper of Utah is not so long and thin, 
light-bodied and "clipper built" as that of Nebraska 
and Kansas, but fully as destructive to vegetation; 
though of late years its ravages have been confined to 
certain limited localities. Though numerous enough in 
Salt Lake City the past season to constitute a "visita 
tion," they did very little damage "poisoning the skin 
of apples" to a slight extent. 

From grasshoppers to Indians may seem to the East 
ern mind an abrupt transition ; but the original in 
habitants of Utah merit a brief notice. All the old 
accounts represent the Indians of the Great Basin as 
the lowest and most degraded of their race, and one is 
surprised in the chronicles of only thirty years ago to 
read of tribes, or rather bands and parts of tribes, now 
totally extinct. 

The "Club-men," a race of savage and filthy cannibals 


were once quite numerous in all the central and western 
valleys, but are now entirely extinct ; and many of the 
races mentioned by M. Violet, who lived among the 
Shoshonees thirty-five years ago, are no longer to be 

From these and other facts, it is very probable that 
all the Indians known as "diggers" were mere outcasts 
from other tribes, or the remnants of more noble tribes 
conquered in war, which had been forced into the Basin 
as a place of refuge. 

Their tribal organization broken up; their .former 
hunting grounds forbidden them; and themselves com 
pelled to subsist only on the meanest and least nourish 
ing fare, they degenerated rapidlyinmoraZe and physique, 
at the same time that they decreased in number. 

They subsisted chiefly upon roots dug from the 
ground, the seeds of various plants indigenous to the 
soil, ground into a kind of flour between flat stones; 
and upon lizards, crickets, and fish at some seasons of 
the year. Thus lacking the food which furnishes 
proper stimulus to the brain and muscles, each succeed 
ing generation sank lower in the scale of humanity; 
the generative powers declined under a regimen of 
exposure and scant nourishment; few children were 
born and fewer reared to maturity, and the kindness of 
nature s law forbade increase where life promised naught 
but exposure and misery. Of such races the numerical 
decline must have been steady and rapid, and their 
numbers only maintained by the successive additions 
from the superior races north and east. A little above 
these, in the scale of humanity, are the Utes or Utahs, 


inhabiting nearly all the southern part of the Great 
Basin, and extending into Colorado as far as the bound 
ary of the Arapahoes, with whom they are almost con 
tinually at war. The word Ute or Utah signifies, in 
their language, "man," "dweller," or "resident," and by 
the additions of other syllables, we have the three grand 
divisions of that race : Pi-Utes, Gosha-Utes, Pah-Utes, 
which may be freely translated "mountaineers," "val 
ley men," and "dwellers by the water," those prefixes 
respectively indicating "mountain," "valley," and "wa 
ter." Of all these the bravest are the mountain Utes, 
among whom we might include the Uintahs ; but the 
Indians of the lower countries are rather cowardly, and 
dangerous only by theft or treachery. Far superior to 
any of these are the Shoshonees or Snakes, found all 
along the northern border of Utah, and extending 
thence northeast to the Bannacks and westward into 
Idaho and Nevada. 

They have a complete tribal organization, and some 
thing like government and council among themselves ; 
own horses and cattle, and display some ingenuity in 
their dwellings, and in the construction of fish weirs and 
traps of willow bushes. They feel also something like 
pride of race, and to call a Shoshonee a " digger," is 
more of an insult than to stigmatize a very light mu 
latto as a " nigger." 

The origin of the Indians has been a subject of fre 
quent inquiry among American antiquarians. Some 
forty years ago, an idea was broached, and for awhile 
prevailed quite extensively, that they were the descend 
ants of the "lost tribes" of ancient Israel, n.nd that 


veracious chronicle, the " Book of Mormon," has traced 
their descent from a Jewish family, who left Jerusalem 
six hundred years before Christ. But if we are to 
to draw our arguments from any recognized human 
source, from language, features, customs, habits or tra 
ditions, there are no two races on earth of whose kin 
ship there is so little proof. 

The features may be greatly altered by climate, cus 
toms may change with circumstances, and two thousand 
years may be long enough to pervert the radical princi 
ples of a people s religion ; but language, not as to single 
words but as to grammatical construction and derivation, 
has ever been considered the surest test of ethnological 
relationship; and every fact in the language of the 
Jews and those of various Indian tribes, disproves the 
theory of a common origin. To cite but one : languages 
are divided into primitive, and derivative or compound ; 
the latter showing by their combinations a derivation 
from older tongues, and the former maintaining their 
simple formation, consisting of a certain number of 
radical syllables. 

A primitive language is never derived from a com 
pound one, the latter is from the former. 

The Indian languages are all primitive, showing no 
derivation from any older language, even the occasional 
words of similar sound being evidently accidental, and 
not nearly so numerous as those of the same form in 
the Greek and the language of the South Sea canni 
bals. The Hebrew, on the contrary is a derivative 
language, the outgrowth of older Seme tic dialects, and 
by its finish and complex structure, the language of the 


Psalms shows that mankind had even then at least two 
thousand years of progress and cultivation in language. 
Such a speech may be corrupted in the mouths of a 
barbarous people, but can never return to its primitive 
type ; through a thousand variations and centuries of 
corruption and foreign intermixture, though constantly 
debased, it will become more complex and farther from 
its radical formation. In all other branches of the in 
quiry, a parallel between the Jews and Indians is found 
only in two, or at most, three points of their religion ; 
both believe in One God, an all prevading Spirit, and in 
sacrifices ; the latter belief they share with nearly all 
the races of men, and the former with many of them. 
M. Violet, a Frenchman who came to California forty 
years ago, and spent many years among the Shosho- 
nees, investigated their language and traditions with 
much care, and came to the conclusion that they were 
descendants of the Mantcheux Tartars. His reasons 
are good, and subsequent discoveries confirm the prob 
able truth of his theory. The lately discovered Chinese 
annals, which give an account of the expeditions sent 
out by the Tartar Kublai Khan, about the year 1280, 
A.D., which visited California, Mexico, Central America 
and Peru, show that they then recognized the fact that 
the country had been previously settled by men of 
another branch of their race. But it is not necessary to 
suppose all the Indians descended from one branch of 
the Tartars : the passage of the North Pacific being a 
proved fact, no doubt several different invasions of our 
western coast took place, dating, perhaps, even as far 
back as the fourth generation after Noah, who, it is 


generally agreed settled China, and who may be sup 
posed to have known something about navigation. 

Of the first discovery and exploration of the Great 
Basin this is not the proper place to treat ; but after the 
Indians, in the order of time, came the Mormons. They 
were the first white residents, and their history is the 
history of the Territory. Since July 24th, 1847, this 
has been their gathering place, the Territory of " the 
Lord and Bro. Brigham ; " a consecrated land of salt, 
alkali and religious concubinage; where their morals 
were to be cured, and their spiritual interests preserved. 

When we consider how many million people there 
are in the world to whom Mormonism is the natural 
religion, how full modern society is of the material for 
such a church, that it promises a heaven exactly after 
the natural heart of man, and with the least sacrifice of 
human pride, lust and passion ; when we add to this 
their vast and comprehensive missionary system, com 
passing sea and land to make one proselyte ; and the 
still more powerful fact that Mormonism comes to the 
poor of the old world not merely with the attractiveness 
of a new religion, but with the certainty of assisted 
emigration to America, a land described to them as 
flowing with milk and honey, we would naturally ex 
pect their recruits to be numbered by tens of thousands 

That Utah has not filled up and overflowed half a 
dozen times with the scum of Europe, can only be ac 
counted for by some inherent weakness in the system 

This weakness shows itself in two ways : inability to 


secure a class who would add real dignity and strength 
to a new commonwealth, and the constant loss through 
a steady and ever increasing apostasy. Unfettered 
American enterprise planted half a million people in 
Iowa in ten years ; the vast machinery of the Mormon 
emigration system, the excitement of religious fanati 
cism, the utmost zeal of a thousand missionaries preach 
ing temporal prosperity and eternal salvation to an ig 
norant people, backed by the assurance of a speedy pas 
sage to a new country, and aided by the advantages of 
an organization at once ecclesiastical and secular, have 
succeeded in twenty-three years in fixing an uncertain 
population of a hundred thousand in Utah. The Mor 
mon system of exaggerating their numbers is well 
known. At the death of Joe Smith, they numbereb 
nearly 200,000 throughout the world ; their own sta 
tistics showed half a million (Times and Seasons, Mil- 
lenmal Star, etc.) 

If they have half the latter number now, it is not 
shown by their published statistics. 

Their missionaries in the Eastern States give their 
strength in Utah, in round numbers, at 200,000. When 
Brigham Young was last questioned on that point, by a 
well-known politician last summer, he put the number 
at 120,000. 

A Judge of the U. S. Court who has traveled exten 
sively through the Territory, with good opportunities 
for judging, estimates the total population of Utah at 
85,000, probably a little too low. Tourists usually 
state the population of Salt Lake City in round num 
bers, at 25,000. There are in that city a little less 



than 1,800 houses, of all sizes, counting the barely hab 
itable ; allowing ten persons to the dwelling, we have 
18,000, a very full estimate. Gentile communities 
average five persons to the dwelling, but in Utah we 
must double to allow for infants and extra wives. The 
population of the Territory may be estimated with 
tolerable certainty from the census of former years, and 
well-known facts. By reference to the U. S. census of 
1860, it appears there were then in Utah, 20,255 males 
and 20,018 females; total 40,273. 

The rate of increase in ten years throughout the 
United States is less than 40 per cent.; if we allow 
the excessive ratio of 150 per cent, in Utah, it would 
make the population this year 100,000. It will not 
escape observation in passing that the males slightly out 
number the females, not exactly indicating polygamy as 
the natural law. The latest report we have at hand is 
that of Mr. Campbell, Mormon superintendent of com. 
mon schools, for the year 1863, in which appears the 
following : 

Number of boys between six and eighteen 3,950 

Number of girls between four and sixteen 3,662 

Total 7,612 

We cannot suppose from any known law of popu 
lation that the children between four and eighteen were 
less than one-sixth of the whole people. This would 
give us 46,000, nearly, for 1863, a very moderate in 
crease over 1860. It is hardly reasonable to suppose 
that the Mormons have increased more than 100 ]>cr 
cent, in seven years. Here again we see that the boys 
slightly outnumber the girls, which will make it rather 


difficult for some of them to get wives, if polygamy lasts 
through that generation. From personal observation, 
and the best information obtainable, I sum up the Mor 
mon population of Utah, beginning on the north, as 
follows : 

Cache and Bear Lake Valleys 13,000 

Thence to Brigham City 2,000 

Brigham City 2,000 

West of Bear River 1,000 

Thence to Ogden 1,000 

Ogden and vicinity 4,000 

Kaysville and vicinity 1,500 

Farmington and vicinity 2.500 

Centreville 1,500 

Bountiful (Session s Settlement) 2,000 

Weber Valley to Echo 2,500 

Coalville, Wanship and Upper Weber 4,000 

Total north of Salt Lake City 37,000 

Salt Lake City and near vicinity 20,000 

Thence to Utah Lake 7,000 

Provo 4,000 

Remainder of Utah Lake district 8,000 

Sevier and San Pete Valleys 3,000 

Provo to St. George 6,000 

St. George and vicinity 3,000 

Southern settlements 7,000 

Tooille and Ruby Valleys 4,000 

West of the last named (?) 1,000 

Grand total 100,000 

This population extends along an irregular line, or 
rather arc, five hundred miles from north to south ; a 
band fifty miles wide would include all the settlements, 
except a few immediately west, east and northeast of 
Salt Lake City ; nor have I made any deductions on 


account of the southern settlements, now known to be 
in Nevada and Arizona, or the few in the southern edge 
of Idaho. 

Of the entire population, the adult portion is made 
up very nearly as follows : from Great Britain, one-half; 
from Sweden, Norway and Denmark, one-third ; a dozen 
or twenty each from Ireland, Italy, France and Prussia ; 
a few Orientals ; five Jews ; a score or two of Kanakas ; 
and the remaining one-seventh or eighth, American. 
The children, of course, are nearly all natives. While 
the foreigners are as seven or eight to one in the body 
of the Church, the Americans are about six to one in 
the Presidencies, Quorum of Apostles, leading Bishops 
and Elders, showing pretty conclusively the "ruling 
race." We are bound to say that our fellow-country 
men are smart, if they are rascally. 

The entire Mormon people probably include nearly 
ten thousand men capable of bearing arms, of whom 
those in the northern settlements, and the American 
portion generally, know something of drill and the use 
of fire-arms ; of the Scandinavians, their skill may be 
judged from the fact that a thousand or more of them 
were driven out of Sevier Valley by three hundred 
Mountain Utes, twenty-two of the latter in one battle 
defeating a hundred and fifty militia. But the English 
and American Saints in the north displayed consider 
able bravery under Lot Smith, and other leaders, in 
1857, when Buchanan "crushed the Mormons." 

Whether they are still confident of their ability " to 
thrash the United States," cannot well be known. 
After a careful statement of its resources, Lieut. J. W. 


Gunnison, assistant to Capt. Stansbury, estimates that 
the entire Territory is capable of sustaining a popula 
tion of one million persons, entirely by grazing and 

The area is but half as large as at that time, and 
from my knowledge of fertile land still unoccupied, I 
am convinced that his estimate will apply proportion- 
ably at present. Thus, within the present limits of 
Utah may be developed a State, with a population of 
half a million engaged in agriculture, grazing, and do 
mestic manufacture, and a quarter of a million more 
engaged in mining. But long before that occurs, the 
Territory must undergo a political and social change, 
and Mormonism give way to Christianity, progress and 




The Endowment Actors Scenery and dress Pre-requisites Adain and 
Eve, the Devil and Michael, Jehovah and Eloheini A new version 
Blasphemous assumptions Terrible oaths Barbarous penalties Origin 
Scriptures and Paradise Lost Eleusinian mysteries " Morgan s 
Free-masonry " The witnesses Probabilities Their reasons 


Dramatis Persons. 

ELOHEIM, or Head God Brigham Young, 

JEHOVAH George A. Smith, 

JESUS Daniel H. Wells, 

MICHAEL George Q. Cannon, 

SATAN W. W. Phelps, 

APOSTLE PETER Joseph F. Smith, 


APOSTLE JOHN Erastus Snow, 

EVE Miss Eliza R. Snow. 

Clerk, Washers, Attendants, Sectarians, Chorus and Endowees. 



THE candidates present themselves at the Endow 
ment House, provided with clean clothes and a lunch ; 
they are admitted to the outer office, and their accounts 
with the Church verified by a clerk. Their names, 
ages and the dates of their conversion and baptism are 


1. Preparation Washing and Anointing-, 2, Eloheim Cursing Adam and 
live Satan Driven out, 3, Trial of Faith The "Searching Hand." 4, Oath 
to Avenge the Death of Joseph Smith, 5, The " Blood Atonement," 


entered in the register ; their tithing receipts are care 
fully inspected, and if found correct an entry thereof 
is made. This last is an indispensable before initiation, 
Evidence is also presented of faithful attendance on 
public service and at the " School of the Prophets." If 
any husband and wife appear who have not been sealed 
for eternity, a note is made of the fact, the ceremony to 
be performed in the initiation. They then remove their 
shoes and, preceded by the attendants, who wear slip 
pers, with measured and noiseless step enter the central 
ante-room, a narrow hall separated by white screens 
from two other rooms to the right and left ; the right 
one is for men, and the left for w r omen. 

Deep silence prevails, the attendants communicating 
by mysterious signs or very low whispers ; a dim light 
pervades the room, mellowed by heavy shades; the 
faint plash of pouring water behind the screens alone 
is heard, and the whole scene is calculated to cast a 
solemn awe over the ignorant candidates, waiting with 
subdued but nervous expectancy for some mysterious 
event. After a few moments of solemn waiting, the 
men are led to their washing-room on the right, and 
the women to the left. The female candidate is 
stripped, placed in the bath and washed from head to 
foot by a woman set apart for the purpose. Every 
member is mentioned, with a special blessing. 

" WASHER : Sister, I wash you clean from the 
blood of this generation, and prepare your members 
for lively service in the way of all true Saints. I 
wash your head that it may be prepared for that 
crown of glory awaiting you as a faithful Saint, and 


the fruitful wife of a priest of the Lord ; that your 
hrain may be quick in discernment, and your eyes able 
to perceive the truth and avoid the snares of the 
enemy ; your mouth to show forth the praise of the 
immortal gods, and your tongue to pronounce the true 
name which will admit you hereafter behind the veil, 
and by which you will be known in the celestial 
kingdom. I wash your arms to labor in the cause of 
righteousness, and your hands to be strong in building 
up the kingdom of God by all manner of profitable 
works. I wash your breasts that you may prove a 
fruitful vine, to nourish a strong race of swift witnesses, 
earnest in defence of Zion ; your body, to present it an 
acceptable tabernacle when you come to pass behind 
the veil ; your loins that you may bring forth a numer 
ous race, to crown you with eternal glory and strengthen 
the heavenly kingdom of your husband, your master 
and crown in the Lord. I wash your knees, on which 
to prostrate yourself and humbly receive the truth 
from God s holy priesthood ; your feet to run swiftly 
in the ways of .righteousness and stand firm upon the 
appointed places ; and now, I pronounce you clean from 
the blood of this generation, and your body an accepta 
ble temple for the indwelling of the Holy Spirit." 

A similar washing is performed upon the male can 
didate in his own room, and a blessing pronounced upon 

his bodv in like manner. 


He is then passed through a slit in the curtain to the 
next compartment forward; as he passes, an apostle 
whispers in his ear "a new name, by which he will be 
known in the celestial kingdom of God." 


Keaohing the second room, the candidate is anointed 
with oil, which has been previously blessed and conse 
crated by two priests, poured upon his head from a horn, 
or from a mahogany vessel shaped to resemble one. 
The oil is rubbed into his hair and beard, and upon each 
of his limbs, which are again blessed in order. At the 
same time the women are anointed in their own wash 
ing room. The candidate is then dressed in a sort of 
tunic, or close-fitting garment, reaching from the neck 
to the heels. This, or a similar one, blessed for the 
purpose, is always to be worn next to the body, to pro 
tect the wearer from harm and from the assaults of the 
devil. Many Mormons are so strenuous on this point, 
they remove the garment but a portion at a time when 
changing, partly slipping on the new before the old is 
entirely off. It is generally believed that Joe Smith 
took off his tunic the morning he went to Carthage, to 
avoid the charge of being in a secret society ; and that 
he would not have been killed, if he had retained it. 
Over the tunic comes the ordinary underclothing, and 
above a robe used only for this purpose; it is made of 
fine linen, plaited on the shoulders, gathered around the 
waist with a band, and falling to the floor behind and 
before. On the head is placed a cap of fine linen, and 
on the feet light cotton slippers. 

At this point begins, in the adjoining room, the pre 
paratory debate in the grand council of the gods, as to 
whether they shall make man. Eloheim, Jehovah 
Jesus and Michael intone a drama in blank verse, repre 
senting the successive steps in the creation of the world. 
Eloheim enumerates the works of each clay, and com. 


mends them all; at the close of each, all the others 
unite in a responsive chorus of surprise and praise at 
the glory and beauty of the work, concluding : 

" Elolieim. Now all is done, and earth with animate life is glad. The 
stately elephant to browse the forest, the ramping lion in the moun 
tain caves, gazelles, horned cattle and the fleecy flocks spread o er the 
grassy vales ; behemoth rolls his bulk in shady fens by river banks, 
among the ooze, and the great whale beneath the waters, and fowl to 
fly above in the open firmament of heaven. Upon the earth behold 
bears, ounces, tigers, pards, and every creeping thing that moves upon 
the ground. Each after his kind shall bring forth and multiply upon 
the earth ; and yet there lacks the master work, the being in the form 
and likeness of the yods, erect to stand, his Maker praise, and over all 
the rest dominion hold." 

Jehovah, Jesus, Michael and Elolieim. Let us make man, in image, 
form and likeness as our own ; and as becomes our sole complete repre 
sentative on earth, to him upright, dominion give and power over all 
that flies, swims, creeps, or walks upon the earth." 

The attendants have meanwhile placed the candidates 
on the floor and closed their eyes, when the gods enter 
and manipulate them limb by limb, specifying the office 
of each member, and pretending to create and mould. 
They then slap upon them to vivify and represent the 
creative power, breathe into their nostrils " the breath 
of life," and raise them to their feet. They are then 
supposed to be " as Adam, newly made, completely 
ductile, mobile in the maker s hand." 



Men file into the next room, with paintings and 
scenery to represent the Garden of Eden. There are 
gorgeous curtains and carpets, trees and shrubs in boxes, 


paintings of mountains, flowers, and fountains, all shown 
in soft light and delicate tints, together presenting a 
beautiful and impressive scene. While they move 
around the garden to measured music, another discussion 
ensues between the gods; Michael proposes various an 
imals, in turn, to be the intimates of man, which are 
successively rejected by Jehovah, Jesus and Eloheim. 
The men are then laid recumbent, with closed eyes, in 
pantomime a rib is extracted from each, out of which, 
in the adjoining room, their wives are supposed to be 
formed ; the men are then commanded to awake, and 
see their wives for the first time since parting in the 
entry, dressed nearly like themselves. They walk 
around the garden by couples, led by the officiating 
Adam and Eve, when Satan enters. He is dressed in 
a very tight-fitting suit of black velvet, consisting of 
short jacket and knee-breeches, with black stockings 
and slippers, the last with long double points ; he, also, 
wears a hideous mask, and pointed helmet. He ap 
proaches Eve, who is separated from Adam, and begins 
to praise her beauty; after which he proffers the 
" temptation." (Here there is a difference in the testi 
mony. John Hyde says, the "fruit offered consisted 
of some raisins hanging on a shrub ; " one lady states 
that the temptation consists of gestures and hints "not 
to be described ;" while another young lady, after imply 
ing that Adam and Eve were nearly naked, merely 
adds : " I cannot mention the nature of the fruit, but 
have left more unsaid than the imagination held with 
the loosest possible rein would be likely to picture . . . the 
reality is too monstrous for human belief, and the moral 


and object of the whole is socially to unsex the sexes." 
A third lady states that the fruit consisted merely of 
a bunch of grapes, and adds: "Those conducting the 
ceremonies explained to us beforehand that this por 
tion of the affair should be conducted with the men and 
women entirely naked ; but that, in consequence of the 
prejudice existing in the minds of individuals against 
that method of proceeding, coupled with the fact that 
we were not yet sufficiently perfect and pure-minded, 
and that our enemies would use it as a weapon against 
us, it was considered necessary that we should be 
clothed." It is quite probable the ceremony is fre 
quently changed.) 

Eve yields and partakes of the " fruit ;" soon after 
she is joined by Adam, to whom she offers the same ; 
he first hesitates, but overcome by her reproaches, also 
eats. They grow delirious from its effects, join hands, 
embrace, and dance around the room till they sink 

A loud chorus of groans and lamentations is heard 
behind the curtain, followed by a sudden crash as of 
heavy thunder; a rift opens in a curtain painted to 
represent a dense wood, and in the opening appears 
Eloheim, behind him a brilliant light; he is clothed 
with a gorgeous dress, bespangled with brilliants and 
brights stripes to dazzle the eyes. 

" Eloheim. Where art thou, Adam, 

Erst created first of all earth s tribes, 
And wont to meet with joy thy coming Lord ?" 
" Adam. Afar I heard Thy coming, 

In the thunder s awful voice, 
Thy footsteps shook the earth, 


And dread seized all my frame, 

I saw myself in naked shame, 

Unfit to face Thy Majesty." 
" Eloheim. How knew st thou of thy shame ? 

My voice thou oft has heard, 

And feared it not. What has thou done ? 

Hast eaten of that tree 

To thee forbid ?" 
" Adam. Shall I accuse the partner of my life 

Or on myself the total crime avow ? 

But what avails concealment with earth s Lord ? 

His thoughts discern my inmost hidden sense. 

The woman Thou gav st to be my help 

Beguiled me with her perfect charms, 

J3y Thee endowed, acceptable, divine, 

She gave me of the fruit, and I did eat." 
" E J oheim. Say, woman, what is this that thou hast done ?" 
u Eve. The serpent me beguiled and I did eat. 

Eloheim then pronounces a curse literally copied 
from the Scripture upon the serpent, or rather Satan, 
who fell upon the ground, and with many contortions 
wriggles out of the room. A curse is next pronounced 
upon Eve, and then upon Adam, paraphrased from the 
Scripture. They fall upon the ground, beat their 
breasts, rend their clothes, and bewail their lost and 
sinful condition. 

" Eloheim. Now is man fallen indeed. The accursed power which 
first made war in Heaven, hath practiced fraud on earth. By Adam s 
transgression should ^Jl be under sin ; the moral nature darkened, 
and none could know the truth. But cries of penitence have reached 
my ears, and Higher Power shall redeem. Upon this earth I place 
My holy priesthood. To them as unto Me in humble reverence bow. 
Man, fallen by Satan s wiles, shall by obedience rise. Behold, the 
AVoman s Seed shall bruise the Serpent s head ; from her a race pro 
ceed endowed on earth with power divine. To them shall man sub 
mit, and regain the paradise now lost through disobedience. With 
power divine the priesthood is endowed, but not in fulness now. Obey 


them as the Incarnate Voice of God, and in time s fullness Woman s 
Seed shall all that s lost restore to man. By woman, first fallen, Adam 
fell ; from Woman s Seed the priesthood shall arise, redeeming man ; 
and -man in turn shall Eve exalt, restoring her to the paradise by her 
first lost. Meanwhile go forth, ye fallen ones, with only nature s light, 
and seek for truth." 

The attendants now place upon each of the initiates 
a small square apron, of white linen or silk, with cer 
tain emblematical marks and green pieces resembling 
fig leaves, worked in and handsomely embroidered. 

The candidates then kneel and join in a solemn oath, 
repeating it slowly after Adam : That they will pre 
serve the secret inviolably, under penalty of being 
brought to the block, and having their blood spilt upon 
the ground in atonement for their sin ; that they will 
obey and submit themselves to the priesthood in all 
things, and the men in addition, that they will take no 
woman unless given them by the Presidency of the 
Church. A grip and a key-word are then communi 
cated, and the First Degree of the Aaron ic Priesthood 
is conferred. Man is now supposed to have entered 
into life, where the light has become as darkness. They 
pass through a narrow opening into the next room, 
which is almost dark, heavy curtains shutting out all 
but a few rays of light. Here they stumble about, fall 
against blocks and furniture ; persons are heard calling, 
" here is light," " there is light," etc., and a contest goes 
on among those who call themselves Methodist, Bap 
tist, Presbyterian, Catholic, etc. The curtains are con 
stantly agitated, and being darkly painted with hideous 
figures, discover a thousand chimerical shapes. The 
sectarians seize hold of the initiates and pull them vio 
lently about, till the latter are quite exhausted. Satan 


now enters, commends the sectarians, laughs, chuckles 
and is quite delighted; the latter recommence their 
struggle for the initiates, when a sudden fall of curtains 
throws in a full blaze of light, and Peter, James and 
John descend into the room. They order the devil to 
withdraw : he falls upon the ground, foams, hisses and 
wriggles out, chased and kicked by the Apostle Peter. 
The initiates are then ranged in order to listen to a 

< Peter. Brethren and Sisters, light is now come into the world, and 
the way is opened unto men ; Satan hath desired to sift you as wheat, 
and great shall be his condemnation who rejects this light. (The 
ceremony is explained up to this point.) The holy priesthood is once 
more established upon earth, in the person of Joseph Smith and his 
successors. They alone have the power to seal. To this priesthood 
as unto Christ, all respect is due ; obedience implicit, and yielded 
without a murmur. He who gave life has the right to take it. His 
representatives the same. You are then to obey all orders of the 
priesthood, temporal and spiritual, in matters of life or death. Sub 
mit yourselves to the higher powers, as a tallowed rag in the hands 
of God s priesthood. You are now ready to enter the kingdom of 
God. Look forth upon the void and tell me what ye see." (Curtain 
is raised.) 

" Adam and Eve. A human skeleton." 

" Peter. Rightly have ye spoken. Behold all that remains of one 
unfaithful to these holy vows. The earth had no habitation for one 
so vile. The fowls of the air fed upon his accursed flesh, and the 
fierce elements consumed the joints and the marrow. Do ye still 
desire to go forward ? " 

" Adam. We do." 

The initiates then join hands and kneel in a circle, 
slowly repeating an oath after Peter. The penalty is 
to have the throat cut from ear to ear, with many 
agonizing details. The Second Degree of the Aaronic 
Priesthood is then conferred, and the initiates pass into 
the third room in the middle of which is an altar. 




Emblematic of celestialized men. 

"Michael. Here all hearts are laid open, all desires revealed, and 
all traitors are made known. In council of the gods it hath been 
decreed that here the faithless shall die. Some enter here with evil 
intent ; but none with evil intent go beyond this veil or return alive, 
if here they practice deceit. If one among you knows aught of 
treachery in his heart, we charge him now to speak, while yet he 
may and live. Brethren, an ordeal awaits you. Let the pure have 
no fear ; the false-hearted quake. Each shall pass under the Search 
ing Hand, and the Spirit of the Lord decide for his own." 

The initiates are placed one by one upon the altar, 
stretched at full length upon the back, and the officia 
ting priest passes an immense knife or keen-edged razor 
across their throats. It is understood that if any are 
false at heart, the Spirit will reveal it, to their instant 
death. Of course, all pass. They again clasp hands, 
kneel and slowly repeat after Jehovah, another oath. 
The penalty for its violation is to have the bowels 
slit across and the entrails fed to swine with many 
horrifying and disgusting details. Another sign, grip 
and key word are given, and the First Degree of the 
Melcldzedek Priesthood is conferred, being the third 
degree of the Endowment. Copies of the Bible, " Book 
of Mormon " and " Doctrine and Covenants " are placed 
upon the altar, and another lecture delivered. The 
initiates are now instructed that they are in a saved 
condition, and are to go steadily on in the way of 
salvation ; but that temporal duties demand their first 
care, chief among which is a positive, immediate duty 


to avenge the death of the Prophet and Martyr, Joseph 
Smith. The account of his martyrdom is circumstan 
tially related, after which the initiates take a solemn 
oath to avenge his death ; that they will bear eternal 
hostility to the Government of the United States for 
the murder of the Prophet; that they renounce all 
allegiance they may have held to the Government, 
and hold themselves absolved from all oaths of fealty, 
past or future ; that they will do all in their power 
towards the overthrow of that Government, and in 
event of failure teach their children to pursue that 
purpose after them. Another oath of fidelity and 
secresy is administered, of which the penalty is to have 
the heart torn out and fed to the fowls of the air. 
The initiates are now declared acceptable to God, 
taught a new form of prayer, " in an unknown tongue," 
and the Second Degree of the Mclchizedek Priesthood is 
conferred. They are then passed " behind the veil," 
a linen curtain, to the last room. 



The kingdom of the Gods. 

The men enter first, and the officiating priest cute 
certain marks on their garments and a slight gash just 
above the right knee. Then, at the command of 
Eloheim, they one by one introduce their women to 
the room. Very few instances have occurred of women 
being admitted to these rites before marriage. " Seal 
ing for eternity " is then performed for all who have 
previously been only " married for tune." 



The initiated then retire, resume their regular dress, 
get a lunch and return to hear a lengthy address, .ex 
plaining the entire allegory, and their future duties 
consequent on the vows they have taken. The entire 
ceremony and address occupy about ten hours. 

Such is the Endowment, as reported by many who 
have passed through it. The general reader will 
readily recognize that portion which is paraphrased 
from the Scriptures and Milton s Paradise Lost. The 
general outline is evidently modeled upon the Mysteries 
or Holy Dramas of the Middle Ages, with, perhaps, an 
attempt to reproduce portions of the Eleusinian Mys 
teries of Ancient Greece. Much of it will be recognized 
as extracted from " Morgan s Free-masonry Expose," 
by those familiar with that work ; and the origin of 
this is quite curious. When Smith and Rigdon first 
began their work they were in great doubt what to 
preach ; a furious religious excitement was prevalent in 
the West, and portions of argument in regard to all the 
isms of the day may be found in the " Book of Mor 
mon." But Anti-Masonry was just then the great 
political excitement of New York, and the infant 
Church was easily drawn into that furious and baseless 
crusade, which already ranks in history as one of those 
unaccountable popular frenzies which occasionally dis 
turb our politics, rising from no one knows where, and 
subsiding as apparently without cause. Smith s "New 
Translation" of the Old Testament is full of Anti- 
Masonry; the fifth chapter of Genesis as he has it, 
which is added entire to our version, is devoted entirely 
to the condemnation of secret societies, and sets forth 


particularly how they were the invention of Cain after 
he "fled from the presence of the Lord/ But the 
Brighamites declare the time has not yet come to pub 
lish or circulate this Bible ; and it is only quoted by 
the Josephites, who use this chapter to condemn the 
Endowment. Some years after, however, the Mormons 
all became Masons, and so continued till they reached 
Nauvoo; there Joseph Smith out-masoned Solomon 
himself, and declared that God had revealed to him a 
great key-word, which had been lost, and that he would 
lead Masonry to far higher degrees, and not long after 
their charter was revoked by the Grand Lodge. How 
much of Masonry proper has survived in the Endow 
ment, the writer will not pretend to say ; but the Mor 
mons are pleased to have the outside world connect 
the two, and convey the impression that this is " Celes 
tial Masonry." 

But the experience of the Mormons has fully proved 
if any proof were needed that among so many ready 
to take vile and abominable oaths, some would be found 
equally ready to violate them. Of those apostate Mor 
mons who communicated some portions of the matter 
to the writer, he is convinced their account is correct, 
and is at liberty to say no more ; but it may be of in 
terest to the reader to know how others justify the 
breaking of such solemn vows, even at considerable risk 
to themselves. John Hyde, the most noted of all apos 
tates, and esteemed a very honorable man, gives his 
reasons at length, summing up as follows : 

First, As no one knew what were the oaths previous 
to hearing them, and no one after hearing, could refuse 


to take them, they are not binding in justice. Secondly, 
As the obligations also involved other acts of obedience 
as well as secrecy, and as I do not intend to obey those 
other obligations, it can be no more improper to break 
the oath of secrecy than the oath of unlimited obedi 
ence. Thirdly, As the obligations involved treason 
against the United States, it becomes a duty to expose 
them. Fourthly, The promise of Endowment being a 
principal bait held out to the Mormons, to get them to 
Salt Lake, it is well they should know what it is worth. 
Fifthly, It is better to violate a bad oath, than to 
keep it. 

In ethics Mr. Hyde s first reason is worth all the 
rest ; the third can hardly be admitted, as he was a 
resident of England, unnaturalized in America, and the 
last would apply with equal force to any oath, and in 
the mouth of any man. But Elder Hyde has only 
exemplified the usual course of apostate Mormons; 
from a material and gross extreme he has blundered to 
the opposite ultimate of vague mysticism, and is now 
preaching Swedenborgianism in England. If he live 
twenty years, he will probably again recant, relapse into 
complete infidelity, or become a Millenarian, Spiritualist 
or lunatic. 

Are we to believe the testimony of apostates, and do 
these things really occur ? 

My own opinion is, that the account is substantially 
correct, for many reasons : that the witnesses agree where 
collusion is impossible ; the relation is in many in 
stances by persons utterly incapable of inventing or 
constructing such a plot; apostates universally have a 


horr6r or fear of speaking about it ; and never do until 
they are safe beyond the power of the Church; all 
that can be observed by outsiders corresponds with 
these accounts, and particularly the fact that there is 
a close agreement and perfect analogy between the 
known doctrines of the Church and the outlines of the 

Such is one of the means employed by the Mormon 
leaders to weld their people into perfect unity ; and to 
such a feast of blasphemy and horrors do they invite 
the world, in their seductive 


"Lo ! the Gentile chain is broken ; 

Freedom s banner waves on high ; 
List, ye nations ! by this token 
Know that your redemption s nigh. 

"See, on yonder distant mountain, 
Zion s standard wide unfurl d ; 
Far above Missouri s fountain, 
Lo ! it waves for all the world. 

" Freedom, peace, and full salvation 

Are the blessings guaranteed ; 
Liberty to every nation, 
Every tongue, and every creed. 

" Come, ye Christian sects and Pagan, 
Pope, and Protestant, and Priest ; 
Worshippers of God or Dagon, 
Come ye to fair Freedom s feast 

" Come, ye sons of doubt and wonder, 

Indian, Moslem, Greek, or Jew ; 
All your shackles burst asunder, 
Freedom s banner waves for you. 


" Cease to butcher one another, 
Join the covenant of peace ; 
Be to all a friend, a brother, 
This will bring the world release. 

"Lo ! our King, the great Messiah, 

Prince of Peace, shall come to reign 1 
Sound again, ye heavenly choir, 
Peace on earth, good-will to men." 




Co-operation The "bull s eye" signs Inherent weakness of the system 
Immediate effects on the Gentiles Final result to the Saints Found 
ing of Corinne Its bright prospects Trip to Sevier The deserted 
city New Silverado Mines and mining A new interest in Utah 
Rich discoveries Hindrances Grant s Administration in Utah Bet 
ter men in the Revenue Department Experience of Dr. J. P. Tag- 
gart More "persecution" The Judges The Governor Congres 
sional Legislation " Cullom Bill "Probable effects Guesses at the 
future Another exodus "Zion" in Sonora. 

EARLY in October, 1868, the writer took up his resi 
dence in Salt Lake City, and the latter part of the 
same month, took editorial control of the SALT LAKE 
REPORTER, the only Gentile paper in Utah. But the 
hostility of the Church had become so great, that the 
trade of Gentiles was ruined, and one by one they were 
forced to sell out and leave the city. As already noted, 
the October Conference of 1868, passed a wholesale de 
cree of non-intercourse with resident Gentiles, forbid 
ding any Mormon to buy of, employ or in any way 
countenance them. The day of assassinations was 
thought to be past, but Brigham still hoped to keep 
out the Gentiles and their hated principles by ruining 
their trade. But as the Gentile merchants generally 
sold the cheapest, hundreds of the Saints found it im 
possible to distinguish one store from another, to remedy 
which difficulty came another " decree " from Brigham, 


and soon after, over every Mormon store was seen in 
flaming blue and gold, 


(The All-seeing Eye) 


This effectually " corraled " the trade for a time, but 
with that strange fatality observable in men accustomed 
to having their own way, which in the very nature of 
things compels them to go further and further, till they 
at last reach a point beyond popular endurance, Brigham 
determined that the Mormon firms should yield also, 
and the entire business of the Territory become co-ope 
rative in fact. Measures were taken to establish a 
store in each ward and settlement, while the entire 
community combined in a large wholesale establishment 
with a stated capital of $1,000,000. It was purposed 
to have an agent constantly residing in the eastern 
cities, with surplus cash in his safe, to be ready to watch 
the markets and buy always at the best advantage. In 
many of the settlements co-operative stores were soon 
started, and as the people there do whatever the bishops 
tell them, it was easy to get the scheme in operation. 
By their religion and habits of unreasoning obedience 
without a why or wherefore, the Mormons were as well 
prepared for co-operatioxi as any people could be ; and it 
was reasonable to suppose the new scheme would be 
almost a perfect success, that two or three years, at 
least, would be required for it to wear out. But it soou 



developed an inherent weakness. The Mormon mer 
chants were, of course, no better pleased than the Gen 
tiles to have their business ruined, and there were still 
a few of the laity who would not "jump as the bell 
wether jumped," and risk their necks in the operation. 
The history of co-operative movements shows that 
where applied to manufacturing purposes they have, in 
the majority of cases, succeeded ; but in merchandizing, 
nine times out of ten they have failed. And the reason 
is obvious. In the case of the manufacturers, a few men 
combine their skill and labor to create wealth ; every 
man knows something of the business, and has an under 
standing eye on its management : if one can do nothing 
but drive pegs, he understands that, all that he has to 
do, and contributes his share to the success of the con 
cern. Every member knows, at a glance, the intrinsic 
value of the company s articles, ready at a moment s 
notice to turn salesman, and as their business is all sell 
ing and no buying, except procuring the rude materials, 
they have but half the opportunity for mistakes. All 
these features are lacking to the merchant co-operators. 
Their business must be done by agents ; not one in a 
hundred of the partners understands the principles in 
volved. Merchandizing requires the unity and con 
trolling energy of one directing mind ; one average mer 
chant or two can show a better set of books than a 
committee of fifty first-class merchants ; a debating 
society cannot centralize its energies. They do not 
create, they only manipulate wealth ; the buying of ne 
cessity equals the selling, giving twice the opportunity 
for mistakes. If there is but one vote to each member, 


a small aggregate of capital overrules a very large in 
terest; if there is a vote to every share, the small 
holders are partially disfranchised, and, of course, dis 
satisfied ; dissensions must naturally result, and a thou 
sand men cannot reasonably be expected to have less 
than a dozen plans, either one of which would be good 
by itself. And herein the Brighamites showed their 
strict consistency, by maintaining that the business must 
be managed by an inspired priesthood, that there must 
be no dissension or difference of opinion, and that it 
" was apostasy to dissent " from the business plans of 
that priesthood; for if such a business ever becomes a 
success, it must be by direct inspiration from the Al 
mighty, requiring prompt obedience and without ques 
tion ; it must be " yea and amen," without an attempt 
to piece it out with mere human wisdom. When the 
Lord condescends to run a " dollar store," we may expect 
co-operation to be a perfect success. The end is not yet, 
but enough has transpired to show that co-operation in 
Utah is not exempt from the usual weaknesses. 

It was on this principle of business management by 
the priesthood, that the Godbeites first took their stand 
in opposition to Brigham Young. They maintained 
that the priesthood should only guide in spiritual mat 
ters, while every man should manage his private busi 
ness to suit himself. To this the First Presidency 
jointly made reply: "It is our prerogative to dictate to 
this people in everything, even to the ribbons the 
women shall wear. It is apostasy to oppose or differ 
with the plans of the priesthoocl in temporal matters." 

Of course the immediate effects of the " decree of 



non-intercourse" were to produce greater bitterness be 
tween Saint and Gentile. Legally it was a move which 
they had a sort of right to make, but it was decidedly 
against good neighborhood ; no particular violence was 
for a while attempted, and both parties contented them 
selves with a little quiet cursing. Social ostracism 
seemed to be complete; the "loyal" Brighamite and the 
straight-out Gentile seldom met, except in enforced 
cases, and when they did either sat in sullen silence, or 
their conversation was a mixture of the " rile" and 
" knagg," both exasperating and unprofitable. During 
the winter of 1868-69 the Gentile residents of Salt 
Lake City numbered nearly eight hundred, of all ages 
and sexes, among whom we include that portion of the 
apostates who fully associated with and were recog 
nized as Gentiles. This estimate I make from an in 
spection of the subscription list of the Daily Reporter, 
the roll of membership of the Gentile (Episcopal) Church, 
the members of St. Mark s Grammar School and Sabbath 
School, the roll of the Hebrew Benevolent Society, 
including every Jew in the city, and the membership 
of the Masonic and Odd Fellow Lodges, besides having 
been personally acquainted with almost every one of 
them. Besides these, there were one day with another 
several hundred transients in the city, consisting of 
visitors, railroad men temporarily out of employment, 
teamsters, miners and travelers, stopping from one week 
to three months. Early in March the number began 
to decrease rapidly ; Gilbert & Sons departed for other 
points; Eansohoff & Co. sold out to the co-operative 
institution; Corinne was laid out on the 25th of March, 


and in two months thereafter received a large accession 
of Salt Lake men, and by the 1st of June there were 
probably less than three hundred Gentiles in the city. 
The arrival of the newly appointed officials, their 
families and deputies increased the number a little ; but 
the general depression in business has acted upon all, 
and there is no encouragement for new comers either 
Saint or Gentile. The Gentile power seems to have 
consolidated in the northern counties, along the rail 
road, and though the process may be slow will even 
tually liberalize that section of Mormonism. 

CORINNE stands forth in fame as the first and only 
Gentile town in Utah ; though the progress of the rail 
road has caused settlements, of a hundred or so each, 
at Bear River, Wasatch, Echo City, Uintah, and Indian 
Creek. Corinne is sixty miles north and twelve west 
of Salt Lake City, occupying the same relative place 
on Bear River, the other does on the Jordan. It is at 
the railroad crossing of Bear River, midway between 
the Wasatch Mountains and the spur known as Pro 
montory, some eight miles from the lake, and in the 
centre and richest portion of Bear River Valley. The 
western half of this valley, unoccupied, except by one 
small village of three hundred Danish Mormons, con 
tains half a million acres of the very finest farming 
land; of this one-fourth is cultivable without irrigation, 
and the rest could be made fruitful by moderate water 
ing, while an extensive stock range of the richest kind 
extends westward and northward. The elevation is 
4300 feet above sea-level, 1000 feet less than that of 
Denver, 2000 less than Cheyenne, 3300 greater than 


Omaha, surrounded north, east and west by lofty moun 
tain ranges, and on the south by the Great Salt Lake. 
It is thus the central point of a beautiful valley, fifteen 
by twenty miles in extent, with a location unsurpassed 
for natural beauty. 

The City was laid out March 25th, 1869, by Mr. 
John O Neill, Engineer of the Union Pacific Railroad ; 
at the first sale of lots by General J. A. Williamson, 
Land Agent of the Railroad Company, the sales amounted 
to $21,000, and in a few weeks a flourishing town had 
sprung up. Corinne is the natural centre of the Rocky 
Mountains; the most convenient spot on the railroad fora 
point of departure to Helena and Virginia City, Montana, 
and the point of supply for Idaho and Northern Utah. 
Bear River is navigable thence to the lake for steamers 
of a hundred tons ; and Salt Lake and Jordan equally 
so to within three miles of Salt Lake City. North and 
east of Corinne, in Utah, is already a resident popula 
tion of fifteen or twenty thousand, whose natural trad 
ing point is at that place ; the constant efforts of the 
Church authorities are directed to preventing that trade 
from reaching there ; but it is already coming, to some 
extent, and must steadily increase as liberal ideas pre 
vail in that section. Corinne is an anomaly in politics, 
a government within a government, a little republic in 
the midst of a theocracy ; a free city in the Territory 
of an absolute monarch. For a few months the town 
was governed by Councilors chosen without a charter ; 
this organization was allowed to lapse, and the Mormon 
County authorities were acknowledged ; finally, within 
the last few weeks, the Territorial Legislature granted 


a regular charter, and the city is now fully organized 
under it. Corinne has a little of the "wickedness" 
incident to new railroad towns, but thus far of a re 
markably peaceful character; morally she is an exception 
to railroad towns ; the political and religious antipodes 
of Salt Lake City, she is on her good behavior. A 
church and school have been successfully established, 
and this gem of the mountains, Queen city of the Lake, 
has started with a good reputation. 

While sojourning pleasantly at Corinne, last August, 
rumors reached me of an immense silver district on 
the Sevier Kiver, two hundred miles south of Salt Lake 
City. Little was known for a certainty of that region ; 
the spot was far beyond the settlements in the edge 
of the Indian country, and the route thither lay 
through the most benighted region of Polygamia. For 
these and other reasons, I felt that the Sevierites 
needed a historian. The man was ready and the hour 
was propitious. Peace had been made the preceding 
year with the Uintahs, and the route was just safe 
enough to not quite destroy the spice of a slight 
danger. Messrs. Salisbury & Gilmer, successors in 
fame to Wells, Fargo & Co., had just established a tri 
weekly line of coaches to Fillmore, running within a 
hundred miles of the new Silverado, and on the morn 
ing of September 1st, I took a seat in their best 
" outfit " and was soon rolling southward through the 
richest portion of Jordan Valley. Twenty-five miles 
south of the city a spur of the Wasatch juts out from 
the east, almost joining the West Mountain, leaving a 
small gap known as the "Narrows," or canon of the 


Jordan; here the stage road follows a "dug-way" 
around the hill, several hundred feet above the river, 
where there is never two feet to spare between the 
wheels and a slope almost perpendicular. Thence we" 
descend over a long slope, with a succession of beauti 
ful views, into the valley east of Utah Lake, the Galilee 
of modern Saints ; we pass the flourishing settlements 
of Lehi, Battle Creek, and American Fork to the city 
of Provo, second oldest town in the Territory. From 
there a night stage brought us to Levan or Chicken 
Creek, a hundred and fifteen miles south of the city, 
where the main road bears off to the right of Iron Moun 
tain, while to the left, a trail through a high, uninhab 
ited valley, leads to the Sevier, near the head of which 
are the mines. We were now out of even Mormon 
civilization, and the remaining ninety-five miles were 
necessarily divided into two stages, thirty miles to 
Old Fort Gunnison, now a small Mormon settlement, 
and sixty-five through the valley formerly settled but 
deserted during the Indian war. The miners have 
established an express over this route, making one trip 
per week, and the driver and myself were soon on the 
way, traveling for the rest of the day through a region 
literally alive with small game ; jack-rabbits, sage^ 
hens, and small fowl were abundant on the high plain, 
and ducks fairly swarmed about every pond in the 
lower valleys. We spent the night at Fort Gunnison, 
a veritable walled town and city of refuge. The place 
is a square of some thirty acres, surrounded by a stone 
wall with huge gates on the four sides ; within is an 
awkward collection of dobie and log houses, mud huts, 


stone stables, " dug-outs," and willow corrals^ inhabited 
by English, Danes, cattle, dogs and fleas, the latter 
predominating. It may have been that the poor peo 
ple could do no better on account of Indian troubles, 
but as I walked about this singular town it seemed to 
me the place rested under the curse and shadow of a 
barbaric superstition. The stone walls with houses 
built against them and towers for sentinels ; the dirty 
children resembling Arabs more than Caucasians ; the 
heavy gates thrown open to receive the " evening 
herd " of cattle, and the general air of desert life per 
vading the place seemed so unlike any American scene, 
that I almost expected to find I was in the midst of 
that Oriental life from which Mormonism has drawn 
so many of its features. 

From Gunnison a few hours brought us to the noted 
" Salt Mountain," a series of ridges from which crystal- 
ized salt can be cut in immense 1 * blocks ; around the 
points rise numerous springs of pure brine, and a little 
further on, where a stream of pure water gushes put 
of a rugged canon, is the city of Salina, now com 
pletely deserted. 

From this point we traversed an unbroken desert for 
ten miles, its bare, gray surface unrelieved save by an 
occasional clump of scant grease-wood or cactus. Be 
yond this a spur of the mountains runs out nearly to 
the river, and turning this point we were delighted at 
sight of Glenn s Cove, a semi-circle of beauty and 
fertility extending back into an opening in the moun 
tains, containing at least six miles square of land, well 
watered and fruitful. Moving through the low 


meadows where the natural grass grew to the height 
of a man s head, and then over a tract of farm-land, we 
entered the beautiful town of Glenn City. Situated in 
such a place, with the water of a dozen mountain 
springs coursing through the streets, this had evidently 
been a town of considerable pretensions. The streets 
were laid off with the cardinal points ; the houses were 
well constructed of lumber, stone and dobies ; the gar 
dens had been enclosed with stone walls of extra finish, 
and the ditches lining the streets paved with that care 
and beauty which marks the settlements of the better 
English Mormons; while the cool shade and agreeable 
rustle of the rows of trees lining the walks, seemed to 
invite the desert-weary traveler to repose in coolness 
and comfort. But there were none to enjoy this beauty; 
tall " pig-weed " and rank wheat-grass filled the streets, 
the stone walls were broken down and overrun by wild 
vines, the irrigating ditches in places overflowed and 
rippled unchecked through front yards and gardens, 
and the cool winds from the canons sighed mournfully 
through the deserted habitations. 

Involuntarily I looked for the cemetery, for it seemed 
that a plague must have smitten the city; but there 
was no unusual record of death there. Beyond the 
city lay untilled fields, with plows in places rusting in 
the furrows, and still further deserted ranches "and 
meadows, apparently sleeping in the hazy air of au 
tumn. While the driver rested his team for an hour, 
I looked through the place, for it almost seemed to me 
the people were hidden in the houses ; but when I 
entered the largest residence I found the floor broken 



through and an Indian arrow sticking in the wall. In 
another well built house, I observed a child s cradle, 
still unbroken, near the fire-place, and beside it the 
mildewed remnants of a dress -and bonnet and baby s 
shoes ; melancholy traces of the attack and flight, when 
the fearful mother caught up her child and fled before 
the avenging arrows of the " Lamanites." 

Fifteen miles further we passed Alma ; a town cover 
ing thirty acres in a square ; enclosed by a massive 
stone wall, with towers at the corners, arranged with 
port-holes and sentry posts. But walls and towers 
were useless without skillful men to man them; the 
savages drove away the cattle of the settlement in 
broad day light, and soon after the place was aban 
doned. The whole number of Black Hawk s band of 
Mountain Utes, who drove the whites out of this valley, 
is reported to have been less than five hundred ; and 
though peace had been made with him for a year, the 
Saints were slow to return. 

At Marysvale, the last town on the route, we found 
three returned families ; and here we left the river and 
traveled six miles up a gulch to the westward, which 
brought us to Bullion City and the mines. I spent 
several days in this strange mountain community, con 
sisting of some two hundred miners isolated from the 
world, and made a thorough examination of the district. 
I found an awkward condition of affairs. There are, 
without doubt, immense quantities of silver ore there ; 
the facilities for working the mines, in the way of tim 
ber and water, are unequaled ; but there are no placer 
diggings, all quartz; and the miners were men of limited 


means who had rushed in from Nevada, each working 
enough " to hold his two hundred feet," but none able 
to buy and bring in a quartz-mill. The various leads 
extend for some miles along both sides of the gulch, 
" cropping out " in some instances for three or four 
thousand feet. That there is immense mineral wealth 
in this district is beyond a doubt ; but it is far from 
transportation, and no bullion returns have yet been 
made to convince capitalists of its richness, or create a 
"rush." The Mormons manage to hinder progress 
there in various ways, and development is slow. But 
I think it highly probable these will, in time, be among 
the most valuable mines in the West. 

Gold mining has been successfully established in 
Bingham Canon, twenty miles west of Salt Lake City, 
and in Eush Valley some farther west ; within the last 
few months rich deposits have been discovered, and 
these places are attracting great attention. Other 
valuable discoveries have been made in Cottonwood 
Canon, and with the opening of the present season the 
mining interests of Utah become, for the first time, im 

The accession of General Grant to the Presidency 
was looked forward to, with great interest by the Gen 
tiles, in the expectation that some reform would be in 
augurated in Utah ; nor were these hopes entirely with 
out realization. 

The new Administration hastened to remove the of 
ficers who had disgraced the Revenue Service for four 
years, appointing 0. J. Hollister, Esq., Collector, and 
Dr. J. P. Taggart, Assessor, in place of Burton and 


Chetlaine removed. Of Burton, I have already spoken ; 
of Chetlaine it need only be said that he was the personal 
friend and rather intimate associate of Brigham Young, 
often accompanying him in his trips about the Territory, 
and that he made no attempt whatever to assess the 
Church income. I am of opinion, however, that the 
serious charges against him in other respects are untrue. 

Chief Justice Wilson had been appointed some time 
before by President Johnson, and retained his position. 
The Mormon Associate Justice, Hoge, was succeeded 
by Hon. 0. F. Strickland, who had resided several years 
in Utah and Montana, and is eminently qualified for the 
position. The Judge has had great practice in the pe 
culiar technicalities of Mormon law, and enters upon 
his duties endowed with valuable experience. The 
veteran, Judge Drake, who had served seven years in 
Utah, gave place to Hon. C. F. Hawley, of Illinois, as 
Associate Justice, who has already taken a high position 
among the few United States officials who have upheld 
the dignity and maintained the honor of ^he Govern 
ment even in Utah. 

The opinion of Associate J.ustices Strickland and 
Hawley, lately delivered, dissenting from Chief Justice 
Wilson, in the case of Howard, Brannigan and La 
Valle, has attracted great attention in the Territories, 
and is regarded as an authentic exposition of Federal 
law in Territorial courts. 

But it was in the Kevenue Department that the first 
collision arose with Brigham. The following extract from 
the correspondence of an Eastern Journal, exhibits the 
clearest view of all the facts and deductions therefrom : 

" An attempt has recently been made in Salt Lake 


City by Dr. Taggart, the new Assessor of Internal Rev 
enue, to assess a tax upon the income of the Mormon 
Church, which is known to amount to a large sunl an 
nually. In this effort he has met with the most deter 
mined and persistent opposition from Brigham and his 
subordinates. Singular as it may seem, the wealthy 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints has 
never yet paid the Government tax upon its income. 
The former Assessor, Chetlaine, was known by the 
Gentiles of Salt Lake City to be the mere tool of 
Brigham Young. 

"He accompanied Brigham upon his royal progress 
through the Territory, and upon one occasion, when 
attending an evening meeting of the Mormons, accepted 
an invitation to a seat upon the platform, with the 
Bishop and his two counselors, known violaters of the 
anti-Polygamy law. When, however, he is removed 
and a man like Dr. Taggart steps into his position, de 
termined to discharge the duties of his office without 
fear or favor, the Mormons salute him with howls of 
rage, and threats of persecution. 

"The first act of Assessor Taggart, upon assuming 
office, was to assess the Government tax upon the total 
amount of scrip issued by the Corporation of Salt Lake 
City, $190,000. The Treasurer of the Corporation had 
made his returns regularly to the former Assessor each 
month, with the tax calculated at one-twelfth of one 
per cent, upon the circulation, as required of bankers, 
and , General Chetlaine accepted them as proper and 
correct. Section 6, of the Internal Revenue act of 
March 3, 1865, requires the assessment of 10 per cent. 


upon the issue of all corporations of cities, &c., the act 
not recognizing those bodies as legitimate bankers. 
The tax upon $190,000 at 10 per cent, is $19,000 ; 
the tax upon $190,000 at one-twelfth of one per cent, 
is $158.83, leaving the sum of $18,841.69, of which 
the Government would be defrauded, did not the present 
Assessor enforce payment. The profits made upon this 
issue of $190,000 are really a part of the revenues of 
the Mormon Church, the members of the Corporation 
of Salt Lake City being nominated by Brigham, and 
their election being secured by him under the present 
anti-republican form of voting in Utah. In the early 
part of last August, Dr. Taggart forwarded to Brigham 
Young a set of blanks, at the same time requesting 
him, as Trustee of the Church, to make a proper return 
of its income for 1868. Brigham became greatly in 
censed at this, and at first flatly refused to comply, but 
sent in reply the following document : * We, the Gov 
ernment of the United States, do not recognize any 
such organization as the Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter-day Saints, or any such officer as the Trustee-in- 
Trust of said Church. We, the Government of the 
United States, have obliterated such church and officer 
from existence by legislative enactment of July 1st; 
1862. No signature was appended to this. The 
meaning intended to be conveyed was doubtless this : 
That the anti-Polygamy act was theoretically intended 
to wipe the Trustee-in-Trust and Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter-dav Saints out of existence, although 

t/ O 

practically it had failed in its object; and therefore the 
Government could not assess and collect a tax upon the 


income of that ecclesiastical corporation. This commu 
nication from Brigham was treated with the contempt 
which it deserved no notice being taken of it. The 
Assessor declared, however, that, if proper and correct 
returns were not made within the time limited by law, 
he should proceed to make the assessment himself from 
the best information which he could obtain, and should 
also hand the affair over to the United States District 
Attorney. Upon the last day allowed by law, Brigham 
made a return stating the total income of the Church 
for 1864 to be $440. The return was signed by Brigham 
Young in his private capacity. The blank oath was 
filled up and purported to have been sworn to before 
the Deputy Assessor, a Mormon, though Brigham had 
been in the habit of having his private income-returns 
sworn to by one of his clerks, who, he said, knew more 
about it than he did himself. 

"The papers were immediately turned over to the 
United States District Attorney, who prepared an ela 
borate opinion, demonstrating that the Mormon Church 
corporation was as much liable to have its income taxed 
as Trinity or any church corporation, subject, of course, 
to the legal exemptions. The various sources of reve 
nue of the Mormon Church were also clearly and suc 
cinctly given. The papers were then forwarded to the 
Commissioner at Washington to await his opinion and 
instructions, and there they now remain. 

" The Mormon Church corporation has dealt exten 
sively in the buying and selling of horses and cattle. 
For years this business has been carried on by its 
agents, but no license was taken out by any of them as 


cattle brokers until the new Assessor informed them of 
his intention to prosecute, if they were not immediately 
obtained. The authorities own and run a distillery and 
a wholesale and retail liquor store, which are carried 
on ostensibly in the name of the corporation of Salt 
Lake City, but really are part of the Church, and 
the profits all go into the Church treasury. By 
means of this distillery the Government has been de 
frauded of thousands of dollars, which should have been 
paid in the shape of $2 upon every gallon of whiskey 
manufactured. Brigham gives as the reason for not 
including the tithing in the income returns, that the 
payment of it is voluntary and optional, and therefore 
is merely a gift and not taxable. Unfortunately, how 
ever, for Brigham, the facts do not bear out his asser 
tion. A few months past a laboring man obtained work 
on the grade of the Utah Central Kailroad, now being 
built by Brigham. After earning $50 he concluded to 
leave work, and accordingly asked for his time, which 
was given to him. Upon arriving in Salt Lake City he 
hastened to Brigham s office to obtain his money. The 
clerk hunted over the Church books, and found that the 
man owed $48 tithing for 1868. That amount was 
accordingly deducted, and the balance, $2, handed over 
to him, notwithstanding his earnest protestations that 
his family were actually in need of the money to pur 
chase food. Non-payment of tithing is visited upon the 
offending members with all the prosecutions which the 
resources of the Mormon Church enable it to employ. 
The Mormons estimate the total population of Utah at 
130,000 souls. These figures include only the Mormons. 


Of this number at least 30,000 are required by the rules 
of the Church and undoubtedly do pay tithing. Aver 
aging their earnings at $500 a year, a low estimate, we 
have $15,000,000 as the agregate. This, of course, is 
not in money exclusively, but in produce. The tithing 
on this would be $150,000. At least five of the leading 
Mormon merchants pay a tithing of $10,000 each a 
year. The income from the whiskey distillery and 
liquor store cannot fall short of $100,000 ; the rents 
and profits of real estate are about $25,000 more, be 
sides other sources of revenue not to be ascertained. 


Tithing from 30,000 people $150,000 

Five Mormon merchants 50,000 

Church distillery and liquor store 100,000 

Bents and profits of real estate 25,000 

Total 8325,000 

Deduct exemption 50,000 


" This leaves upward of a quarter of a million of dol 
lars subject to the Government tax, and the probabilities 
are that the Church income is more than double this 
amount, as many sources of revenue are not stated. 
Out of this and other taxes upon the private incomes 
of the Mormon leaders, the Government has been sys 
tematically defrauded year after year, through the con 
nivance of an Assessor who executed his duties in the 
interests of Brigham Young. The present officer has 
commenced with a determination to do his whole duty, 
and it is to be hoped that he will receive the support 
of the Government in his efforts to collect the public 



Dr. Taggart proceeded to collect the evidence fehow- 
ing the amount of tithing, and the fact that it was a 
requirement of Mormon discipline and the great test of 
standing and fellowship in the Church ; and at the 
present writing, he. is in Washington, to lay the whole 
before the Department. It now begins to look as if 
Brigham Young would be compelled to pay his income 
tax, the same as any other speculator. Of course, all 
this is regarded as " rank persecution " by the Mormons ; 
as is the enforcement of any law which does not happen 
to suit their convenience. 

It is sufficient comment on the " wonderful industry 
of the Mormons," of which we have heard so much, to 
state the plain facts, that there is no other community 
of a hundred thousand in America but has paid twice as 
much revenue as Utah ; the Territories of Colorado and 
Montana, with half the population, have each paid 
nearly twice as much to the Treasury, and added from 
ten to forty times as much to the national circulation, 
and, notwithstanding the fearful demoralization of 
mining camps, have, in the end, produced a better race 
of men and women. 

General J. Wilson ShaefFer was appointed Governor, 
to succeed Durkee,; he was formerly the Quartermaster 
in General Butler s department, and is reputed in every 
respect well qualified for the difficult and delicate posi 
tion. Thus far, however, he has not shown his adminis 
trative talents in Utah, but remains in Washington, 
awaiting the action of Congress in regard to Utah. 

The history of." Federal relations" in Utah presents 
a strange mixture of the sad and ludicrous. The first 


law against polygamy, that of July, 1862, was utterly 
inoperative, as the Act of Congress failed to provide 
any means of enforcing it. Two years ago, Senator 
Cragin introduced a much better bill, providing for all 
needed reforms in the Judiciary and voting system ; but 
it was " referred and smothered in Committee." Next 
was Hon. James Ashley s bill, introduced in January, 
1869, providing for a division of the Territory, and an 
nexing half or more to Colorado, one- third to Nevada, 
and a small portion each to Idaho and Wyoming. This 
would have been the merest political quackery, a vir 
tual backing down on the part of the Government. 
Nature makes the boundaries of future states in the 
New West, and this is peculiarly the case with Utah ; 
it is exactly fitted for one State, and has the area and 
resources for the comfortable support of half a million 
people. Nevada is already as large as New England, 
and between it and the habitable valleys of Utah are 
interposed broad deserts and rugged mountains, forming 
a ten-fold greater natural boundary than the Mississippi 
or the Hudson. Equally plain is the natural division 
between Utah and Colorado, and criminals from Southern 
Utah, if an attempt were made to execute the law, 
would have to be dragged eight hundred miles, around 
three sides of a mountainous parallelogram, to reach the 
Federal court at Denver. This bill, too, was justifi 
ably " smothered in committee." Last is the bill intro 
duced by Hon. S. M. Cullom, Chairman of the House 
Committee on Territories, pending before Congress as 
this work goes to press. It provides for giving the 
United States Marshal his appropriate power ; for re- 


stricting the Mormon Probate Courts to Probate and a 
limited civil jurisdiction as in other Territories; for 
dividing the Territory anew into Judicial districts, and 
for the proper support and protection of the Courts ; 
tkat only citizens of the United States shall serve as 
jurors, that none who uphold or practice polygamy 
shall sit on the trial of that crime, and for many other 
needed reforms. It is reasonably certain this bill will 
pass both Houses, and, by the time this meets the eye 
of the reader, become a law. 

The first effect will in all probability be, that the 
actual polygamists will at once retire from the northern 
sections and concentrate in the South ; below the Utah 
Lake region the bill could not probably be enforced by 
the courts, for many years ; but the northern section 
would shortly be relieved of the only class who cause 
any trouble, for the practical polygamists there do not 
exceed one in six. 

The writer will not attempt to forecast the future of 
Mor monism. It is evidently on the decline, and with 
out interference could hardly outlast thirty years ; but 
with its immense local power, could do much harm in 
that period. On account of this decline, many have 
argued that the Government should take no further 
measures to enforce its laws in Utah ; but, with due 
deference to their opinions, this seems to me a very 
unstatesman-like view of any subject. What would 
be thought of a court which should decide against pun 
ishing a thief or murderer, " because, if left to himself, 
he will die in twenty or thirty years anyhow !" If a 
church is at liberty to violate the laws for religion s 


sake, which an individual may not do; and if the 
Government has no resource, in this case or any other 
which may arise in the future, but to wait until time 
and internal corruption have worn out the criminal 
organization, it is certainly a novel principle in politi 
cal ethics. 

The opportune death of Brigham Young would sim 
plify matters somewhat ; but there is still a mass of 
thirty or forty thousand who would stick together 
under new leaders, and continue the Church for another 
quarter of a century. Or, in case the Government at 
tempts to enforce its laws and the Mormon Presidency 
gives the command to move, at least one-third of the 
people would follow them into Arizona and Sonora ; 
but the really valuable portion would remain in Utah 
and become first-rate citizens. The Church is constantly 
planting settlements further south in Arizona; they 
now control one county in that Territory, and are 
within three hundered miles of Sonora, which, it is 
popularly believed among them, would be their desti 
nation, if compelled to abandon Utah. The Hierarchy 
could take at least thirty thousand devoted followers 
with them, and between the Mexicans, Apaches and 
Mormons, we should have little to choose. 

The history of all the diverging sects has clearly 
demonstrated one fact : wherever the Mormons have 
come in close contact with considerable numbers of 
Gentiles, it has invariably resulted in a great apostasy, 
a fight or an exodus. By the usual rule we should 
expect in Utah, first a little flurry of war, then an 
exodus of one-third or more of the people, and general 


apostasy of the rest ; and to this conclusion do present 
indications point. 

Meanwhile, various redeeming agencies are .power 
fully, though somewhat quietly, at work in Utah, 
which are of sufficient importance to merit a separate 




The Church First attempt Rev. Norman McLeod Dr. J. K. Robinson 
Second attempt, Father Kelley Last attempt The Episcopal Mis 
sion, success and progress Sabbath School Grammar School of St. 
Marks A building needed Mission of Rev. George TV. Foote Difficul 
ties of the situation Number and occupation of Gentiles Political pros 
pectsGentile newspapers The Valley Tan The Vedette The UTAH 
REPORTER S. S. Saul, the founder Messrs. Aulbach and Barrett The 
author s experience Principles advocated Courtesy of the Gentiles 

THE Christian Church, the school and the newspaper 
are but just established, with fair prospects in Utah; 
but already they have accomplished considerable. It 
is somewhat surprising that such a field for missionary 
labor was neglected so completely and so long. For at 
least fifteen years the voice of the Christian minister 
was never heard in Salt Lake City. 

If there were Chaplains among the troops of John 
ston s army, they seem to have left no record of their 
presence, or made any attempt to work among the 
Mormons. The first missionary effort was by the Eev. 
Norman McLeod, Chaplain of the California volunteers, 
at Camp Douglas. Late in 1863 he began to preach 
in a room on Main Street, and afterwards raised money 
to build Independence Hall. A large part of the funds 
was advanced by a literary society then existing among 
the Gentiles, and that building has never been con- 


sidered so much a church as a lecture and assembly 
room ; it is, however, held by trustees for " The First 
Congregational Church of Utah." It is still burdened, 
I believe, by a debt of near $2,000. Rev. McLeod es 
tablished a Sabbath School, of which Dr. J. K. Robin 
son was for some time Superintendent ; he also delivered 
a series of lectures on various subjects, particularly 
polygamy, which excited great interest. The bent of 
Mr. McLeod s mind seems to have been towards con 
troversy, and many of his lectures and sermons were 
highly polemic in character, exciting no little wrath 
among the Mormons and some discussion among the 
Gentiles. Whether this aggressive policy, or one more 
mild and persuasive, would better reach the case, is still 
a debatable question. In the autumn of 1866, Mr. 
McLeod went east to raise funds for building a church ; 
during his absence Dr. Robinson was assassinated, and 
as McLeod s life was openly threatened, he deemed it 
best not to return. 

The second attempt to found a mission was by Father 
Kelly, a Roman Catholic, in the summer of 1866. He 
spent some time in Salt Lake City, managed to keep on 
good terms with the Mormons and from various sources 
raised money enough to purchase a lot, which is still 
owned by the Catholic Church; but he found few 
Catholics in the district, formed no church and left 
little permanent record. 

The third and last missionary effort was under the 
auspices of Bishop Tuttle, in charge of the Diocese, in 
cluding Utah. In April, 1867, at his request, Reverends 
George W. Foote and Thomas W. Haskins set out for 


Salt Lake City, where they arrived in May and com 
menced services at once. They found but two communi 
cants of. their own faith Episcopal and only twenty 
of all other Christian denominations. From that day to 
this regular services have been held in Independence 
Hall, and a flourishing church established. During the 
two and a half years of their ministry a hundred and 
one persons have been baptized by them, of whom 
thirty-four were adults, and many of Mormon antece 
dents. Ninety communicants have been admitted as 
regular members, of whom sixty-six still retain their 
standing in Salt Lake City; the others have either 
removed or died. All denominations have united to a 
great extent in support of this Church and Sabbath- 
school ; the Jews also attend and contribute, probably 
the only place in America where such is the case. 

The Sabbath-school was begun with a few members, 
and, in consequence of orders from the authorities of 
the Mormon Church, some of this small number were 
soon after withdrawn. But others soon took their place, 
and, in spite of open hostility and private malice, the 
school increased and spread, a powerful lever for good. 
At different times a little over three hundred children 
have been instructed in the school, and the teaching, 
whether in the case of Mormon or Gentile youth, has 
been attended with marked and beneficent results. 
This school is still growing, and its light of Christian 
knowledge is a bright spot in the centre of polygamic 

The Grammar School of St. Mark s Associate Mission, 
the first Gentile school in Utah, was opened in July, 



1867, by Rev. Thomas W. Haskins and Miss Foote, 
sister of the minister, with sixteen scholars. The Mor 
mon leaders again forbade their people to allow their 
children to attend, but the attractions of free tuition 
prevailed with many; the school has steadily increased, 
both in numbers and scholarship, till it now has a hun 
dred and forty pupils, and is compelled to refuse all 
others until enlarged accommodations can be secured. 
From first to last four hundred children have been in 
structed in the school. It is now purposed to provide 
more teachers, and steadily raise the grade of scholar 
ship until young men can take a regular collegiate, or 
at least a. regular academic, course. A fixed rate of 
tuition is charged, but all unable to pay are received as 
free pupils, of whom there are sixty in the school. 
This is the nearest approach to a free school at present 
in Utah. 

As yet there is no Christian church edifice erected in 
Salt Lake City ; but it is hoped there soon will be a 
building worthy of the cause, with ample accommo 
dations for a school, and Rev. Geo. W. Foote is now in 
the East raising funds to that end. The mission and 
school have also had the assisting care of Rev. Henry 
Foote, who has lately removed to Boise City, Idaho. 
The gentlemen in charge of this mission have thought 
it best to raise no personal controversy. Whether it 
was an outgrowth of their personal disposition, or of the 
conservative policy of their Church, or that they hoped 
to avoid the bitter animosity which existed against 
Rev. McLeod, they have steadily refrained from aught 
like personal controversy or a direct attack upon the 


Mormon leaders, contenting themselves with " preach 
ing Christ and Him crucified," and planting principles 
which should in the hearts of hearers work out in a 
love and desire for the truth. It was but reasonable to 
suppose such a policy would at least disarm personal 
hostility, and that men would not curse though they 
might not agree. But vainly would one hope by fair 
words to neutralize the venom of the serpent s fang ; 
the blind adder will strike, simply because it is his 
nature, though charmed " never so wisely," and Mor- 
monism when opposed flies to weapons of slander and 
vituperation, as well as against the persuasive reasoner 
as the fierce polemic. If these gentlemen hoped to be 
spared McLeod s experience, they have been disap 
pointed ; every epithet a vile fancy could suggest has 
been heaped upon them from the Mormon press and 
pulpit, and the madness of bigotry has not hesitated at 
slandering the ladies who assisted at their noble work. 
It was perhaps as well that this should be so ; Christian 
ladies of such character could receive no stain from such 
a source, and this action merely made plain the inherent 
blackness of the real Mormon heart. But surely, if there 
be one deep, dark pit in the regions of the damned, 
which Divine Justice has reserved as too awful for the 
fate of common sinners, it is in waiting for those who 
have used the priestly profession to attack the reputa 
tion of woman. 

Preaching was begun at Corinne early in 1869, earn 
est endeavors were made to secure funds for a building, 
which was completed and dedicated in July of the same 
year. Neat and unpretentious, not large but commo- 


dious, it is an ornament to the city and worthy of note 
as the first Christian church edifice in Utah. Sabbath- 
school has been established and regularly continued, 
while a day school, as a branch of the Salt Lake Gram 
mar School, was established last autumn and continued 
during the winter, to be resumed at an early day. It 
is taught in the Church, by Miss Nellie Wells, formerly 
an assistant in the Salt Lake City School ; it numbers 
some forty scholars, and as the first entirely Gentile 
school in Utah, deserves a place in history. 

The residence and occupation of the Gentiles are noi 
such as to encourage either schools or churches, they 
being miners, herders, scattered traders, or transient 

The mines of Utah develop slowly, but it is reason 
ably certain there is mineral wealth there, if they can 
find it or properly get at it. Utah is in the mineral 
belt, there are paying mines all around it, the formation 
of the country corresponds exactly with those where 
immense wealth of gold and silver is found ; some im 
portant discoveries have been made, and more will be. 
Sevier, Bingham, Cottonwood, Rush Valley and Stock 
ton mines have not, altogether, developed enough as yet 
to create a " rush," or make any one suddenly rich ; but 
in several places steady industry has been found profit 
able, and with better facilities for transporting ore and 
machinery, with mc-re experience and further dis 
coveries, the latter will come in time. 

Any present estimate of the number of Gentiles in 
Utah, is necessarily somewhat conjectural. As they 
are practically disfranchised, they run no ticket and re- 


cord no vote; they have but one organized church 
society, and very few are within reach of that ; they 
have never held a convention en masse, or had an effi 
cient organization to give us any data; and finally, they 
are scattered over half the Territory, with very imper 
fect understanding or communication. From the best 
evidence at hand, I estimate as follows : 

Corinne 1,000 

Ogden, Uintah, Echo, Wasatch and Bear Eiver, 

(100 each) 500 

Salt Lake City 500 

Camp Douglas 400 

Bingham, Cottonwood and Rush Yalley (100 each) 300 

Sevier mining district 300 

Scattering 500 

Total 3,500 

Deducting soldiers and U. S. officials, this would leave 
three thousand citizens. Of the entire number, at least 
two-thirds are voters, nearly all the non-voters being in 
Corinne and Salt Lake City. With the lowest increase 
we may reasonably expect in the coming summer, with 
the least settlement of railroad men absolutely neces 
sary at the Junction, with no increase among the 
miners, and with little, perhaps very little, help from 
those of the Josephites, and other recusant Mormons 
who dare say their souls are their own, the Liberals 
ought to cast a vote of at least four thousand at the 
coming August election. They will do so, if a proper 
organization is effected. 

As to the legal vote of the Mormons, it is beyond the 
power of statistics to determine. At the last election 
of Hooper their vote amounted to 15,068 ; it could just 


as well have amounted to 1,500,068. It was only a 
question of a few cyphers, which do not amount to much 
anyhow. Deducting all those who were under age, all 
voted for by proxy, all unnaturalized or illegally natu 
ralized by the Probate Court, all those disqualified by 
the Act of Congress of July 1st, 1862, all the double 
voting and false ballots, and the cypher would be moved 
the other way, leaving a legal vote of 1,568. 

There have been, at different times, three Gentile 
papers published in Utah. 

With Johnston s army came one Kirk Anderson, who 
soon after established a weekly paper called the Valley 
Tan. It ran through 1858 and all or nearly all of 1859, 
then failed for want of support. Little is known of 
this paper, except from the bound files still in the Re 
porter office ; but it seems to have been edited a portion 
of its existence by Mr. Anderson, and at another time 
by a Mr. McGuire. 

The first daily paper, the Union Vedette, was estab 
lished at Camp Douglas late in 1863, with Gen. P. E. 
Connor as proprietor. At the beginning, the work was 
done by enlisted men of the California and Nevada vol 
unteers, and the editing by various officers of that com 
mand. The main object of the Vedette seems to have 
been to give daily telegraphic reports from the seat of 
war, which were eagerly sought after by all the Gen 
tiles. The Mormons then had but one paper, the 
Weekly Deseret News, almost as old as the Territory, but 
much too dull and prosy to meet the new demand for 
intellectual stimulus. The Vedette was established with 
the concurrence of Gen. Wright, then in command of 



the Department, with a view to the publication of offi 
cial orders, and in the hope of disseminating more cor 
rect information on the military and civil policy of the 
Government among the Mormons. 

In addition to the old feeling between Mormon and 
Gentile the Vedette had to deal with questions of 
loyalty, the Volunteers being intensely devoted to 
American institutions, and the Mormons only differing 
from Southern rebels in the fact that they were not 
openly in arms. The paper soon became quite popular 
and obtained a wide circulation in Montana and Idaho, 
as well as Utah. In the autumn of 1865 it was re 
moved into Salt Lake City and enlarged. Some of the 
officers still wrote occasionally for it, but the editorial 
control was in the hands of civilians, Kev. Norman 
McLeod and 0. J. Goldrick. The controversial spirit, 
which was of questionable benefit in Mr. McLeod s ser 
mons, was much more fitting in the columns of the 
Vedette, which increased in popularity and ran well for 
one year. Several other persons contributed also to its 
pages during that time. The office then changed hands, 
and Mr. Shoaff, a printer from California, became 
nominal owner and editor. But the Vedette had 
passed the height of its prosperity and in five months 
was reduced one-half in size, receiving but indifferent 
support at that. Shoaff soon after left, handing over 
the paper to Judge Daniel McLaughlin and Mr. Adam 
Aulbach, who again enlarged it to the former size. 
For a short time the concern flourished; but Judge 
McLaughlin departed for Cheyenne, after which the 
paper rapidly declined and soon was compelled to 


suspend. During Shoaff s administration the financial 
embarrassment of the concern had increased to such 
an extent that all the surplus material was sold, and 
two other offices were mainly outfitted therefrom, viz. : 
The Utah Magazine and the Sweetwater Mines. 

Early in 1868 Mr S. S. Saul arrived from California 
and deeming the location favorable purchased the 
remaining material, and on the llth of May the same 
year, issued the first number of the Salt Lake Reporter, 
daily only. The first five months of its existence the 
paper was very small and but poorly supported ; it was 
edited hap-hazard by several different persons, and 
regularly by no one. A newspaper more than any 
other enterprise requires the controlling energy of one 
directing mind ; steady mediocrity is better than vari 
able talent ; above all it must have a fixed policy, and 
one common place worker, a mere plodder though he 
be, is far better than half a dozen brilliant but irregular 
geniuses. But it is doubtful if any newspaper could 
have succeeded during that period, no matter what 
talent might have been employed. 

On the 10th of September, 1868, the writer entered 
Salt Lake City, and on the 19th of October took edi 
torial charge of the Reporter, in which position he 
continued for eleven months, until September 1869. 
On the first of December he joined with Messrs. Adam 
Aulbach and John Barrett in the purchase of the entire 
office, which partnership continued for eight months, 
with real pleasure to the writer, but with little pecuniary" 
profit, A weekly edition was commenced in February 
1869, which is still continued, with increasing circu- 


lation and popularity. In the spring of 1869, the office 
was removed to Corinne and UTAH substituted in the 
title for Salt Lake. Early in September the writer re 
tired, and soon after the office passed into the hands of 
Messrs. Huyck and Merrick, the present proprietors. 

During my editorial labors I frequently had occasion 
to discuss the action of Mormon Courts, and particularly 
after our removal to Corinne. Our County Judge was 
the Bishop Smith, already mentioned as the husband 
of two of his nieces ; in an article on county affairs I 
alluded to that fact with considerable severity, more, 
perhaps, than strict equity in journalism would allow. 
Soon after quitting the editorial position I was sum 
moned to attend court at Brigham City, and while 
passing from the court room to the street received a vi 
olent blow on the back of the head, which prostrated 
me almost senseless upon the ground. Whether more 
than one took part I do not know ; all I distinctly 
remember is a confused rush and trampling of heavy 
boots, and when I revived I was being raised by my 
friends, who were taking stock of my condition gen 
erally. My collar bone was broken in two places, 
and my scalp badly torn, besides minor injuries; alto 
gether, it was a narrow escape. There were but half a 
dozen Gentiles present, from whom I learned that the 
principal assailant was a son of the Judge; but I did 
not see and could not now identify him. The attack 
was probably caused by my strictures upon his father 
and the Probate Courts. There was nothing to be done 
about it, however ; it was one of those incidents to 
which newspaper men are liable anywhere, which are 


of frequent occurrence to Gentiles in Utah, and for 
which there is no remedy there. 

Shortly before, a young apostate Mormon in Bear 
Lake Valley, acting as clerk for Mr. Frederick Kiesel, 
a Gentile merchant, was killed outright in a way that 
pretty clearly indicated the direction of the Church 
authorities; and not long after a Mr. Phelps, a young 
Gentile in Salt Lake City, was attacked at night by the 
secret police, shot through the shoulder, and narrowly 
escaped with his life. He had the good fortune, how 
ever, to kill one of his assailants. Such occurrences are 
rare now, as compared with ten or fifteen years ago, 
still they happen often enough to make Gentiles appre 
hensive and not anxious to remain, which is doubtless 
the effect desired. The most efficient government could 
not altogether prevent this, but much more might be 
done than is. 

I was wounded on the 1st of November, but in that 
healthful air recovered sufficiently to travel by Decem 
ber 1st, when, after fifteen months residence, I left the 
Territory, for a short time at least. As editor for one 
year of the only Gentile paper in Utah, in closing these 
sketches a few words may be pardoned to one speaking, 
it may be egotistically, of himself, while occupying a 
delicate and difficult position. 

Of my intercourse with the Gentiles of Utah, I have 
none but the most pleasant recollections. An utter 
stranger, quite an invalid, and in a condition where per 
sonal friendship was almost a necessity, I received from 
the first at their hands the most courteous afcd respect 
ful attentions. My keenest sympathies were enlisted 


for a people, exiled as it were in the very centre of their 
country, claiming the name and protection of American 
citizens but subject to a worse than Kussian despotism ; 
practically disfranchised and without representation in 
any Legislative body. My social intercourse with them 
has been of the most pleasant character, and if at any 
time I have complained of an inefficient pecuniary sup 
port for my work, I now perceive that it was due to the 
pressure of adverse circumstances beyond their control. 
It is a source of pride and deep satisfaction that my 
editorial management met with the hearty approval 
of those in whose judgment I most confided, and that 
the Reporter is now upon a footing that renders its 
continuance reasonably certain ; for I shall ever feel a 
pride that I once directed its policy. 

As for the Mormons, I came among them with but 
few ideas about them, and my first impressions were 
rather favorable. My first friends were all Mormons, 
with whom I journeyed across four hundred miles of 
the plains ; and those persons are still my friends ; they 
have extended me courtesies which I duly appreciate; 
I have " eaten their salt and warmed at their fires." 
But not all their kindness or personal friendship could 
blind me to the monstrous defects of their social system, 
or the odious features of a church tyranny ; and if my 
feelings soon changed towards the hierarchy, it was 
only from the best of evidence. That evidence has 
constantly accumulated until language fails me to con 
vey my utter detestation of their system. That the 
people are frugal, industrious or honest will avail them 
but little, while fanatically devoted to such a power. 


If, in the bitterness of heated controversy, injustice has 
inadvertently been done to any private person, none 
will regret it more or be more ready to make amends, 
and though some unpleasant experiences have fallen to 
my lot, I am not conscious of special animosity against 
the body of the people. And when a score of years 
shall have passed and the principles for which we have 
contended are seen in their fruition, I am quite sure 
many who have cursed the writer will at least give 
him credit for sincerity; and though there still be some 
who dissent from the measures he has advocated, when 
the fierce alembic of time has proved which was cor 
rect, and the test of experience has shown what was 
really best for the Territory and the people, I trust 
they will not remember their wrath forever. 



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NOV 1 6 1985 

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FORM NO. DD6, 60m, 12/80 BERKELEY CA 94720